UGC NET Geography Exam 2021: Syllabus, Books, & Exam Pattern

UGC NET Geography Exam

UGC NET Geography Exam 2020-21: Are you worried about your upcoming UGC NET Geography Exam? Are you thinking about the recent changes in the UGC NET Exam Geography Syllabus 2021 pattern?

Then, You must relax because in this blog all your queries related to the UGC NET Geography syllabus, study material, question paper, books, mock test, course, and exam pattern will be cleared.

Latest UGC NET Geography Exam Syllabus 2021 

The new UGC NET exam Geography Syllabus 2021 is almost like the last year’s UGC syllabus. We have included the new syllabus (in English as well as in Hindi) here and you can check how much you have covered while you go through the syllabus.

Check out the UGC NET Geography Exam Syllabus In English

Here are the important topics of the Geography NET Syllabus 2021.

UNIT-I Geomorphology

  • Continental Drift, Plate Tectonics, Endogenetic, and Exogenetic forces. Denudation and Weathering, Geomorphic Cycle (Davis and Penck), Theories and Process of Slope Development, Earth Movements (seismicity, folding, faulting, and vulcanicity), Landform Occurrence and Causes of Geomorphic Hazards (earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and avalanches)

UNIT –II Climatology

  • Composition and Structure of Atmosphere; Insolation, Heat Budget of Earth, Temperature, Pressure and Winds, Atmospheric Circulation (air-masses, fronts and upper air circulation, cyclones and anticyclones (tropical and temperate), Climatic Classification of Koppen & Thornthwaite, ENSO Events (El Nino, La Nina, and Southern Oscillations), Meteorological Hazards and Disasters (Cyclones, Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hailstorms, Heat and Cold waves Drought and Cloudburst, Glacial Lake Outburst (GLOF), Climate Change: Evidence and Causes of Climatic Change in the past, Human impact on Global Climate

UNIT-III Oceanography

  • Relief of Oceans, Composition: Temperature, Density, and Salinity, Circulation: Warm and Cold Currents, Waves, Tides, Sea-Level Changes, Hazards: Tsunami and Cyclone

UNIT –IV Geography of Environment

  • Components: Ecosystem (Geographic Classification) and Human Ecology, Functions: Trophic Levels, Energy Flows, Cycles (geo-chemical, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen), Food Chain, Food Web, and Ecological Pyramid, Human Interaction and Impacts, Environmental Ethics and Deep Ecology, Environmental Hazards and Disasters (Global Warming, Urban Heat Island, Atmospheric Pollution, Water Pollution, Land Degradation), National Programmes and Policies: Legal Framework, Environmental Policy, International Treaties, International Programmes and Policies (Brundtland Commission, Kyoto Protocol, Agenda 21, Sustainable Development Goals, Paris Agreement)

UNIT –V Population and Settlement Geography

  • Population Geography
    • Sources of population data (census, sample surveys, and vital statistics, data reliability, and errors). World Population Distribution (measures, patterns, and determinants), World Population Growth (prehistoric to modern period). Demographic Transition, Theories of Population Growth (Malthus, Sadler, and Ricardo). Fertility and Mortality Analysis (indices, determinants, and world patterns). Migration (types, causes and consequences and models), Population Composition and Characteristics (age, sex, rural-urban, occupational structure and educational levels), Population Policies in Developed and Developing Countries.
  • Settlement Geography
    • Rural Settlements (types, patterns and distribution), Contemporary Problems of Rural Settlements ( rural-urban migration; land use changes; land acquisition and transactions), Theories of Origin of Towns (Gordon Childe, Henri Pirenne, Lewis Mumford), Characteristics and Processes of Urbanization in Developed and Developing Countries (factors of urban growth, trends of urbanisation, size, structure and functions of urban areas). Urban Systems ( the law of the primate city and rank size rule) Central Place Theories (Christaller and Losch), Internal Structure of the City, Models of Urban Land Use (Burgess, Harris and Ullman , and Hoyt), Concepts of Megacities, Global Cities and Edge Cities, Changing Urban Forms (peri-urban areas, rural-urban fringe, suburban , ring and satellite towns), Social Segregation in the City, Urban Social Area Analysis, Manifestation of Poverty in the City (slums, informal sector growth, crime and social exclusion).

