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UGC NET People And Environment Notes 2020
UGC NET Exam, the exam which tests the eligibility of Indian Nationals for ‘Assistant Professor’ or for ‘Junior Research Fellowship and Assistant Professor’ both in Indian Universities and Colleges.
Before starting a complete guide on UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus 2020 for Environmental Science, you should have an overview of the exam.
UGC NET 2020 June Exam Overview
Here you can check the UGC NET exam overview:
|Exam Name||University Grants Commission National Eligibility Test (UGC NET)|
|Conducting Body||National Test Agency (NTA)|
|Exam Mode||Computer Based Test (CBT)|
|Exam Duration||3 hours|
You will find the various Environmental Issue in UGC NET People And Environment Notes.
Local Environmental Issues
- Waste Disposal
- Water Scarcity
- Endangered Species
Regional And Global Environmental Issues
- Global warming
- Ocean Acidification
- Acid Rain
- Ozone Depletion
- Polar Melting
Here you can know about Pollution and Climate Change in brief.
Pollution the addition of any substance (solid, liquid, or gas) or any form of energy (such as heat, sound, or radioactivity) to the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed, diluted, decomposed, recycled, or stored in some harmless form.
Pollutants are generally grouped under two classes
- Biodegradable pollutants
- Examples of such pollutants are domestic waste products, urine and faucet matter, sewage, agricultural residue, paper, wood and cloth etc.
- Non- Biodegradable pollutants
- Non-biodegradable pollutants are stronger chemical bondage, do not break down into simpler and harmless products. These include various insecticides and other pesticides, mercury, lead, arsenic, aluminum, plastics, radioactive waste etc.
Types of Environmental Pollution
Pollution can be classified mainly into four categories- Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution.
Air pollution refers to the addition of pollutants into the air that is detrimental to human beings and the planet as a whole.
Sources Of Air Pollution:
The pollutants are added to the atmosphere by the following sources:
- Electrical Power Plants
- Industrial Processes
- Heating Plants
Major Air Pollutants –Their Sources And Their Impact
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Fuel combustion from engines and vehicles
Reduces the amount of oxygen, aggravates heart disease, chest pain
Metal refineries and other metal industries, waste incinerators (waste burners)
Damages the nervous system, results in IQ loss, Cardiovascular and renal effects in adults, effects related to anaemia.
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
Fuel combustion and wood burning
Lung diseases leading to respiratory symptoms increases susceptibility to respiratory infection
Particulate Matter (PM)
Chemical reactions, fuel combustion, industrial processes, farming and during road constructions.
Lung or heart diseases, respiratory problems and sometimes premature deaths.
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
Fuel combustion (electric utilities and industrial processes as well as natural occurrences like volcanoes.
Asthma and makes breathing difficult
Water pollution is the contamination of pollutants in water bodies like lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater without treatment very often by human activities which leads to harmful effects.
Sources Of Water Pollution
- Natural Sources: These include decay, the composition of plants and animals, volcanic eruptions, coastal, cliff erosion, landslides and soil erosion.
- Anthropogenic Sources: These include industry, urban, agricultural and cultural sources.
Major Water Pollutants
- Industrial pollutants: Includes heavy metals-boron, arsenic, zinc, lead, mercury.
- Agricultural pollutants: Insecticides, pesticides, chemical fertilizer, weeds, plants remain.
- Urban pollutants: Sulphate ion, nitrate ion, chlorine ion, sodium ion, calcium ion, nitrates and potassium ions.
- Natural pollutants: Volcanic dust, debris caused by landslides, decomposed organic matter.
- Physical pollutants: Oil, grease, dissolved and suspended solids, volcanic dust.
Effects of Water Pollution
- Death of aquatic (water) animals.
- Irrigation by polluted water affects plants resulting in yellowish colouration and defoliation.
- Disruption of food-chains.
- Diseases-hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, jaundice, diarrhoea and skin diseases.
- Destruction of ecosystems.
Land pollution is the destruction of the earth’s land surfaces, directly or indirectly as a result of man’s activities.
Sources Of Land Pollution
- Agricultural sources: It includes waste produced by crop, animal manure and farm residues, chemical left over of all pesticides, fertilisers and insecticides.
