# RTU Syllabus Mechanical Engineering 7th Semester

**FINITE ELEMENT METHODS**

Unit-1

Introduction to FEM and its applicability, Review of :Matrix algebra, Gauss elimination method, Uniqueness of solution, Banded symmetric matrix and bandwidth. Structure analysis: Two-force member element, Local stiffness matrix, coordinate transformation, Assembly, Global stiffness matrix, imposition of Boundary conditions, Properties of stiffness matrix

Unit-2

One-dimensional Finite Element Analysis: Basics of structural mechanics, stress and strain tensor, constitutive relation, Principle of minimum Potential, General steps of FEM, Finite element model concept I Discretization, Derivation of finite elements, equations using potential energy approach for linear and quadratic 1-D bar element, shape ft.mctions and their properties, Assembly, Boundary conditions,

Computation of stress and strain.

Unit-3

Two Dimensional Finite Element Analysis: Finite element formulation using three nodded triangular (CST) element , Plane stress and Plain strain problems, Shape functions, node numbering and connectivity, Assembly, Boundary conditions, lsoparametric formulation of 1-D bar elements, Numerical integration using gauss quadrature formula, computation of stress and strain.

Unit-4

Finite Element Formulation from Governing Differential Equation: Method of Weighted Residuals, Collocation, Sub domain method, Least Square method and Galerkin’s method, Application to one dimensional problems, one-dimensional heat transfer, etc. introduction to variational formulation (Ritz Method.)

Unit-5

Higher Order Elements: Lagrange’s interpolation formula for one and two independent variable, Convergence of solution, compatibility, element continuity, static condensation, p and h methods of mesh Application of FEM, Advantages of FEM, Introduction to concept of

element mass matrix in dynamic analysis.

Text Books :

1. Seshu P.,”Text Book of Finite Element Analysis”, Prentice Hall India

Reference Books :

1 Dixit, U.S., “Finite Element Methods for Engineers” Cengage Learning

2 Finite Element Procedure in Engineering Analysis, Bathe K.J., Prentice Hall India.

3 An Introduction to the Finite Element Method, Reddy J.N., Tata McGraw- Hill, New Delhi

4 Concepts & Applications of Finite Element Analysis, Cook and Plesha, Willey India New Delhi.

5 Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering, Chandupatla and BeleJnllldu, Prentice Hall India.

**REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING**

Unit-1

Introduction: Refrigeration and second law of Thermodynamics, Refrigeration effect and unit of Refrigeration, Heat pump, reversed Carnot cycle. Vapour Compreuion Refrigeration System: Analysis of simple vapour compression Refrigeration cycle by p-h and T-S diagram. Effect of operating conditions Multiple Evaporator and compreuor system: Application, air compressor system, Individual compressor, compound compression, cascade system. Application, air compressor systems, individual compressor, compound compression, cascade system.

Unit-2

Gaa Cycle Refrigeration: Limitation of Carnot cycle with gas, reversed Brayton cycle, Brayton cycle with regenerative heat exchanger.

Air cycle for air craft: Necessity of cooling of air craft, Basic cycle, boot strap, regenerative type air craft refrigeration cycle.

Unit-3

Other refrigeration systems (description only): Vapour absorption refrigeration system, Electrolux refrigerator, Lithium Bromide – Water

system, Water vapour refrigeration system, Vortex tube refrigeration system, thermo electric refrigeration system. Refrigerants: Classification, Nomenclature, selection of Refrigerants, global warming potential of CFC Refrigerants. Refrigeration Equipments: Compressor, condenser, evaporator, expansion devices types & working.

Unit-4

Plrychrometry: Psychrometric properties, psychometric relations, pyschrormetric charts, psychrometric processes, cooling coils, By-pass

factor, Apparatus Dew point temperature and air washers. Human Comfort: Mechanism of body heat losses, factors affecting hwnan comfort, effective temperature, comfort chart.

