# VTU Syllabus Electrical And Electronics Engineering 4th Semester

**POWER GENERATION AND ECONOMICS (Core Subject)**

Module-1

Hydroelectric Power Plants: Hydrology, Run off and stream flow, Hydrograph, Flow duration curve, Mass curve, Reservoir capacity, Dam storage. Hydrological cycle, Merits and demerits of hydroelectric power plants, Selection of site. General arrangement of hydel plant, Elements of the plant, Classification of the plants based on water flow regulation, Water head and type of load the plant has to supply. Water turbines – Pelton wheel, Francis, Kaplan and propeller turbines. Characteristic of water turbines Governing of turbines, Selection of water turbines. Underground, Small hydro and pumped storage plants. Choice of size and number of units, Plant layout and auxiliaries.

Module-2

Steam Power Plants: Introduction, Efficiency of steam plants, Merits and demerits of plants, Selection of site. Working of steam plant, Power plant equipment and layout, Steam turbines, Fuels and fuel handling, Fuel combustion and combustion equipment, Coal

burners, Fluidized bed combustion, Combustion control, Ash handling, Dust collection, Draught systems, Feed water, Steam power plant controls, Plant auxiliaries. Diesel Power Plant: Introduction, Merits and demerits, Selection site, Elements of diesel power plant, Applications. Gas Turbine Power Plant: Introduction, Merits and demerits, Selection site, Fuels for gas turbines, Elements of simple gas turbine power plant, Methods of improving thermal efficiency of a simple steam power plant, Closed cycle gas turbine power plants.

Comparison of gas power plant with steam and diesel power plants.

Module-3

Nuclear Power Plants: Introduction, Economics of nuclear plants, Merits and demerits, selection of site, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear fission process, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear energy, Nuclear fuels, Nuclear plant and layout, Nuclear reactor and its control, Classification of reactors, Power reactors in use, Effects of nuclear plants, Disposal of

nuclear waste and effluent, Shielding.

Module-4

Substations: Introduction to Substation equipment; Transformers, High Voltage Fuses, High Voltage Circuit Breakers and Protective Relaying, High Voltage Disconnect Switches, Lightning Arresters, High Voltage Insulators and Conductors, Voltage Regulators, Storage Batteries, Reactors, Capacitors, Measuring Instruments and power line carrier communication equipment. Classification of substations – indoor and outdoor, Selection of site for substation, Busbar arrangement schemes and single line diagrams of substations. Interconnection of power stations. Introduction to gas insulated substation, Advantages and economics of Gas insulated substation.

Grounding: Introduction, Difference between grounded and ungrounded system. System grounding – ungrounded, Solid grounding, Resistance grounding, Reactance grounding and resonant grounding. Earthing transformer. Neutral grounding and neutral grounding

transformer.

Module-5

Economics: Introduction, Effect of variable load on power system, classification of costs, Cost analysis. Interest and Depreciation, Methods of determination of depreciation, Economics of Power generation, different terms considered for power plants and their

significance, load sharing. Choice of size and number of generating plants. Tariffs, objective, factors affecting the tariff, types. Types of consumers and their tariff. Power factor, Disadvantages and causes of low power factor, Methods of improving power factor, Economics of power factor improvement and comparison of methods of improving the power factor. Choice of equipment.

Text/Reference Books :

- A Course in Power Systems J.B. Gupta Katson 2008
- Generation of Electrical Energy B.R.Gupta S. Chand 2015
- Electrical power Generation,Transmission and Distribution S.N. Singh PHI 2nd Edition, 2009
- Power Plant Engineering P.K. Nag Mc Graw Hill 4th Edition, 2014
- Electrical Power Distribution Systems V. Kamaraju Mc Graw Hill 1st Edition, 2009
- Electrical Distribution Engineering Anthony J. Pansini CRC Press 3rd Edition, 2006
- Electrical Distribution Systems Dale R Patrick Et al CRC Press 2nd Edition, 2009
- A Text Book on Power System Engineering A.Chakrabarti, et al Dhanpath Rai 2nd Edition, 2010

Course outcomes :

1. Describe the working of hydroelectric, steam, nuclear power plants and state functions of major equipment of the power plants.

