# VTU Syllabus Electronics And Communication Engineering 3rd Sem

**ANALOG ELECTRONICS Sem-III (EC/TC)**

Module -1

BJT AC Analysis: BJT AC Analysis: BJT Transistor Modeling, The re transistor model, Common emitter fixed bias, Voltage divider bias, Emitter follower configuration. Darlington connection-DC bias; The Hybrid equivalent model, Approximate Hybrid Equivalent Circuit- Fixed bias, Voltage divider, Emitter follower configuration; Complete Hybrid equivalent model, Hybrid π Model.

Module -2

Field Effect Transistors: Construction and Characteristics of JFETs, Transfer Characteristics, Depletion type MOSFET, Enhancement type MOSFET. FET Amplifiers: JFET small signal model, Fixed bias configuration, Self bias configuration, Voltage divider configuration, Common Gate configuration. Source-Follower Configuration, Cascade configuration.

Module -3

BJT and JFET Frequency Response: Logarithms, Decibels, Low frequency response – BJT Amplifier with RL, Low frequency response- FET Amplifier, Miller effect capacitance, High frequency response – BJT Amplifier, High frequency response-FET Amplifier, Multistage Frequency Effects.

Module -4

Feedback and Oscillator Circuits: Feedback concepts, Feedback connection types, Practical feedback circuits, Oscillator operation, FET Phase shift oscillator, Wein bridge oscillator, Tuned Oscillator circuit, Crystal oscillator, UJT construction, UJT Oscillator.

Module -5

Power Amplifiers: Definition and amplifier types, Series fed class A amplifier, Transformer coupled class A amplifier, Class B amplifier operation and circuits, Amplifier distortion, Class C and Class D amplifiers. Voltage regulators: Discrete transistor voltage regulation – Series and Shunt Voltage regulators.

Course outcomes:

• Acquire knowledge of Working principles, characteristics and basic applications of BJT and FET.

• Single stage, cascaded and feedback amplifier configurations.

• Frequency response characteristics of BJT and FET.

• Power amplifier classifications such as Class A, Class B, etc.

• Analyse the performance of

• FET amplifier in CS configuration.

• Power Amplifiers and Oscillator circuits.

• Interpretation of performance characteristics of transistors amplifiers, frequency Response and Oscillators.

• Apply the knowledge gained in the design of transistorized circuits, amplifiers and Oscillators.

Reference Books:

- Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith, “Micro Electronic Circuits Theory And Applicatication,” 5th Edition
- Fundamentals of Microelectronics, Behzad Razavi, John Weily
- J.Millman & C.C.Halkias―Integrated Electronics, 2nd edition, 2010, TMH.
- K. A. Navas, “Electronics Lab Manual”, Volume I, PHI, 5th Edition, 2015

**DIGITAL ELECTRONICS Sem-III (EC/TC)**

Module-1

Principles of combination logic: Definition of combinational logic, canonical forms, Generation of switching equations from truth tables, Karnaugh maps-3,4,5 variables, Incompletely specified functions( Don’t care terms) Simplifying Max term equations, Quine-McCluskey minimization technique, Quine- McCluskey using don’t care terms, Reduced prime implicants Tables.

Module-2

Analysis and design of combinational logic : General approach to combinational logic design, Decoders, BCD decoders, Encoders, digital multiplexers, Using multiplexers as Boolean function generators, Adders and subtractors, Cascading full adders, Look ahead carry, Binary comparators.

Module-3

Flip-Flops : Basic Bistable elements, Latches, Timing considerations, The master-slave flip-flops( pulse-triggered flip-flops): SR flip-flops, JK flip-flops, Edge triggered flip-flops, Characteristic equations.

Module-4

Simple Flip-Flops Applications: Registers, binary ripple counters, synchronous binary counters, Counters based on shift registers, Design of a synchronous counters, Design of a synchronous mod-n counter using clocked T , JK , D and SR flip-flops.

