UGC NET Logical Reasoning Notes

UGC NET Logical Reasoning Notes 2020 | Paper 1 Logical Reasoning Notes

UGC NET Logical Reasoning Notes

UGC NET Logical Reasoning Notes 2020: Are your preparing for UGC NET Paper 1? Do you have the latest Logical Reasoning Notes?

Don’t worry! Here we have provided the latest UGC NET Logical Reasoning Notes.

You can check easily check the Logical Reasoning Notes and also able to download the PDF.

UGC NET Logical Reasoning Notes 2020

UGC NET Exam, the exam which tests the eligibility of Indian Nationals for ‘Assistant Professor’ or for ‘Junior Research Fellowship and Assistant Professor’ both in Indian Universities and Colleges.

Before starting a complete guide on UGC NET Paper 1 Syllabus 2020 for Environmental Science, you should have an overview of the exam.

UGC NET 2020 June Exam Overview

Here you can check the UGC NET exam overview:

Exam Name University Grants Commission National Eligibility Test (UGC NET)
Conducting Body National Test Agency (NTA)
Exam Mode Computer Based Test (CBT)
Exam Duration 3 hours
Application Mode Online
Official Website

Here you can check the complete notes on Logical Reasoning.

Relations of Identity and Opposition

In Relations of Identity and Opposition, we will study the relations among the propositions.

  • These propositions are formed when a subject and predicate are given.

Square of Opposition: AEIO Rule of Syllogism

Now, to identify the relationships among these propositions, we will have to understand the square of opposition chart.

This subpart is very important from the point of view of examination.

  • The relations of the given four propositions-A, E, I, O amongst one another are usually depicted in the following scheme— Square of opposition.
  • It is a chart that was introduced within classical logic to represent the logical relationships existing between the various propositions 

Following relations are made among the propositions:

  1. Contradictories
  2. Contraries
  3. Sub Altern
  4. Sub Contraries

Let us understand in detail:

1. Contradictories:

Contradictory statements are A and O, E and I

  • A and O Both cannot be true or false together means if one is false then others must be true.
  • If A is true then O is false or If O is true then A is false
  • Similarly, E and I cannot be true or false together means if one is false then others must be true.

2. Contraries:

Contrary statements are A and E

  • Both A and E cannot be true together but can be false together.

3. Sub Altern:

Sub Altern statements are A and I, E and O

  • These statements are truth Downward but False Upward
  • If A is true then I am true and If I am true then A is false
  • If E is true then O is true and If O is true then E is false

4. Sub Contraries:

Sub Contrary Statements are I and O.

  • These statements can be claimed to be true together but cannot be false together. 


An argument is a series of statements, called the premises, intended to determine the degree of truth of another statement, the conclusion.

Types of Arguments

There are generally two types of arguments as follows:

  1. Deductive Argument/Deductive Reasoning
  2. Inductive Argument/ Inductive Reasoning
  3. Abductive (or Hypothetico-Deductive) Argument/ Abductive Reasoning

1. Deductive Argument:

  • The deductive argument starts out with a general statement and examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion.
  • It is considered as from general to particular.

2. Inductive Argument:

  • It refers to an argument that takes specific information and makes a broader generalization that is considered probable, allowing for the fact that the conclusion may not be accurate.

3. Abductive (or Hypothetico-Deductive) Argument:

  • The abductive argument is to take away a logical assumption, inference, conclusion, hypothesis, or best guess from observation or set of observations.


An analogy is a type of reasoning in which a comparison is made between things that have similar features, Or in other words, analogy means similarity.

Venn Diagram

A Venn diagram refers to an illustration of the relationships between and among sets or groups of objects that share something in common.

  • The main objective of this section is to test your ability about the relation between some words of a group by diagrams.
  • In these questions, you will be some figures of circles and some in words. You have to choose a figure which represents the given words to the maximum extent.
  • Representation of some conditions (relations).


Syllogism refers to a logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions (premises) that are asserted or assumed to be true.

  • Statements (Premises)
  • Conclusion
  • Premise: A premise consists of two parts mainly: Subject and a Predicate.

Other Important UGC NET Paper 1 Notes

You should have the following study materials to boost your exam preparation for the NTA UGC NET exam.

Click on the link to access other important notes related to the UGC NET Paper 1 exam.

We have covered the detailed guide on UGC NET Logical Reasoning Notes 2020. Feel free to ask us any questions in the comment section below.

Leave a Comment