UGC NET People And Environment Notes 2021: NET People And Environment Notes

UGC NET People And Environment Notes 2021: Are you preparing for UGC NET Paper 1? Do you have the latest People And Environment Notes? Don’t worry! Here we have provided the latest UGC NET People And Environment Notes.

You can check easily check the People Development And Environment UGC NET Exam Notes and also able to download the PDF.

UGC NET People And Environment Notes 2021

UGC NET Exam is the exam that tests the eligibility of Indian Nationals for ‘Assistant Professor’ or for ‘Junior Research Fellowship and Assistant Professor’ both in Indian Universities and Colleges.

Environmental issues UGC NET is an essential part of the UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus 2020-21. With proper preparation and Environment notes for UGC NET PDF, you can easily attempt all the questions in the Paper-I exam.

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Get Complete Notes On People and Environment UGC NET

You will find the various Environmental Issue in UGC NET People And Environment Notes.

Local Environmental Issues

  • Waste Disposal
  • Water Scarcity
  • Desertification
  • Pollution
  • Endangered Species

Regional And Global Environmental Issues

  • Global warming
  • Ocean Acidification
  • Pollution
  • Acid Rain
  • Ozone Depletion
  • Polar Melting

Here you can know about Pollution and Climate Change in brief.


Pollution the addition of any substance (solid, liquid, or gas) or any form of energy (such as heat, sound, or radioactivity) to the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed, diluted, decomposed, recycled, or stored in some harmless form.

Pollutants are generally grouped under two classes

  • Biodegradable pollutants
    • Examples of such pollutants are domestic waste products, urine and faucet matter, sewage, agricultural residue, paper, wood, and cloth, etc.
  • Non- Biodegradable pollutants
    • Non-biodegradable pollutants are stronger chemical bondage, do not break down into simpler and harmless products. These include various insecticides and other pesticides, mercury, lead, arsenic, aluminum, plastics, radioactive waste, etc.

Types of Environmental Pollution: UGC NET People And Environment Notes

Pollution can be classified mainly into four categories- Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution.

Air Pollution

Air pollution refers to the addition of pollutants into the air that is detrimental to human beings and the planet as a whole.

Sources Of Air Pollution:

The pollutants are added to the atmosphere by the following sources:

  • Automobiles
  • Electrical Power Plants
  • Industrial Processes
  • Heating Plants

Major Air Pollutants –Their Sources And Their Impact




Carbon Monoxide (CO)

Fuel combustion from engines and vehicles

Reduces the amount of oxygen, aggravates heart disease, chest pain

Lead (Pb)

Metal refineries and other metal industries, waste incinerators (waste burners)

Damages the nervous system, results in IQ loss, Cardiovascular and renal effects in adults, effects related to anemia.

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

Fuel combustion and wood-burning

Lung diseases leading to respiratory symptoms increases susceptibility to respiratory infection

Particulate Matter (PM)

Chemical reactions, fuel combustion, industrial processes, farming and during road constructions.

Lung or heart diseases, respiratory problems and sometimes premature deaths.

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

Fuel combustion (electric utilities and industrial processes as well as natural occurrences like volcanoes.

Asthma and makes breathing difficult

Water Pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of pollutants in water bodies like lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers, and groundwater without treatment very often by human activities which leads to harmful effects.

Sources Of Water Pollution

  • Natural Sources: These include decay, the composition of plants and animals, volcanic eruptions, coastal, cliff erosion, landslides, and soil erosion.
  • Anthropogenic Sources: These include industry, urban, agricultural and cultural sources.

Major Water Pollutants

  • Industrial pollutants: Includes heavy metals-boron, arsenic, zinc, lead, mercury.
  • Agricultural pollutants: Insecticides, pesticides, chemical fertilizer, weeds, plants remain.
  • Urban pollutants: Sulphate ion, nitrate ion, chlorine ion, sodium ion, calcium ion, nitrates, and potassium ions.
  • Natural pollutants: Volcanic dust, debris caused by landslides, decomposed organic matter.
  • Physical pollutants: Oil, grease, dissolved and suspended solids, volcanic dust.

Effects of Water Pollution

  • Death of aquatic (water) animals.
  • Irrigation by polluted water affects plants resulting in yellowish coloration and defoliation.
  • Disruption of food-chains.
  • Diseases-hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, jaundice, diarrhea, and skin diseases.
  • Destruction of ecosystems.

Land Pollution

Land pollution is the destruction of the earth’s land surfaces, directly or indirectly as a result of man’s activities.

Sources Of Land Pollution

  • Agricultural sources: It includes waste produced by crop, animal manure and farm residues, chemicals leftover of all pesticides, fertilizers, and insecticides.
  • Ashes: The residual matter that remains after solid fuels are burned is known as ashes. Two types of ashes are: Bottom ash is the debris from burnt metal and glass waste and it is not bio-degradable. The second type of ash – fly ash. It is the ash that is trapped by filters in the chimney of the incinerators.
  • Mining sources: It includes underground debris, piles of coal refuse, and heaps of slag.
  • Industrial sources: These include paints, chemicals, metals and aluminum, plastics.
  • Sewage Treatment: It includes the biomass sludge, and settled solids.
  • Garbage or waste: Household or municipal waste such as glass, metal, cloth, plastic, wood, paper, and so on.
  • Deforestation: This results in soil erosions, desertification, and land degradation.
  • Chemical And Nuclear Plants: Chemical waste from chemical industries that are disposed of into landfills.

