UGC NET Geography Exam 2021 | Syllabus, Books, Exam Pattern

It takes a lot of effort and patience to succeed in a competitive exam like NET UGC Geography. Are you worried about your upcoming UGC NET Geography Exam? Are you thinking about the recent changes in the UGC NET Exam Geography Syllabus 2021 pattern?

then You must relax because in this blog all your queries related to syllabus, study material, question paper, books, mock test, course, and exam pattern will be cleared.

We have established a connection with the experts and they have shared some guidelines and we are going to present their valuable suggestions here in this blog. Please read all the sections with an attentive mind.

UGC NET Geography 2021 Exam: Overview

Here you can check the UGC NET exam overview:

Exam Name University Grants Commission National Eligibility Test
Commonly known as UGC NET Exam
Conducting Body National Testing Agency (NTA)
Exam Level National
Official Website
Periodicity Twice in a year (June and December)
Conducted for Junior Research Fellowship and Assistant Professorship
Mode of Exam Computer-based Test (Online mode)
Medium English or Hindi
NET Application fees  Gen – ₹1000, OBC/ EWS- ₹500, SC/ ST/ PwD/ Transgender – ₹250
Release of UGC NET June 2021 Official Notification & online UGC NET 2021 application 2nd Feb 2021
Last day to fill the Application Form for NET Exam 2nd March 2021
UGC NET 2021 Exam Dates May 2nd to 17th May 2021
Release of UGC NET Result June 2021
UGC NET Helpdesk 8076535482, 7703859909 |,

Latest UGC NET Geography Exam Syllabus 2021 

If you are aiming for UGC 2021 Geography then you must understand that there has not been any kind of modification in the syllabus.

The new UGC NET exam Geography Syllabus 2021 is almost like the last year’s UGC syllabus and a student can follow the previous year’s paper without any hesitation.

We have included the new syllabus (in English as well as in Hindi) here and you can check how much you have covered while you go through the syllabus.

Before starting a complete guide on UGC NET Syllabus 2021 for Geography, you should have an overview of the exam.

Check out the UGC NET Geography Exam Syllabus In English

The UGC NET Geography exam has two papers – Paper-I and Paper-II. In Paper-I your reasoning ability, comprehension, divergent thinking, and general awareness will be tested. In Paper-II, the question will be based on your selected subject. All the questions of Paper-II will be compulsory.

Here are the important topics of the Syllabus for the UGC NET Geography Exam 2021.


UNIT-I Geomorphology

  • Continental Drift, Plate Tectonics, Endogenetic, and Exogenetic forces. Denudation and Weathering, Geomorphic Cycle (Davis and Penck), Theories and Process of Slope Development, Earth Movements (seismicity, folding, faulting, and vulcanicity), Landform Occurrence and Causes of Geomorphic Hazards (earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, and avalanches)

UNIT –II Climatology

  • Composition and Structure of Atmosphere; Insolation, Heat Budget of Earth, Temperature, Pressure and Winds, Atmospheric Circulation (air-masses, fronts and upper air circulation, cyclones and anticyclones (tropical and temperate), Climatic Classification of Koppen & Thornthwaite, ENSO Events (El Nino, La Nina, and Southern Oscillations), Meteorological Hazards and Disasters (Cyclones, Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hailstorms, Heat and Cold waves Drought and Cloudburst, Glacial Lake Outburst (GLOF), Climate Change: Evidence and Causes of Climatic Change in the past, Human impact on Global Climate

UNIT-III Oceanography

  • Relief of Oceans, Composition: Temperature, Density, and Salinity, Circulation: Warm and Cold Currents, Waves, Tides, Sea-Level Changes, Hazards: Tsunami and Cyclone

UNIT –IV Geography of Environment

  • Components: Ecosystem (Geographic Classification) and Human Ecology, Functions: Trophic Levels, Energy Flows, Cycles (geo-chemical, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen), Food Chain, Food Web, and Ecological Pyramid, Human Interaction and Impacts, Environmental Ethics and Deep Ecology, Environmental Hazards and Disasters (Global Warming, Urban Heat Island, Atmospheric Pollution, Water Pollution, Land Degradation), National Programmes and Policies: Legal Framework, Environmental Policy, International Treaties, International Programmes and Policies (Brundtland Commission, Kyoto Protocol, Agenda 21, Sustainable Development Goals, Paris Agreement)