Unit–VI: Geography of Economic Activities and Regional Development

  • Economic Geography
    • Factors affecting spatial organisation of economic activities (primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary), Natural Resources (classification, distribution and associated problems), Natural Resources Management. World Energy Crises in Developed and Developing Countries.
  • Agricultural Geography
    • Land capability classification and Land Use Planning, Cropping Pattern: Methods of delineating crop combination regions (Weaver, Doi and Rafiullah), Crop diversification, Von Thunen’s Model of Land Use Planning. Measurement and Determinants of Agricultural Productivity, Regional variations in Agricultural Productivity, Agricultural Systems of the World.
  • Industrial Geography
    • Classification of Industries, Factors of Industrial Location; Theories of Industrial Location (A. Weber, E. M. Hoover, August Losch, A. Pred and D. M. Smith). World Industrial Regions, Impact of Globalisation on manufacturing sector in Less Developed Countries, Tourism Industry, World distribution and growth of Information And Communication Technology (ICT) and Knowledge Production (Education and R & D) Industries.
  • Geography of Transport and Trade
    • Theories and Models of spatial interaction (Edward Ullman and M. E. Hurst) Measures and Indices of connectivity and accessibility; Spatial Flow Models: Gravity Model and its variants, World Trade Organisation, Globalisation and Liberalisation and World Trade Patterns. Problems and Prospects of Inter and Intra Regional Cooperation and Trade.
  • Regional Development
    • Typology of Regions, Formal and Fictional Regions, World Regional Disparities, Theories of Regional Development(Albert O. Hirschman, Gunnar Myrdal, John Friedman, Dependency theory of Underdevelopment, Global Economic Blocks, Regional Development and Social Movements in India

Unit – VII: Cultural, Social and Political Geography

  • Cultural and Social Geography
    • Concept of Culture, Cultural Complexes, Areas and Region, Cultural Heritage, Cultural Ecology. Cultural Convergence, Social Structure and Processes, Social Well-being and Quality of Life, Social Exclusion, Spatial distribution of social groups in India (Tribe, Caste, Religion and Language), Environment and Human Health, Diseases Ecology, Nutritional Status (etiological conditions, classification and spatial and seasonal distributional patterns with special reference to India) Health Care Planning and Policies in India, Medical Tourism in India.
  • Political Geography
  • Boundaries and Frontiers (with special reference to India), Heartland and Rimland Theories. Trends and Developments in Political Geography, Geography of Federalism, Electoral Reforms in India, Determinants of Electoral Behaviour, Geopolitics of Climate Change, Geopolitics of World Resources, Geo-politics of India Ocean, Regional Organisations of Cooperation (SAARC, ASEAN, OPEC, EU). Neopolitics of World Natural Resources.

Unit VIII: Geographic Thought

  • Contributions of Greek, Roman, Arab, Chinese and Indian Scholars, Contributions of Geographers (Bernhardus Varenius, Immanuel Kant, Alexander von Humboldt, Carl Ritter, Scheafer & Hartshorne), Impact of Darwinian Theory on Geographical Thought. Contemporary trends in Indian Geography: Cartography, Thematic and Methodological contributions. Major Geographic Traditions (Earth Science, man-environment relationship, area studies and spatial analysis), Dualisms in Geographic Studies (physical vs. human, regional vs. systematic, qualitative vs. quantitative, ideographic vs. nomothetic), Paradigm Shift, Perspectives in Geography (Positivism, Behaviouralism, Humanism, Structuralism, Feminism and Postmodernism).

Unit IX: Geographical Techniques

  • Sources of Geographic Information and Data (spatial and non-spatial), Types of Maps, Techniques of Map Making (Choropleth, Isarithmic, Dasymetric, Chorochromatic, Flow Maps) Data Representation on Maps (Pie diagrams, Bar diagrams and Line Graph, GIS Database (raster and vector data formats and attribute data formats). Functions of GIS (conversion, editing and analysis), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Georeferencing (coordinate system and map projections and Datum), GIS Applications ( thematic cartography, spatial decision support system), Basics of Remote Sensing (Electromagnetic Spectrum, Sensors and Platforms, Resolution and Types, Elements of Air Photo and Satellite Image Interpretation and Photogrammetry), Types of Aerial Photographs, Digital Image Processing: Developments in Remote Sensing Technology and Big Data Sharing and its applications in Natural Resources Management in India, GPS Components (space, ground control and receiver segments) and Applications, Applications of Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion and Inequalities, Sampling, Sampling Procedure and Hypothesis Testing (chi square test, t test, ANOVA), Time Series Analysis, Correlation and Regression Analysis, Measurement of Indices, Making
    Indicators Scale Free, Computation of Composite Index, Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, Morphometric Analysis: Ordering of Streams, Bifurcation Ratio, Drainage Density and Drainage Frequency, Basin Circularity Ratio and Form Factor, Profiles, Slope Analysis, Clinographic Curve, Hypsographic Curve and Altimetric Frequency Graph.

Unit – X: Geography of India

  • Major Physiographic Regions and their Characteristics; Drainage System (Himalayan and Peninsular), Climate: Seasonal Weather Characteristics, Climatic Divisions, Indian Monsoon (mechanism and characteristics), Jet Streams and Himalayan Cryosphere, Types and Distribution of Natural Resources: Soil, Vegetation, Water, Mineral and Marine Resources. Population Characteristics (spatial patterns of distribution), Growth and Composition (rural-urban, age, sex, occupational, educational, ethnic and religious), Determinants of Population, Population Policies in India, Agriculture ( Production, Productivity and Yield of Major Food Crops), Major Crop Regions, Regional Variations in Agricultural Development, Environmental, Technological and Institutional Factors affecting Indian Agriculture; Agro-Climatic Zones, Green Revolution, Food Security and Right to Food. Industrial Development since Independence, Industrial Regions and their characteristics, Industrial Policies in India. Development and Patterns of Transport Networks (railways, roadways, waterways, airways and pipelines), Internal and External Trade (trend, composition and directions), Regional Development Planning in India, Globalisation and its impact on Indian Economy, Natural Disasters in India (Earthquake, Drought, Flood, Cyclone, Tsunami, Himalayan Highland Hazards and Disasters.) 