Unit-5

Cooling load calculations: Internal heat gain, system heat gain, RSHF,ERSHF, GSHF, cooling load estimation, heating load estimation, psychrometric calculation for cooling. Selection of air conditioning: Apparatus for cooling and dehumidification, Air conditioning system, year round air conditioning.

Text Books :

1. Arora, C.P., Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, Tata McGraw Hill

Reference Books :

1 Stoecker W.F., “Refrigeration & Air Conditioning” McGraw Hill Publication.

2 Andrew D. Althouse., “Modem Refrigeration & Air Conditioning” GoodHeart-Willcox Co.

3 Jorden & Priester, Refrigeration & Air Conditioning, Prentice Hall of India.

4 Roy J. Dossat, Principal of Refrigeration, Pearson Education, New Delhi.

5 Edward G. Pita, Air Conditioning Principles and Systems, Pearson Education, New Delhi.

6 Jain V.K., Refrigeration & Air Conditioning, Tata McGraw Hill New Delhi.

**OPERATIONS RESEARCH**

Unit-1

Overview of Operations Research Linear Programming: Applications and model formulation, Graphical method, Simplex method, duality and Sensitivity analysis. Transportation Model and Assignment Model including travelling salesman problem.

Unit-2

Integer Linear Programming: Enumeration and cutting Plane solution concept, Gomory’s all integer cutting plane method, Branch and Bound Algorithms, applications of zero-one integer programming. Replacement Models: Capital equipment replacement with time,

group replacement of items subjected to total failure.

Unit-3

Queuing Theory: Analysis of the following queues with Poisson pattern of arrival and exponentially distributed service times, Single channel queue with infmite customer population, Multichannel queue with infinite customer population, Competitive Situations and Solutions: Game theory, two person zero sum game, saddle point, minimax (maximin) method of optimal strategies, value of the game. Solution of games with saddle points, dominance principle. Rectangular games without saddle point – mixed strategy, approximate solution, and simplified analysis for other competitive situations. Application of linear programming.

Unit-4

Theory of Decision making: Decision making under certainty, risk and uncertainty. Decision trees. Deterministic Inventory control models: functional role of inventory, inventory costs, model building, Single item inventory control model without shortages, with shortage and quantity discount. Inventory control model with uncertain demand, service level, safety stock, P and Q systems, two bin system. Single period model. Selective Inventory control techniques.

Unit-5

Probabilistic Inventory control models: Instantanoues demand without setup cost and with setup cost, Continuous demand without setup cost Simulation: Need of simulation, advantages and disadvantages of simulation method of simulation. Generation of Random numbers, Generation of Normal Random numbers. Use of random numbers for system simulation. , Monte Carlo simulation, simulation language

ARENA, Application of simulation for solving queuing Inventory Maintenance, Scheduling and other industrial problems.

Text Books :

1 Operations Research, Ravindran, Phillips and Solberg, Wiley India.

Reference Books :

1 Introduction to Operations Research, Hillier F.S. and Lieberman G.J., CBS Publishers.

2 Operations Research, Taha H.A., Pearson Education

3 Linear Programming and Network Flows, Bazaraa, Jarvis and Sherali, Wiley India.

4 Principles of Operations Research, Wagner H.M., Prentice Hall of India.

5 Operations Research, Gupta and Heera, S. Chand Publications.

**TURBO MACHINES**

Unit-1

Basic Concepts of Turbo Machines: Definition & classification of Turbo machine, Basic laws and governing equations: continuity equation, steady flow energy equation{lst law of thermodynamics),2nd law of thermodynamics applied to turbo machines, Newton’s 2nd law of motion applied to turbomachines- Euler’s pump equation and Euler’s turbine equation Dimensional analysis applied to hydraulic machines, power coefficient, flow coefficient, head coefficient, non-dimensional specillc speed, Range of specific speeds for various turbo machines, Dimensional analysis applied to compressible flow machines, pressure ratio as a Function of temperature ratio, mass flow rate parameter and speed parameter.