UNIT –V Population and Settlement Geography

  • Population Geography
    • Sources of population data (census, sample surveys, and vital statistics, data reliability, and errors). World Population Distribution (measures, patterns, and determinants), World Population Growth (prehistoric to modern period). Demographic Transition, Theories of Population Growth (Malthus, Sadler, and Ricardo). Fertility and Mortality Analysis (indices, determinants, and world patterns). Migration (types, causes and consequences and models), Population Composition and Characteristics (age, sex, rural-urban, occupational structure and educational levels), Population Policies in Developed and Developing Countries.
  • Settlement Geography
    • Rural Settlements (types, patterns and distribution), Contemporary Problems of Rural Settlements ( rural-urban migration; land use changes; land acquisition and transactions), Theories of Origin of Towns (Gordon Childe, Henri Pirenne, Lewis Mumford), Characteristics and Processes of Urbanization in Developed and Developing Countries (factors of urban growth, trends of urbanisation, size, structure and functions of urban areas). Urban Systems ( the law of the primate city and rank size rule) Central Place Theories (Christaller and Losch), Internal Structure of the City, Models of Urban Land Use (Burgess, Harris and Ullman , and Hoyt), Concepts of Megacities, Global Cities and Edge Cities, Changing Urban Forms (peri-urban areas, rural-urban fringe, suburban , ring and satellite towns), Social Segregation in the City, Urban Social Area Analysis, Manifestation of Poverty in the City (slums, informal sector growth, crime and social exclusion).

Unit–VI: Geography of Economic Activities and Regional Development

  • Economic Geography
    • Factors affecting spatial organisation of economic activities (primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary), Natural Resources (classification, distribution and associated problems), Natural Resources Management. World Energy Crises in Developed and Developing Countries.
  • Agricultural Geography
    • Land capability classification and Land Use Planning, Cropping Pattern: Methods of delineating crop combination regions (Weaver, Doi and Rafiullah), Crop diversification, Von Thunen’s Model of Land Use Planning. Measurement and Determinants of Agricultural Productivity, Regional variations in Agricultural Productivity, Agricultural Systems of the World.
  • Industrial Geography
    • Classification of Industries, Factors of Industrial Location; Theories of Industrial Location (A. Weber, E. M. Hoover, August Losch, A. Pred and D. M. Smith). World Industrial Regions, Impact of Globalisation on manufacturing sector in Less Developed Countries, Tourism Industry, World distribution and growth of Information And Communication Technology (ICT) and Knowledge Production (Education and R & D) Industries.
  • Geography of Transport and Trade
    • Theories and Models of spatial interaction (Edward Ullman and M. E. Hurst) Measures and Indices of connectivity and accessibility; Spatial Flow Models: Gravity Model and its variants, World Trade Organisation, Globalisation and Liberalisation and World Trade Patterns. Problems and Prospects of Inter and Intra Regional Cooperation and Trade.
  • Regional Development
    • Typology of Regions, Formal and Fictional Regions, World Regional Disparities, Theories of Regional Development(Albert O. Hirschman, Gunnar Myrdal, John Friedman, Dependency theory of Underdevelopment, Global Economic Blocks, Regional Development and Social Movements in India

Unit – VII: Cultural, Social and Political Geography

  • Cultural and Social Geography
    • Concept of Culture, Cultural Complexes, Areas and Region, Cultural Heritage, Cultural Ecology. Cultural Convergence, Social Structure and Processes, Social Well-being and Quality of Life, Social Exclusion, Spatial distribution of social groups in India (Tribe, Caste, Religion and Language), Environment and Human Health, Diseases Ecology, Nutritional Status (etiological conditions, classification and spatial and seasonal distributional patterns with special reference to India) Health Care Planning and Policies in India, Medical Tourism in India.
  • Political Geography
  • Boundaries and Frontiers (with special reference to India), Heartland and Rimland Theories. Trends and Developments in Political Geography, Geography of Federalism, Electoral Reforms in India, Determinants of Electoral Behaviour, Geopolitics of Climate Change, Geopolitics of World Resources, Geo-politics of India Ocean, Regional Organisations of Cooperation (SAARC, ASEAN, OPEC, EU). Neopolitics of World Natural Resources.

Unit VIII: Geographic Thought

  • Contributions of Greek, Roman, Arab, Chinese and Indian Scholars, Contributions of Geographers (Bernhardus Varenius, Immanuel Kant, Alexander von Humboldt, Carl Ritter, Scheafer & Hartshorne), Impact of Darwinian Theory on Geographical Thought. Contemporary trends in Indian Geography: Cartography, Thematic and Methodological contributions. Major Geographic Traditions (Earth Science, man-environment relationship, area studies and spatial analysis), Dualisms in Geographic Studies (physical vs. human, regional vs. systematic, qualitative vs. quantitative, ideographic vs. nomothetic), Paradigm Shift, Perspectives in Geography (Positivism, Behaviouralism, Humanism, Structuralism, Feminism and Postmodernism).