2. Classify various substations and explain the importance of grounding. Understand the economic aspects of power system operation and its effects.

3. Explain the importance of power factor improvement.

**TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION (Core Subject)**

Module-1

Introduction to power system: Structure of electric power system: Generation, Transmission and distribution. Advantages of high voltage transmission: HVAC, EHVAC, UHVAC and HVDC. Interconnection. Feeders, Distributors and service mains. Overhead transmission lines: A brief introduction to types of supporting structures and line conductors-Conventional conductors; Aluminium Conductor steel reinforced (ACSR), All –aluminium alloy conductor (AAAC) and All –aluminium conductor (AAC). High temperature conductors; Thermal resistant aluminium alloy (ATI),Super thermal resistant aluminium alloy (ZTAI), Gap type thermal resistant aluminium alloy conductor steel reinforced (GTACSR), Gap type super thermal resistant aluminium alloy conductor steel reinforced (GZTACSR). Bundle conductor and its advantages. Importance of sag, Sag calculation – supports at same and different levels, Effect of wind and ice. Line vibration and vibration dampers. Overhead line protection against lightening; ground wires. Overhead line Insulators: A brief introduction to types of insulators, Material used- porcelain, toughened glass and polymer (composite). Potential distribution over a string of suspension insulators. String efficiency, Methods of increasing string efficiency. Arcing horns.

Module-2

Line parameters: Introduction to line parameters- Resistance, Inductance and capacitance. Calculation of inductance of single phase and three phase lines with equilateral spacing, Unsymmetrical spacing, Double circuit and transposed lines. Inductance of composite –

conductors, Geometric mean radius (GMR) and geometric mean distance (GMD).

Calculation of capacitance of single phase and three phase lines with equilateral spacing, Unsymmetrical spacing, Double circuit and transposed lines. Capacitance of composite – conductor, Geometric mean radius (GMR) and geometric mean distance (GMD). Advantages

of single circuit and double circuit lines.

Module-3

Performance of transmission lines: Classification of lines – Short, Medium and Long lines. Current and voltage relations, Line regulation and Ferranti effect in short length lines, Medium length lines considering Nominal T and nominal rr circuits, and long lines considering hyperbolic form equations. Equivalent circuit of a long line. ABCD constants in all cases.

Module-4

Corona: Phenomena, Disruptive and visual critical voltages, Corona loss. Advantages and disadvantages of corona. Methods of reducing corona.

Underground cable: Types of cables, Constructional features, Insulation resistance, Thermal rating, Charging current, Grading of cables – capacitance and inter-sheath.

Dielectric loss. Comparison between ac and dc cables. Limitations of cables. Specification of power cables.

Module-5

Distribution: Primary AC distribution systems – Radial feeders, parallel feeders, loop feeders and interconnected network system. Secondary AC distribution systems – Three phase 4 wire system and single phase 2 wire distribution, AC distributors with concentrated

and uniform loads. Effect of disconnection of neutral in a 3 phase four wire system.

Reliability and Quality of Distribution system: Introduction, Definition of reliability, failure, Probability concepts, Limitation of distribution systems, Power quality, Reliability aids.

Text/Reference Books :

- A Course in Electrical Power Soni Gupta and Bhatnagar Dhanpat Rai
- Power System Analysis and Design J. Duncan Glover at el Cengage Learning 4th Edition 2008
- Principles of Power System V.K. Mehta Rohit Mehta S. Chand Publishers 1st Edition 2013
- Electrical power Generation, Transmission and Distribution S.N. Singh PHI 2nd Edition,2009
- Electrical Power S.L.Uppal Khanna Publication
- 6.Electrical power systems C. L. Wadhwa New Age International 5th Edition, 2009
- Electrical power systems Ashfaq Hussain CBS Publication
- Electric Power Distribution A.S. Pabla Mc Graw-Hill 6th Edition,2011

Course Outcomes :

1. Explain the concepts of various methods of generation of power.

2. Explain the importance of HVAC, EHVAC, UHVAC and HVDC transmission. Design and analyze overhead transmission system for a given voltage level.