Unit-2 Centrifugal Compresson and Fans: Components and description, velocity iagrams, slip factor, energy transfer, power input factor, stage pressure rise and loading coefficient, pressure coefficient, degree of reaction, Centrifugal compressor characteristic, surging, rotating Stall and Choking Azia1 Flow Compresson and Fans: Basic constructional features, Advantages of axial flow compressors, working principle, velocity triangle, elementary theory, stage work, work done factor, stage loading, degree of reaction; vortex theory, simple design calculations, introduction to blade design, cascade test, compressibility effects, operating characteristics Reciprocating Compressors: Basic constructional features, working principle, work done calculation, single and double acting compressors.

Unit-3

Centrilllgal Pumps: Main parts, work done and velocity triangles, slip and slip factor, pump losses and efficiencies, minimum starting speed, net positive suction head, performance curve. Allia1 Flow Pumps: Description, velocity triangles, work done on the

fluid energy transfer, axial pump characteristics, cavitation. Reciprocating Pumps: Classification, component and working, single

acting and double acting, discharge, work done and power required, coefficient of discharge, indicator diagram, slip, effect of friction and acceleration, theory of air vessels.

Unit-4

Gas power cycles: Ideal and practical gas turbine cycle, heat exchange cycle, reheat cycle, intercooled cycle, Comparison of various cycles. Thermodynamic Cycles: Advantages, disadvantages and performance characteristics of Ram jet engine, pulse jet engine, turbo prop engine, turbo jet engine, turbo fan engine, Calculation of specific thrust and efficiency.

Unit-5

Gas TurbiDes: impulse and reaction type gas turbines, Velocity triangles and calculation of work done, efficiency etc.

Text Books :

1. Subramanya, K., Hydraulic Machine Tata McGraw Hill

Reference Books :

1 Principle of Turbo Machinery, Turton R.K., Springer Publication

2 Fundamentals of Turbo Machinery, William W., John Wiley and Sons.

3 Turbo Machinery Basic Theory and Application, Logan E.J.

4 Principles of Turbo Machinery, Shepherd Dennis G., Mac Millan Publisher, New York.

5 TurboMachines, A Valan Arasu, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

7 Gas turbine theory, Cohen and Saravanamutto, Pearson Educational Publication

8 Hydraulic Machine: Turbines and Pumps, Nazarov N.T., Springer New York.

9 Gas Turbine Theory, Cohen and Roger, Pearson Education.

10 Hydraulic Machinery, Jagdish Lal, Metropolitan Books.

**OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT**

Unit-1

Introduction to operations management (OM), the scope of OM; Historical evolution of OM; Trends in business; the management

process. Operations Strategy, Competitiveness and Productivity Demand Forecasting: components of forecasting demand, Approaches to forecasting: forecasts based on judgment and opinion, Time series data. Associative forecasting techniques, Accuracy and

control of forecasts, Selection of forecasting technique.

Unit-2

Product and Service design, Process selection, Process types, Product and process matrix, Process analysis. Capacity Planning: Defining and measuring capacity, determinants of effective capacity, capacity strategy, steps in capacity planning process, determining capacity requirements, Capacity alternatives, Evaluation of alternatives; Cost-Volume analysis.

Unit-3

Facility Location: Need for location decisions, factors affecting location, qualitative and quantitative techniques of location. Facilities layout: Product, Process, Fixed position, combination and cellular layouts; Designing product and process layout, line balancing. Material Handling Planning levels: long range, Intermediate range and Short range. planning, Aggregate planning: Objective, Strategies, and techniques of aggregate planning. Master scheduling; Bill of materials, MRP; inputs processing and outputs, and overview of MRPII , use of MRP to assist in planning capacity requirements Introduction to ERP.