Unit IX: Geographical Techniques

  • Sources of Geographic Information and Data (spatial and non-spatial), Types of Maps, Techniques of Map Making (Choropleth, Isarithmic, Dasymetric, Chorochromatic, Flow Maps) Data Representation on Maps (Pie diagrams, Bar diagrams and Line Graph, GIS Database (raster and vector data formats and attribute data formats). Functions of GIS (conversion, editing and analysis), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Georeferencing (coordinate system and map projections and Datum), GIS Applications ( thematic cartography, spatial decision support system), Basics of Remote Sensing (Electromagnetic Spectrum, Sensors and Platforms, Resolution and Types, Elements of Air Photo and Satellite Image Interpretation and Photogrammetry), Types of Aerial Photographs, Digital Image Processing: Developments in Remote Sensing Technology and Big Data Sharing and its applications in Natural Resources Management in India, GPS Components (space, ground control and receiver segments) and Applications, Applications of Measures of Central Tendency, Dispersion and Inequalities, Sampling, Sampling Procedure and Hypothesis Testing (chi square test, t test, ANOVA), Time Series Analysis, Correlation and Regression Analysis, Measurement of Indices, Making
    Indicators Scale Free, Computation of Composite Index, Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis, Morphometric Analysis: Ordering of Streams, Bifurcation Ratio, Drainage Density and Drainage Frequency, Basin Circularity Ratio and Form Factor, Profiles, Slope Analysis, Clinographic Curve, Hypsographic Curve and Altimetric Frequency Graph.

Unit – X: Geography of India

  • Major Physiographic Regions and their Characteristics; Drainage System (Himalayan and Peninsular), Climate: Seasonal Weather Characteristics, Climatic Divisions, Indian Monsoon (mechanism and characteristics), Jet Streams and Himalayan Cryosphere, Types and Distribution of Natural Resources: Soil, Vegetation, Water, Mineral and Marine Resources. Population Characteristics (spatial patterns of distribution), Growth and Composition (rural-urban, age, sex, occupational, educational, ethnic and religious), Determinants of Population, Population Policies in India, Agriculture ( Production, Productivity and Yield of Major Food Crops), Major Crop Regions, Regional Variations in Agricultural Development, Environmental, Technological and Institutional Factors affecting Indian Agriculture; Agro-Climatic Zones, Green Revolution, Food Security and Right to Food. Industrial Development since Independence, Industrial Regions and their characteristics, Industrial Policies in India. Development and Patterns of Transport Networks (railways, roadways, waterways, airways and pipelines), Internal and External Trade (trend, composition and directions), Regional Development Planning in India, Globalisation and its impact on Indian Economy, Natural Disasters in India (Earthquake, Drought, Flood, Cyclone, Tsunami, Himalayan Highland Hazards and Disasters.) 

Download Geography Syllabus 2021

Exclusive UGC NET 2021 Exam Important Dates

Here you can check important dates for UGC NET 2021 Exam

Event Dates
UGC NET Application Process Feb 2nd, 2021
UGC NET Admit Card April 2021
UGC NET Exam Dates 2nd May 2021 to 17th May 2021
UGC NET Results June 2021

Must-Read UGC NET Geography Exam Syllabus 2021 In Hindi

Here you can check the latest UGC NET Syllabus For Geography 2021 for Hindi Medium.


Download Geography Syllabus 2021 In Hindi

Other Important Subjects for UGC NET Exam

You should have enough study materials to boost your exam preparation for the NTA UGC NET exam.

Click on the link to access other Subjects related to the UGC NET exam.

Exclusive UGC NET Geography Exam Study Material PDF

It is necessary to organize study materials for your upcoming geography exam. A study material varies from one exam to the other and you must structure your study material according to your requirements before you start your preparation for the final exam.

While you shape your study materials you can ask all the possible questions related to your UGC NET Geography syllabus. Does your study material have the UGC NET Geography Answer Key 2020? Is your study material structured the way you want? If you want some clarity you can ask different types of questions to shape your study materials.

Practice UGC NET Geography Question Paper

Collecting a net geography question paper is a must before you think of appearing for UGC exam Geography NET. Some students think that this method is not that effective but it is just the opposite.