3. Calculate the parameters of the transmission line for different configurations and assess the performance of line.

4. Explain the use of underground cables and evaluate different types of distribution systems.

**ELECTRIC MOTORS (Core Subject)**

Module-1

DC Motors: Classification, Back emf, Torque equation, and significance of back emf, Characteristics of shunt, Series & Compound motors. Speed control of shunt, Series and Compound motors. Application of motors. DC motor starters – 3 point and 4 point. Losses and efficiency- Losses in DC motors, Power flow diagram, Efficiency, Condition for maximum efficiency.

Module-2

Testing of dc motors: Direct & indirect methods of testing of DC motors-Brake test, Swinburne’s test, Retardation test, Hopkinson’s test, Field’s test, Merits and demerits of tests. Three phase Induction motors: Review of concept and generation of rotating magnetic field, Principle of operation, construction, classification and types; squirrel-cage, slip-ring (No question shall be set from the review portion). Slip, Torque equation, Torque-slip characteristic covering motoring, Generating and braking regions of operation. Maximum torque, Significance of slip.

Module-3

Performance of three-phase Induction Motor: Phasor diagram of induction motor on no- load and on load, Equivalent circuit, Losses, Efficiency, No-load and blocked rotor tests. Performance of the motor from the circle diagram and equivalent circuit. Cogging and crawling.

High torque rotors-double cage and deep rotor bars. Equivalent circuit and performance Evaluation of double cage induction motor. Induction motor working as induction generator; Standalone operation and grid connected operation.

Module-4

Starting and speed Control of Three-phase Induction Motors: Need for starter. Direct on line, Star-Delta and autotransformer starting. Rotor resistance starting. Speed control by voltage, Frequency and rotor resistance methods Single-phase Induction Motor: Double revolving field theory and principle of operation. Construction and operation of split-phase, Capacitor start, Capacitor run, and shaded pole

motors. Comparison of single phase motors and applications.

Module-5

Synchronous motor: Principle of operation, Phasor diagrams, Torque and torque angle, Blondel diagram, Effect of change in load, Effect of change in excitation, V and inverted V curves. Synchronous condenser, Hunting and damping. Methods of starting synchronous motors.

Other motors: Construction and operation of Universal motor, AC servomotor, Linear induction motor and stepper motor.

Text/Reference Books :

- Electric Machines D. P. Kothari, I. J. Nagrath Mc Graw Hill 4th edition, 2011
- Principles of Electric Machines and power Electronics P.C.Sen Wiley 2nd Edition, 2013
- Electric Machines R.K. Srivastava Cengage Learning 2nd Edition,2013
- Electrical Machines, Drives and Power systems Theodore Wildi Pearson 6th Edition, 2014
- Electrical Machines M.V. Deshpande PHI Learning 2013
- Electric Machinery and Transformers Bhag S Guru at el Oxford University Press 3rd Edition, 2012
- Electric Machinery and Transformers Irving Kosow Pearson 2rd Edition, 2012
- Theory of Alternating Current Machines Alexander Langsdorf Mc Graw Hill 2nd Edition, 2001

Course Outcomes :

1. Explain the constructional features of Motors and select a suitable drive for specific application.

2. Analyze and assess the performance characteristics of DC motors by conducting suitable tests and control the speed by suitable method.

3. Explain the constructional features of Three Phase and Single phase induction Motors and assess their performance.

4. Control the speed of induction motor by a suitable method. Explain the operation of Synchronous motor and special motors.

**ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY (Core Subject)**

Module-1

Vector Analysis: Scalars and Vectors, Vector algebra, Cartesian co-ordinate system, Vector components and unit vectors. Scalar field and Vector field. Dot product and Cross product, Gradient of a scalar field. Divergence and Curl of a vector field. Co – ordinate

systems: cylindrical and spherical, Relation between different coordinate systems. Expression for gradient, Divergence and curl in rectangular, Cylindrical and spherical co- ordinate systems. Problems. Electrostatics: Coulomb’s law, Electric field intensity and its evaluation for (i) point charge (ii) line charge (iii) surface charge (iv) volume charge distributions. Electric flux density, Gauss law and its applications. Maxwell’s first equation (Electrostatics). Divergence theorem. Problems.