Module-5

Sequential Circuit Design: Mealy and Moore models, State machine notation , Synchronous Sequential circuit analysis, Construction of state diagrams, counter design.

Course outcomes:

• Combinational Logic.

• Simplification Techniques using Karnaugh Maps, Quine-McClusky Technique.

• Operation of Decoders, Encoders, Multiplexers, Adders and Subtractors.

• Working of Latches, Flip-Flops,

• Designing Registers, Counters.

• Mealy, Moore Models and State Diagrams Analyse the performance of

• Simplification Techniques using Karnaugh Maps, Quine-McClusky Technique.

• Synchronous Sequential Circuits. Design and Develop Mealy and Moore Models for digital circuits. Apply the knowledge gained in the design of Counters and Registers.

Reference Books :

- D. P. Kothari and J. S Dhillon, “Digital Circuits and Design”, Pearson, 2016, ISBN:9789332543539.
- Morris Marro,
*-Digital design,*Prentice Hall of India, Third Edition. - Charles H Roth, Jr., “Fundamentals oflogic design”, Cengage Learning.
- K. A. Navas, “Electronics Lab Manual”, Volume I, PHI, 5thEdition, 2015, ISBN:9788120351424

**NETWORK ANALYSIS Sem-III (EC/TC)**

Module-1

Basic Concepts: Practical sources, Source transformations, Network reduction using Star – Delta transformation, Loop and node analysis With linearly dependent and independent sources for DC and AC networks, Concepts of super node and super mesh.

Module-2

Network Theorems : Superposition, Reciprocity, Millman‘s theorems, Thevinin‘s and Norton‘s theorems, Maximum Power transfer theorem and Millers Theorem.

Module-3

Transient behavior and initial conditions: Behavior of circuit elements under switching condition and their Representation, evaluation of initial and final conditions in RL, RC and RLC circuits for AC and DC excitations.

Laplace Transformation & Applications : Solution of networks, step, ramp and impulse responses, waveform Synthesis.

Module-4

Resonant Circuits: Series and parallel resonance, frequency- response of series and Parallel circuits, Q–Factor, Bandwidth.

Module-5

Two port network parameters: Definition of z, y, h and transmission parameters, modeling with these parameters, relationship between parameters sets.

Course outcomes :

• Series and Parallel combination of Passive Components, Source Transformation and Source Shifting.

• Network Theorems and Electrical laws to reduce circuit complexities and to arrive at feasible solutions.

• Various Two port Parameters and their Relationship for finding Network Solutions. Analyze the Performance of various Types of Networks Using different concepts and principles.

Reference Books :

- Hayt, Kemmerly and Durbin “Engineering Circuit Analysis”, TMH 7th Edition, 2010
- J. David Irwin /R. Mark Nelms, “Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis”, John Wiley, 8th ed, 2006
- Charles K Alexander and Mathew N O Sadiku, “ Fundamentals of Electric Circuits”, Tata McGraw-Hill, 3rd Ed, 2009.

**ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION Sem-III (EC/TC)**

Module-1

Measurement and Error: Definitions, Accuracy, Precision, Resolution and Significant Figures, Types of Errors, Measurement error combinations, Basics of Statistical Analysis.

Ammeters: DC Ammeter, Multirange Ammeter, The Ayrton Shunt or Universal Shunt, Requirements of Shunt, Extending of Ammeter Ranges, RF Ammeter (Thermocouple), Limitations of Thermocouple.

Voltmeters and Multimeters: Introduction, Basic Meter as a DC Voltmeter, DC Voltmeter, Multirange Voltmeter, Extending Voltmeter Ranges, Loading, AC Voltmeter using Rectifiers. Transistor Voltmeter, Differential Voltmeter, True RMS Voltmeter, Considerations in Choosing an Analog Voltmeter, Multimeter.

Module-2

Digital Voltmeters: Introduction, RAMP technique, Dual Slope Integrating Type DVM, Integrating Type DVM, Most Commonly used principles of ADC, Successive Approximations, Continuous Balance DVM, -Digit, Resolution and Sensitivity of Digital Meters, General Specifications of DVM, Microprocessor based Ramp type DVM.