- Ashes: The residual matter that remains after solid fuels are burned is known as ashes. Two types of ashes are: Bottom ash is the debris from burnt metal and glass waste and it is not bio-degradable. The second type of ash – fly ash. It is the ash which is trapped by filters in the chimney of the incinerators.
- Mining sources: It includes underground debris, piles of coal refuse and heaps of slag.
- Industrial sources: These include paints, chemicals, metals and aluminium, plastics.
- Sewage Treatment: It includes the biomass sludge, and settled solids.
- Garbage or waste: Household or municipal waste such as glass, metal, cloth, plastic, wood, paper, and so on.
- Deforestation: This results in soil erosions, desertification and land degradation.
- Chemical And Nuclear Plants: Chemical waste from chemical industries that are disposed of into landfills.
Effects Of Land Pollution
- Hazardous chemicals can wipe out living organisms in the soil.
- The activity of landfills, mining, industry, are destructive to vegetation.
- It may cause arsenic poisoning. It can also cause liver, skin, heart, cancers and neurological damage.
Noise is an unwanted sound or unpleasant sound which produces discomfort on the ears. Noise is considered as environmental pollution.
Sources Of Noise Pollution
- Household sources: Gadgets like TV, Loudspeakers, grinder, food mixer, dryer, vacuum cleaner, washing machine cooler and air conditioners.
- Social events: Places of worship, parties, discos and other social events.
- Industrial and Commercial activities: Printing presses, construction sites and manufacturing industries.
- Transportation: Aeroplanes flying over houses, trains, over the ground and underground trains, vehicles on road.
Effects Of Noise Pollution
Noise pollution may lead to many problems such as hearing loss, sleep disruption, stress-related illnesses, speech interference, and lost productivity.
Climate change can be defined as significant changes in global temperature, wind patterns, sea levels precipitation, and other measures of climate that occur over several decades.
Climate change is evident in the form of:
- Global temperature rise
- Warming oceans
- Shrinking ice sheets
- Glacial retreat
- Decreased snow cover
- Sea level rise
- Declining Arctic sea ice
- Ocean acidification
Causes Of Climate Change
- Increased Greenhouse Effect: Greenhouse effect is the warming that results when the atmosphere traps heat radiating from Earth toward space. Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect include-Nitrous Oxide (NO2), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Water Vapour (H20), Methane (CH4) and Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
- Burning of fossil fuels: It has increased the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2).
- Industrial activities: These activities have raised atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from 280 parts per million to 400 parts per million in the last 150 years.
Future Effects Of Climate Change
- Sea level will rise 1 to 4 feet by 2100.
- The Arctic Ocean is likely to become ice-free.
- Hurricanes will become more intense and stronger.
- Climate change will result in more droughts and heat waves.
- Changes in precipitation patterns.
- Frost-free season (and growing season) will lengthen.
- Temperatures will continue to rise.
Steps Taken by INDIA Govt. to reduce the Pollution
The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has taken several positive steps to minimize pollution of the environment.
Important Environmental Laws:
- Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
- The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Actwas enacted in 1974 to provide for the prevention and control of water pollution, and for the maintaining or restoring of wholesomeness of water in the country. The Act was amended in 1988.
- Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
- The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Actwas enacted in 1981 and amended in 1987 to provide for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution in India.
- Cess Act, 1977
- Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
- Public Liability Insurance Act, 1981
- National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995
- National Environmental Appellate Authority Act, 1997
- Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA)
- The Biological Diversity Act 2002was born out of India’s attempt to realise the objectives enshrined in the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 1992 which recognizes the sovereign rights of states to use their own Biological Resources.
- The National Green Tribunalhas been established on 18.10.2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. It is a specialized body equipped with the necessary expertise to handle environmental disputes involving multi-disciplinary issues.
Other Important UGC NET Paper 1 Notes
You should have the following study materials to boost your exam preparation for the NTA UGC NET exam.
Click on the link to access other important notes related to the UGC NET Paper 1 exam.
- Teaching Aptitude Notes
- Communication Notes
- Research Aptitude Notes
- Comprehension Notes
- Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude Notes
- Information and Communication Technology Notes
- Logical Reasoning Notes
- Data Interpretation Notes
- Higher Education System Notes
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