Module-2

Energy and Potential: Energy expended in moving a point charge in an electric field. The line integral. Definition of potential difference and potential. The potential field of a point charge and of a system of charges. Potential gradient. The dipole. Energy density in the electrostatic field. Problems.

Conductor and Dielectrics: Current and current density. Continuity of current. Metallic conductors, Conductor’s properties and boundary conditions. Perfect dielectric materials, capacitance calculations. Parallel plate capacitor with two dielectrics with dielectric interface parallel to the conducting plates. Capacitance of two wire line. Problems.

Module-3

Poisson’s and Laplace equations: Derivations and problems, Uniqueness theorem. Steady magnetic fields: Biot – Savart’s law, Ampere’s circuital law. The Curl. Stokes theorem. Magnetic flux and flux density. Scalar and vector magnetic potentials. Problems.

Module-4

Magnetic forces: Force on a moving charge and differential current element. Force between differential current elements. Force and torque on a closed circuit. Problems. Magnetic materials and magnetism: Nature of magnetic materials, Magnetisation and permeability. Magnetic boundary conditions. Magnetic circuit, Inductance and mutual inductance. Problems.

Module-5

Time varying fields and Maxwell’s equations: Faraday’s law, Displacement current. Maxwell’s equations in point form and integral form. Problems. Uniform plane wave: Wave propagation in free space and in dielectrics. Pointing vector and power considerations. Propagation in good conductors, skin effect. Problems.

Text/Reference Books :

- Engineering Electromagnetics William H Hayt et al Mc Graw Hill 8th Edition, 2014
- Principles of Electromagnetics Matthew N. O. Sadiku Oxford University Press 6th Edition, 2015
- Fundamentals of Engineering Electromagnetics David K. Cheng Pearson 2014
- Electromagnetism Theory (Volume -1) Applications (Volume-2) Ashutosh Pramanik PHI Learning 2014
- Electromagnetic Field Theory Fundamentals Bhag Guru et al Cambridg University press 2005
- Electromagnetic Field Theory Rohit Khurana Vikas Publishing 1st Edition,2014
- Electromagnetics J. A. Edminister Mc Graw Hill 3rd Edition, 2010
- Electromagnetic Field Theory and Transmission Lines Gottapu Sasibhushana Rao Wiley 1st Edition, 2013

Course Outcomes :

1. Use different coordinate systems to explain the concept of gradient, divergence and curl of a vector.

2. Use Coulomb’s Law and Gauss Law for the evaluation of electric fields produced by different charge configurations.

3. Calculate the energy and potential due to a system of charges.

4. Explain the behavior of electric field across a boundary between a conductor and dielectric and between two different dielectrics.

5. Explain the behavior of magnetic fields and magnetic materials.

6. Assess time varying fields and propagation of waves in different media.

**OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS AND LINEAR ICs (Foundation Course)**

Module-1

Operational amplifiers: Introduction, Block diagram representation of a typical Op-amp, Schematic symbol, Characteristics of an Op-amp, Ideal op-amp, Equivalent circuit, Ideal voltage transfer curve, Open loop configuration, Differential amplifier, Inverting & noninverting amplifier, Op-amp with negative feedback ; voltage series feedback amplifier- gain, Input resistance, Output resistance, Voltage shunt feedback amplifier- gain, Input resistance, Output resistance. General Linear Applications: D.C. & A.C amplifiers, Peaking amplifier, Summing, Scaling & averaging amplifier, Inverting and non-inverting configuration, Differential configuration, Instrumentation amplifier.

Module-2

Active Filters: First & Second order high pass & low pass Butterworth filters, Higher order filters Band pass filters, Band reject filters & all pass filters. DC Voltage Regulators: Voltage regulator basics, Voltage follower regulator, Adjustable output regulator, LM317 & LM337 Integrated circuit regulators.

Module-3

Signal generators: Triangular / rectangular wave generator, Phase shift oscillator, Wien bridge oscillator, Oscillator amplitude stabilization, Signal generator output controls. Comparators & Converters: Basic comparator, Zero crossing detector, Inverting & non- inverting Schmitt trigger circuit, Voltage to current converter with grounded load, Current to voltage converter and basics of voltage to frequency and frequency to voltage converters.