Digital Instruments: Introduction, Digital Multimeters, Digital Frequency Meter, Digital Measurement of Time, Universal Counter, Digital Tachometer, Digital pH Meter, Digital Phase Meter, Digital Capacitance Meter, Microprocessor based Instruments.

Module-3

Oscilloscopes: Introduction, Basic principles, CRT features, Block diagram of Oscilloscope, Simple CRO, Vertical Amplifier, Horizontal Deflecting System, Sweep or Time Base Generator, Storage Oscilloscope, Digital Readout Oscilloscope, Measurement of Frequency by Lissajous Method, Digital Storage Oscilloscope.

Signal Generators: Introduction, Fixed and Variable AF Oscillator, Standard Signal Generator, Laboratory Type Signal Generator, AF sine and Square Wave Generator, Function Generator, Square and Pulse Generator, Sweep Generator.

Module-4

Measuring Instruments: Output Power Meters, Field Strength Meter, Stroboscope, Phase Meter, Vector Impedance Meter, Q Meter, Megger, Analog pH Meter.

Bridges: Introduction, Wheatstone’s bridge, Kelvin’s Bridge; AC bridges, Capacitance Comparison Bridge, Inductance Comparison Bridge, Maxwell’s bridge, Wein’s bridge, Wagner’s earth connection.

Module-5

Transducers: Introduction, Electrical transducers, Selecting a transducer, Resistive transducer, Resistive position transducer, Strain gauges, Resistance thermometer, Thermistor, Inductive transducer, Differential output transducers, LVDT, Piezoelectric transducer, Photoelectric transducer, Photovoltaic transducer, Semiconductor photo diode and transistor, Temperature transducers-RTD.

Course outcomes :

• Accuracy and precision

• Functioning of various types of analog and digital measuring instruments.

• Different types of quantization, resolution and sensitivity in digital instruments such as frequency meters, tachometers, pH meters etc.

• Microprocessor based instrumentation

• Functioning of various types of Oscilloscopes and signal generators.

• Different types of transducers in various applications.

Reference Books :

- A. D. Helfrick and W.D. Cooper, “Modern Electronic Instrumentation and Measuring Techniques”, Pearson, 1st Edition, 2015
- A. K. Sawhney, “Electronics and Electrical Measurements”, Dhanpat Rai & Sons.

**ENGINEERING ELECTROMAGNETICS Sem-III (EC/TC)**

Module-1

Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field Intensity and Flux density Experimental law of Coulomb, Electric field intensity, Field due to continuous volume charge distribution, Field of a line charge, Electric flux density.

Module-2

Gauss’s law and Divergence Gauss’ law, Divergence. Maxwell’s First equation (Electrostactics), Vector Operator and divergence theorem. Energy, Potential and Conductors Energy expended in moving a point charge in an electric field, The line integral, Definition of potential difference and potential, The potential field of point charge, Current and Current density, Continuity of current.

Module-3

Poisson’s and Laplace’s Equations Derivation of Poisson’s and Laplace’s Equations, Uniqueness theorem, Examples of the solution of Laplace’s equation. Steady Magnetic Field Biot-Savart Law, Ampere’s circuital law, Curl, Stokes’ theorem, Magnetic flux and magnetic flux density, Scalar and Vector Magnetic Potentials.

Module-4

Magnetic Forces : Force on a moving charge, differential current elements, Force between differential current elements.

Magnetic Materials : Magnetisation and permeability, Magnetic boundary conditions, Magnetic circuit, Potential Energy and forces on magnetic materials.

Module-5

Time-varying fields and Maxwell’s equations Farday’s law, displacement current, Maxwell’s equations in point form, Maxwell’s equations in integral form.

Uniform Plane Wave Wave propagation in free space and good conductors. Poynting’s theorem and wave power, Skin Effect.