Unit-4

Production Control: Capacity control and priority control, production control functions; Routing, scheduling, dispatching, expediting and follow up. Techniques of production control in job shop production, batch production and mass production systems. sequencing: priority rules, sequencing jobs through two work centers, scheduling services Introduction to Just-in-time {JIT) and Lean Operations: JIT production, JIT scheduling, synchronous production, Lean operations system

Unit-5

Supply Chain Management (SCM): Need of SCM, Bullwhip effect, Elements of SCM, Logistics steps in creating effective supply chain, Purchasing and supplied management. Project Management: Nature of projects, project life cycle, Work breakdown structure, PERT and CPM, Time-Cost trade-offs: Crashing. Resource allocation, leveling.

Text Books :

1. Stevenson, Operations Management, Tata McGraw Hill.

Reference Books :

1 Roberta S. Russell, Bernard W. Taylor, Operations Management, John Wiley & Sons

2 Joseph S. Martinich, Production And Operations Management, John Wiley & Sons

3 S.N. Chary, Production and Operations Management, Tata McGraw Hill

4 Norman Gaither, Greg Frazier, Operations Management, Thomson Learning

**MICRO AND NANO MANUFACTURING**

Unit-1

Nanoscale Cutting:- Introduction, Material representation and microstructure, Atomic interaction; Nonomachining:- Introduction, Nanometric machining, Theoretical basis of machining; Meso-micromcahining:- Introduction, size effects in micromachining,

mechanism for large plastic flow, origin of the size effect, Meso- machining processes. Product quality in micromachining, Burr formation in micromachining operations.

Unit-2

Microtuming:- Characteristic features and applications, Microturning tools and tooling systems, Machine tools for microtuming MicrodriWng: Characteristic features and applications, Microdrills and tooling systems, Machine tools for microdrilling Micromilling:- Characteristic features and applications, Micromills and tooling systems, Machine tools for micromilling, Micro machining high aspect ratio microstructures, micromolding, micromolding processes, micromolding tools, micromold design, micromolding applications, limitations of micromolding.

Unit-3

Microgrind.ing and Ultra-preci8ion Procene•: Introduction, Micro and nanogrinding, Nanogrinding apparatus, Nanogrinding procedures, Nanogrinding tools, Preparation of nanogrinding wheels, Bonding systems, Vitrified bonding Non-Conventional Procene•: Laser Micromachining:- Introduction,

Fundamentals of lasers, Stimulated emission, Types of lasers, Laser microfabrication, Nanosecond pulse microfabrication, Shielding gas, Effects of nanosecond pulsed microfabrication, Picosecond pulse microfabrication, Femtosecond pulse microfabrication, Laser nanofabrication.

Unit-4

Diamond Tool• in Micromachining: Introduction, Diamond technology, Hot Filament CVD (HFCVD), Preparation of substrate, Selection of substrate material, Pre-treatment of substrate, Modified HFCVD process. Deposition on complex substrates, Diamond deposition on metallic (molybdenum) wire, Deposition on WC-Co microtools, Diamond deposition on tungsten carbide, (WC-Co) microtool, Performance of diamond-coated microtool.

Unit-5

Evaluation of Sub•urface Damage in Nano and Micromachining: Introduction, Destructive evaluation technologies, Cross-sectional microscopy, Preferential etching, Angle lapping/ angle polishing, X-ray diffraction, Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Application• of Nano and Micromachining in lndu•try: Introduction,

Typical machining methods, Diamond turning, Shaper/planner machining, Applications in optical manufacturing, Aspheric lens,

Fresnel lens, Microstructured components, Semiconductor wafer

production.