A question paper prepares you to face any question with ease and that is the beauty of arranging a geography question paper. You can download the geography net question paper here.

You can download the various UGC NET study materials below.

Important UGC NET Geography Books

You will come across an endless number of suggestions while purchasing relevant books for NET Geography UGC but you must understand the various topics which are included in the Geography syllabus.

A book that covers all the important parts of the syllabus is believed to be a good book and this is one of the valuable suggestions you need to consider. Here are some books for your reference

UGC NET Geography Books



Important Points About The Book

UGC NET Geography


Shuchi Rastogi

Based on latest exam trends about 5500 chapter wise objective questions are given for self evaluation.

In each chapter box is given which consists of important facts and information.

Previous Year’s Questions & Model papers are given with answers for understanding the nature of the exam.


Arihant Experts

More than 4000 objective questions are given for thorough practice

The book includes previous year’s questions and 3 model paper as per the examination pattern for self evaluation.

Various charts and diagrams are given which is very helpful for building concepts and for last minute revision before exam.


Trueman’S UGC Net Geography

A. Magon and B.P. Panigrahi

Book consists of excellent theory and nicely explained.

Chapter wise questions are given for better practice.

All the chapters are covered in the book according to new pattern.

Previously year’s papers are given with solutions.


Geography of India

Majid Hussain

This book gives conceptual understanding of the topic Geography of India.

Language used is simple and easy to understand.

Tables, maps are given for better understanding.

Good for information gathering purpose.


UGC NET Geography (Paper II) Exam Guide

Indra Kumar Lal

According to the chapter practice questions in MCQ form are given with answers.

Useful book before exam for reference and revision.

Previously years solved papers & Model test papers are given for analysis.

More Geography books for reference:

  • UGC NET/JRF Geography Solved Papers Pratiyogita Sahitya
  • UGC NET Geography Paper 2 by GKP
  • Question bank Geography by DGP
  • India and World Geography by Majid Hussain
  • World Geography by Majid Hussain
  • Geography by Barnwal
  • UGC NET/JRF/SET Geography (Paper-II) by Rajeev R. Shrivastava
  • Geography for UGC NET Previous Years Solved Papers by Atlantic Research Division

There are different coaching centers for students appearing for NET exams. A student has to stick to the one which has been recommended by many experts.

The teachers who are associated with a particular coaching center have years of experience and you need to find the right institute for your upcoming geography exam. So, geography coaching is something you cannot ignore.

Get ready for UGC Geography 2021 NET Mock test

You must be busy preparing for your upcoming geography exam and that is quite normal. Everyone does that and the way a student prepares for a UGC NET exam Geography makes all the difference.

One of the most reliable methods is sitting for the UGC NET Mock test. Your performance in the UGC Geography exam NET is directly proportional to the number of mock tests you appear. Follow this simple method while concentrating on your upcoming exam.

Examine the Geography Course before appearing for UGC NET

A proper way to examine a geography net course is by going back to the basics. This is essential in order to sharpen your methods of preparation for your upcoming Net Geography exam.

Keep the Geography UGC NET syllabus handy for your own good. The study materials for your upcoming exam will also boost your way of examining the Geography Course.

Must-Read UGC NET Geography Exam Pattern

Knowing a pattern for the upcoming NET Geography exam is crucial for all the candidates and the students write all the important answers in the examination hall by following a particular pattern.

Your way of preparing must not be limited to a particular pattern because there is something more to it. The UGC NET Geography Cut Off is another thing that you need to remember. If a candidate fails to fulfill the criteria then he or she will be eliminated. 

You can go through the expected category-wise and paper-wise qualifying marks (according to last year) from the given below table:


Paper I (Max marks: 100)

Paper-II (Max marks: 100)

General category

40 Marks 40%

80 Marks 40 (40%)


35 Marks 35%

70 Marks (35%)

Check New UGC NET Geography Exam Pattern

Some of the important points for your upcoming geography exam are mentioned below. All the questions that you will face will be in the form of UGC NET Geography MCQ

  • You will be asked a total of 150 questions NET (Paper 1: 50 Question and Paper 2: 100 Questions). All questions are compulsory to attempt.
  • Paper I will consist of General Aptitude Questions and Paper-II will have questions related to the subject selected by candidates. M
  • Hindi and English are the only options to attempt UGC NET. The choice for the paper medium can be exercised at the time of filling the form.
  • There will be no negative marking in this exam and the total duration of the exam is 3 hours.


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