Course outcomes :

• Basic Concepts of Electric Fields, Magnetic Fields and Electromagnetic Waves.

• Basic Concepts to Solve Complex Problems in Electric Fields, Magnetic Fields and Electromagnetic Waves.

• Time-varying fields and Maxwell’s equations.

• Poisson’s and Laplace’s Equations, Uniqueness theorem, and solution of Laplace’s equation.

• Time-varying fields, Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in free space and dielectrics.

Reference Books :

- John Krauss and Daniel A Fleisch, “ Electromagnetics with applications”, Mc Graw- Hill.
- N. Narayana Rao, “Fundamentals of Electromagnetics for Engineering”, Pearson

**ANALOG ELECTRONICS LABORATORY Sem-III (EC/TC)**

Laboratory Experiments :

1. Design and set up the following rectifiers with and without filters and to determine ripple factor and rectifier efficiency :

- Full Wave Rectifier
- Bridge Rectifier

2. Conduct experiment to test diode clipping (single/double ended) and clamping circuits (positive/negative).

3. Conduct an experiment on Series Voltage Regulator using Zener diode and power transistor to determine line and load regulation characteristics.

4. Realize BJT Darlington Emitter follower with and without bootstrapping and determine the gain, input and output impedances.

5. Design and set up the BJT common emitter amplifier using voltage divider bias with and without feedback and determine the gain- bandwidth product from its frequency response.

6. Plot the transfer and drain characteristics of a JFET and calculate its drain resistance, mutual conductance and amplification factor.

7. Design, setup and plot the frequency response of Common Source JFET/MOSFET amplifier and obtain the bandwidth.

8. Plot the transfer and drain characteristics of n-channel MOSFET and calculate its parameters, namely; drain resistance, mutual conductance and amplification factor.

9. Set-up and study the working of complementary symmetry class B push pull power amplifier and calculate the efficiency.

10. Design and set-up the RC-Phase shift Oscillator using FET, and calculate the frequency of output waveform.

11. Design and set-up the following tuned oscillator circuits using BJT, and determine the frequency of oscillation. (a) Hartley Oscillator (b) Colpitts Oscillator.

12. Design and set-up the crystal oscillator and determine the frequency of oscillation.

Course outcomes :

• Design and Test rectifiers, clipping circuits, clamping circuits and voltage regulators.

• Design and Test JFET/MOSFET amplifiers. Design and Test a power amplifier.

• Design and Test various types of oscillators.

**DIGITAL ELECTRONICS LABORATORY Sem-III (EC/TC)**

Laboratory Experiments :

1. Verify (a) Demorgan’s Theorem for 2 variables. (b) The sum-of product and product-of-sum expressions using universal gates.

2. Design and implement (a) Full Adder using basic logic gates. (b) Full subtractor using basic logic gates.

3. Design and implement 4-bit Parallel Adder/ subtractor using IC 7483.

4. Design and Implementation of 4-bit Magnitude Comparator using IC 7485.

5. Realize (a) 4:1 Multiplexer using gates. (b) 3-variable function using IC 74151(8:1MUX).

6. Realize 1:8 Demux and 3:8 Decoder using IC74138.

7. Realize the following flip-flops using NAND Gates. (a) Clocked SR Flip-Flop (b) JK Flip-Flop.

8. Realize the following shift registers using IC7474 (a) SISO (b) SIPO (c) PISO (d) PIPO.

9. Realize the Ring Counter and Johnson Counter using IC7476.

10. Realize the Mod-N Counter using IC7490.

11. Simulate Full- Adder using simulation tool.

12. Simulate Mod-8 Synchronous UP/DOWN Counter using simulation tool.

Course outcomes :

• Demonstrate the truth table of various expressions and combinational circuits using logic gates.

• Design, test and evaluate various combinational circuits such as adders, subtractors, comparators, multiplexers and demultiplexers.

• Construct flips-flops, counters and shift registers. Simulate full adder and up/down counters.

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