Text Books :

1. Mittal R.K., Nagarath, I.K., Robotics and Control, Tata Me Graw Hill

Reference Books :

1 Deb S.R., Robotics Technology and Flexible Automation, Tata McGraw Hill

2 Ghoshal, A., Robotics Fundamental Concepts and Analysis, Oxford University Press

3 Craig JJ, Introduction to Robotics, Mechanics and Control, Addison- Wesley, 2nd Ed.

4 Fu, K.S., Gonzales, R.C. and Lee, C.S.G., Robotics: Control, Sensing, Vision and Intelligence, McGraw Hill

5 Groover, M. P., Wiess, M., Nagel, R. N. and Odery, N. G. Industrial Robotics- Technology, Programming and Applications, McGraw Hill

**CNC MACHINES AND PROGRAMMING**

Unit-1

Introduction: Definition of NC, Applications of NC ,Historical Developments in Automation, Classification of NC Systems, Comparison of NC and Conventional Machines, Advantages of NC

Unit-2

NC Hardware: Architecture of NC Systems, Design Considerations, Mechanical Elements, Structure, Guideways and Slides, Guideway Elements, Transmission Systems, Spindle Unit, Coolant system, Lubrication System, Tool and work Changing Mechanisms, Electrical Elements, Drives, Sensors, Control Loops, Computing Elements/ Firmware, Interpolators

Unit-3

NC Software: Introduction, Manual Part Programming, Computer- Assisted Part Programming, Language Based , Geometric Modeling Based Automatic Part Program Generation.

Unit-4

CAPP Systems , 5 Axis Programming, Post-Processing, Programming Robots and CMMs NC Simulation, Kinematic simulation, Volumetric simulation, Applications of Volumetric NC Simulation, Verification.

Unit-5

Advanced Topics:, Adaptive Control, Off-line adaptive control, Various optimisation criteria, Hardware Based AC, Software Based AC, Tooling and Instruments for NC Special Considerations in High Speed Cutting (HSC) and Die Sinking, Rapid Product Development, CAM, FMS, CIM.

Text Books :

1. Krar S. and Gill A., CNC: Technology and Programming, McGraw Hill

Reference Books :

1 Koren Y., Computer Control of Manufacturing Systems, Tata McGraw Hill.

2 Pressman R.S. and Williams J.E., Numerical Control and Computer-Aided Manufacturing, John Wiley & Sons

3 Jones B.L., Introduction to Computer Numerical Control, John Wiley & Sons.

4 Kral I.H., Numerical Control Programming in APT, Prentice-Hall

5 Chang C.H. and Melkanoff M.A., ,NC Machine Programming and Software Design, Prentice-Hall

**THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB-II**

Experiments :

1 To perform constant speed load test on a single cylinder diesel engine and to plot performance curves: indicated thermal efficiency, brake thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency Vs. Brake power, and heat balance sheet.

2 To estimate the Indicated Power, Friction Power and Mechanical Efficiency of a multi-cylinder Petrol Engine. (Morse Test)

3 Analysis of engine exhaust gases using Orsat apparatus I gas analyzer.

4 To study refrigeration cycle, determination of coefficient of performance of cycle and tonnage capacity of refrigeration unit.

5 To determine the COP and tonnage capacity of a Mechanical heat pump.

6 To study various controls used in Refrigeration and Air conditioning system.

7 Determination of dryness fraction of steam.

8 Study and Performance of Simple Steam Turbine

9 Performance characteristics of Pelton wheel turbine.

10 Performance characteristics of Francis turbine.

11 Performance characteristics of Kaplan turbine

12 Performance characteristics of variable speed centrifugal pump.

13 Performance characteristics of rated speed centrifugal pump.

**FINITE ELEMENT LAB.**

Experiments :

1 Laboratory work for the solution of solid mechanics problems, heat transfer problems, and free vibration problems A: by ueing FE package• euch u NASTRAK/ AlfSYS/ SIMULIA/ ABAQUS

2 Introduction of GUI of the software in the above mentioned areas realistic problems.

3 Analysis of beams and frames (bending and torsion problems)

4 Plane stress and plane strain analysis problems

5 Problems leading to analysis of axisymmetric solids

6 Problems leading to analysis of three dimensional solids

(a) Heat transfer problems

(b) Modal analysis problem

7 Plane stress and plane strain analysis problems

8 Modal Analysis problem

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