Module-4

Signal processing circuits: Precision half wave & full wave rectifiers limiting circuits, Clamping circuits, Peak detectors, Sample & hold circuits. A/D & D/A Converters: Basics, R–2R D/A Converter, Integrated circuit 8-bit D/A, successive approximation ADC, Linear ramp ADC, Dual slope ADC, Digital ramp ADC.

Module-5

Phase Locked Loop (PLL): Basic PLL, Components, Performance factors, Applications of PLL IC 565. Timer: Internal architecture of 555 timer, Mono stable, Astable multivibrators and applications.

Text/Reference Books :

- Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits Ramakant A Gayakwad Pearson 4th Edition 2015
- Operational Amplifiers and Linear ICs David A. Bell Oxford University Press 3rd Edition 2011
- Linear Integrated Circuits; Analysis, Design and Applications B. Somanthan Nair Wiley India 2013
- Linear Integrated Circuits S. Salivahanan, et al Mc Graw Hill 2nd Edition,2014
- Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits K. Lal Kishore Pearson 1st Edition, 2012
- Linear Integrated Circuits Muhammad H Rashid Cengage Learning 1st Edition,2014
- Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits, Concept and Application James M Fiore Cengage 2009

Course outcomes:

1. Explain the basics of linear ICs. Design circuits using linear ICs.

2. Demonstrate the application of Linear ICs. Use ICs in the electronic projects.

**ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -2**

Experiments :

1 Load test on dc shunt motor to draw speed – torque and horse power – efficiency characteristics

2 Field Test on dc series machines.

3 Speed control of dc shunt motor by armature and field control.

4 Swinburne’s Test on dc motor.

5 Retardation test on dc shunt motor.

6 Regenerative test on dc shunt machines.

7 Load test on three phase induction motor.

8 No load and Blocked rotor test on three phase induction motor to draw (i) equivalent circuit and (ii) circle diagram. Determination of performance parameters at different load conditions from (i) and (ii).

9 Load test on induction generator.

10 Load test on single phase induction motor to draw output versus torque, current, power and efficiency characteristics.

11 Conduct suitable tests to draw the equivalent circuit of single phase induction motor and determine performance parameters.

12 Conduct an experiment to draw V and Λ curves of synchronous motor at no load and load conditions.

Course Outcomes:

1. Test dc machines to determine their characteristics. Control the speed of dc motor.

2. Pre-determine the performance characteristics of dc machines by conducting suitable tests.

3. Conduct test on induction motor to pre-determine the performance characteristics

4. Conduct test on synchronous motor to draw the performance curves.

5. Perform load test on single phase and three phase induction motor to assess its performance.

**OP- AMP AND LINEAR ICS LABORATORY**

Experiments :

1 Design and verify a precision full wave rectifier. Determine the performance parameters.

2 Design and realize to analyse the frequency response of an op – amp amplifier under inverting and non – inverting configuration for a given gain.

3 Design and verify the output waveform of an op – amp RC phase shift oscillator for a desired frequency.

4 Design and realize Schmitt trigger circuit using an op – amp for desired upper trip point (UTP) and lower trip point (LTP).

5 Verify the operation of an op – amp as (a) voltage comparator circuit and (b) zero crossing detector.

6 Design and verify the operssation of op – amp as an (a) adder (b) subtractor (c) integrator and (d) differentiator.

7 Design and realize an op – amp based first order Butterworth (a) low pass (b) high pass and (c) band pass filters for a given cut off frequency/frequencies to verify the frequency response characteristic.

8 Design and realize an op – amp based function generator to generate sine, square and triangular waves of desired frequency.

9 Design and realization of R – 2R ladder DAC.

10 Realization of Two bit Flash ADC.

11 Design and verify an IC 555 timer based pulse generator for the specified pulse.

12 Designing of Fixed voltage power supply (voltage regulator) using IC regulators 78 series and 79 series.

Course Outcomes:

1. To conduct experiment to determine the characteristic parameters of OP-Amp

2. To design test the OP-Amp as Amplifier, adder, subtractor, differentiator and integrator

3. To design test the OP-Amp as oscillators and filters

4. Design and study of Linear IC’s as multivibrator power supplies.