Download UGC NET Geography Syllabus 2021 PDF

Must-Read UGC NET Geography Exam Syllabus 2021 In Hindi | UGC NET Geography Syllabus 2021 in Hindi PDF

Here you can check the latest UGC NET Geography Syllabus 2021 in Hindi PDF:


UGC NET Geography Syllabus 2021 PDF DOwnload In Hindi

Exclusive UGC NET Geography Exam Study Material PDF

It is necessary to organize UGC NET Geography Exam study materials for your upcoming exam. While you shape your study materials you can ask all the possible questions related to your UGC NET Geography syllabus. Does your study material have the UGC NET Answer Key of Geography? 

Don’t Worry, We provide you the best UGC NET Study Materials for Geography Exam: 

Practice UGC NET Geography Question Paper

Collecting a UGC NET Geography question paper is a must before you think of appearing for the 2021 Geography NET exam. A question paper prepares you to face any question with ease and that is the beauty of arranging a geography question paper. 

You can download the various UGC NET Geography Exam Question Papers below.

Important UGC NET Geography Books

You will come across an endless number of suggestions while purchasing relevant books for NET Geography UGC but you must understand the various topics which are included in the Geography syllabus.

A book that covers all the important parts of the syllabus is believed to be a good book and this is one of the valuable suggestions you need to consider. Click on the below link to download UGC NET books for Geography:

More Geography books for reference:

  • UGC NET/JRF Geography Solved Papers Pratiyogita Sahitya
  • UGC NET Geography Paper 2 by GKP
  • Question bank Geography by DGP
  • India and World Geography by Majid Hussain
  • World Geography by Majid Hussain
  • Geography by Barnwal

Get ready for UGC Geography 2021 NET Mock test

One of the most reliable methods is sitting for the UGC NET Mock test. Your performance in the UGC Geography exam NET is directly proportional to the number of mock tests you appear in. Follow this simple method while concentrating on your upcoming exam.

Must-Read UGC NET Geography Exam Pattern

Knowing a pattern for the upcoming NET Geography exam is crucial for all the candidates and the students write all the important answers in the examination hall by following a particular pattern.

You can go through the expected category-wise and paper-wise qualifying marks (according to last year) from the given below table:


Paper I (Max marks: 100)

Paper-II (Max marks: 100)

General category

40 Marks 40%

80 Marks 40 (40%)


35 Marks 35%

70 Marks (35%)

Check New UGC NET Exam Pattern For All Subjects

Some of the important points for your upcoming geography exam are mentioned below. All the questions that you will face will be in the form of UGC NET Geography MCQ

  • You will be asked a total of 150 questions NET (Paper 1: 50 Question and Paper 2: 100 Questions). All questions are compulsory to attempt.
  • Paper I will consist of General Aptitude Questions and Paper-II will have questions related to the subject selected by candidates. M
  • Hindi and English are the only options to attempt UGC NET. The choice for the paper medium can be exercised at the time of filling the form.
  • There will be no negative marking in this exam and the total duration of the exam is 3 hours.

Other Important Subjects For UGC NET Exam

UGC NET Geography Exam Cut Off

Your way of preparing must not be limited to a particular pattern because there is something more to it. The UGC NET Geography Cut Off is another thing that you need to remember.

Check the previous year’s UGC NET Geography Exam cut-off to have an idea of this year from the table below: 


JRF Cut Off Marks

JRF Total

Assistant Professor Cut Off Marks

Assistant Professor Total


























Other Important Links 

We have covered the detailed guide on UGC NET Geography Exam 2021. Feel free to ask us any questions in the comment section below.

FAQs: UGC NET Geography Exam

What are the SC Assistant Professor cut-off marks of UGC NET Geography exam 2020?

The Assistant Professor cut-off for UGC NET 2020 Geography Exam for SC is 53.33.

What is the difficulty level of the UGC NET Geography Exam last year?

The difficulty level of NTA NET Geography was very difficult.

Which are the most recommended books for UGC NET Geography Exam?

Go through the above blogs for the most recommended books for UGC NET 2021 Geography.

Is it possible to prepare for the UGC NET Geography Exam without taking any coaching?

Yes, you can prepare for the UGC NET Geography Exam without coaching, but you will need high-quality study materials and guidance.

Where can I check NTA NET 2021 Geography syllabus?

You can check NTA NET 2021 Geography syllabus from the above article.

UGC NET Exam is conducted in online mode or offline mode? 

UGC NET Mode of Exam: the exam will be conducted in online mode. 

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