Effects Of Land Pollution

  • Hazardous chemicals can wipe out living organisms in the soil.
  • The activity of landfills, mining, industry, are destructive to vegetation.
  • It may cause arsenic poisoning. It can also cause liver, skin, heart, cancers, and neurological damage. 

Noise Pollution

Noise is an unwanted sound or unpleasant sound which produces discomfort in the ears. Noise is considered environmental pollution.

Sources Of Noise Pollution

  • Household sources: Gadgets like TV, Loudspeakers, grinder, food mixer, dryer, vacuum cleaner, washing machine cooler, and air conditioners.
  • Social events: Places of worship, parties, discos, and other social events.
  • Industrial and Commercial activities: Printing presses, construction sites, and manufacturing industries.
  • Transportation: Aeroplanes flying over houses, trains, over the ground and underground trains, vehicles on road.

Effects Of Noise Pollution

Noise pollution may lead to many problems such as hearing loss, sleep disruption, stress-related illnesses, speech interference, and lost productivity.

Climate Change

Climate change can be defined as significant changes in global temperature, wind patterns, sea levels precipitation, and other measures of climate that occur over several decades.

Climate change is evident in the form of:

  • Global temperature rise
  • Warming oceans
  • Shrinking ice sheets
  • Glacial retreat
  • Decreased snow cover
  • Sea level rise
  • Declining Arctic sea ice
  • Ocean acidification

Causes Of Climate Change

  • Increased Greenhouse Effect: The greenhouse effect is the warming that results when the atmosphere traps heat radiating from Earth toward space. Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect include-Nitrous Oxide (NO2), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Water Vapour (H20), Methane (CH4), and Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
  • Burning of fossil fuels: It has increased the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2).
  • Industrial activities: These activities have raised atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from 280 parts per million to 400 parts per million in the last 150 years.

Future Effects Of Climate Change

  • Sea level will rise 1 to 4 feet by 2100.
  • The Arctic Ocean is likely to become ice-free.
  • Hurricanes will become more intense and stronger.
  • Climate change will result in more droughts and heatwaves.
  • Changes in precipitation patterns.
  • Frost-free season (and growing season) will lengthen.
  • Temperatures will continue to rise.

Other Important UGC NET Paper 1 Notes

You should have the following study materials apart from UGC NET People And Environment Notes to boost your exam preparation for the NTA UGC NET exam.

Click on the link to access other important notes related to the UGC NET Paper 1 exam.

UGC NET People And Environment Notes: Steps Taken by INDIA Govt. to reduce the Pollution

The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has taken several positive steps to minimize pollution of the environment, as mentioned in the UGC NET People And Environment Notes.

Important Environmental Laws:

  • Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
    • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was enacted in 1974 to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution, and for the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water in the country. The Act was amended in 1988.
  • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
    • The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was enacted in 1981 and amended in 1987 to provide for the prevention, control, and abatement of air pollution in India.
  • Cess Act, 1977
  • Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
  • Public Liability Insurance Act, 1981
  • National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995
  • National Environmental Appellate Authority Act, 1997
  • Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA)
  • The Biological Diversity Act 2002 was born out of India’s attempt to realize the objectives enshrined in the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 1992 which recognizes the sovereign rights of states to use their own Biological Resources.
  • The National Green Tribunal has been established on 18.10.2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to the environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. It is a specialized body equipped with the necessary expertise to handle environmental disputes involving multi-disciplinary issues.

We have covered the detailed guide on UGC NET People And Environment Notes 2021. Feel free to ask us any questions in the comment section below.

FAQs- UGC NET People And Environment Notes

How can I download UGC NET People And Environment Notes PDF?

You can download UGC NET People And Environment Notes PDF from the above blog.

What are the 5 major fields of environmental science?

The five major fields of environmental science are social sciences, geosciences, environmental chemistry, ecology, and atmospheric sciences.

How many years does it take to study environmental science?

Environmental science degrees usually last for three or four years at bachelor’s level and one or two years for a master’s qualification.

Is Environmental Science hard?

Environmental Science is a subject that is fairly hard. But, with the help of UGC NET People And Environment Notes, you can clear your concept very easily.

Are environmental scientists in demand?

The employment of environmental scientists and specialists is projected to grow 8 percent from 2019 to 2029, much faster than the average for all occupations.

Is environmental science a useless major?

Environmental science degrees usually last for three or four years at bachelor’s level and one or two years for a master’s qualification.

What are the 3 types of the environment?

There are three types of Environment – 1)Natural environment. 2)Human environment. 3)Physical environment.

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