# RTU Syllabus Mechanical Engineering 5th Semester

**HEAT TRANSFER**

Unit-1

Introduction: Heat transfer processes, conduction and radiation. Fourier’s law of heat conduction, thermal conductivity, thermal conductivity of solids, liquids and gases, effect of temperature on thermal conductivity. Newton’s law of cooling, definition of overall heat transfer coefficient. General parameters influence the value of heat transfer coefficient. Conduction: General 3-Dimensoinal conduction equation in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates; different kinds of boundary conditions; nature of differential equations; one dimensional heat conduction with and without heat generation; electrical analogy; heat conduction through composite walls; critical thiclmess of insulation

Unit-2

Heat transfer from extended surfaces: Governing differential equation of fin, fin efficiency and effectiveness for different boundary conditions. Unsteady state heat conduction for slab, cylinder and sphere, Heisler chart.

Convection: Review of Navier – Stokes and energy equation, hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers; laminar boundary layer equations; forced convection appropriate non dimensional members; effect of Prandtl number; empirical relations for flow over a flat plate and flow through pipes.

Unit-3

Natural convection: Dimensional analysis, Grashoff nwnber, boundary layers in external flows (flow over a flat plate only), boundary layer equations and their solutions, heat transfer correlations. Heat transfer with change or phase: Nature of vaporization phenomena; different regimes of boiling heat transfer; correlations for saturated liquid vaporization; condensation on flat plates; correlation of experimental results, drop wise condensation.

Unit-4

Beat ezchanger: Types of heat exchangers, arithmetic and logarithmic mean temperature differences, heat transfer coefficient for parallel, counter and cross flow type heat exchanger; effectiveness of heat exchanger, N.T.U. method, fouling factor. Constructional and manufacturing aspects of Heat Exchangers.

Unit-5

Thermal Radiation: Plank distribution law, Krichofi’s law; radiation properties, diffuse radiations; Lambert’s law. Radiation intensity, heat exchange between two black bodies heat exchanger between gray bodies. Shape factor; electrical analogy; reradiating surfaces heat transfer in presence of reradiating surfaces.

Text Books :

1 J.P. Halman, Heat Transfer,Me Graw Hill

Reference Books :

1 lncropera and Dewitt, Fundamentalof Heat and Mass transfer,John Wiley

2 Cengel,Heat and Mass transfer, Me Graw Hill

3 M.Thirumaleshwar, Fundamentalof Heat and Mass Transfer, Pearson Education

4 Ozisik, Heat and Mass Transfer, Me Graw Hill

**DYNAMICS OF MACHINES**

Unit-1

Governors: Comparison between flywheel and govemor, Types of govemor, Watt, Porter, Proell, Hartnell and spring controlled govemors, sensitiveness of governors, stability of govemors, isochronous and hunting, govemor effort, power, controlling force diagram.

Unit-2

Gyroscope: Principle of gyroscopic couple, effect of gyroscopic couple and centrifugal force on aeroplanes, ships and vehicle taking a tum, stabilization of sea vessels, stability of four wheeled vehicle moving in a curved path, curved path with banking, stability of two wheeled vehicle £Vt”Oscopic effect on inclined rotatin2 disc Inertia force analysis: Velocity and acceleration of slider crank and four bar mechanism, inertia force, piston thrust and forces on connecting rod, turning moment diagram, flywheel.

Unit-3

Gears: Classification, terminology, law of gearing, velocity of sliding, gear tooth profll.e, comparison of cycloidal and involute tooth profile, standard interchangeable tooth proflle, length of path of contact, arc of contact, contact ratio, interference, undercutting, minimum number of teeth on pinion in contact with gear or rack, bevel, helical and spiral gears.

Unit-4

Gear Trains: Simple, compound, reverted and epicyclic gear trains, analytical, tabular, graphical and vector methods for fmding velocity ratio, gear boxes- sliding and constant mesh, synchromesh and differential gear box.

Unit-5

Balancing: Need of balancing, Balancing of rotating masses, single plane, different planes, balancing of reciprocating masses, single cylinder engine, multi-cylinder inline engines, V-engines, concept of direct and reverse cranks, partial balancing of locomotives, IC engines, V engines and balancing machines.

Text Books :

1 Rattan, S.S. “Theory of Machines”, 2nd Ed., Tata McGraw Hill

Reference Books :

1 Bevan, T., “Theocy of Machines”, Pearson Education.

2 Uicker, J.J., Pennocle, G.R, and Shigley, J.E, “Theory of Machines and Mechanisms”,Oxford University Press.

3 Ambekar, A. G., “Mechanism And Machine Theoty”, Prentice-hall Of India

4 Ghosh, A., “Theory of Mechanisms and Machines”, Affiliated East West Press.

5 Singh, S., “Theory of Machines”, Pearson Education

**MEASUREMENT & METROLOGY**

Unit-1

Concept of measurement: General concept of measurement, Need for measurement, Generalized measuring system, Units, Standards, Sensitivity, Readability, Range of accuracy, Precision, Accuracy Vs precision, Uncertainty.

Repeatability and reproducibility, Errors in measurement, Types of error, Systematic and random error, Comparison between systematic error and random error, Correction, Calibration, Interchangeability.

Unit-2

Linear and angular measurements: Linear measuring instruments: Vernier caliper, Micrometer, Interval measurements:- Slip gauges, Checking of slip gauges for surface quality, Optical flat, Limit gauges:- Gauge design, Problems on gauge design, Application of limit gauges; Comparators:- Mechanical comparators, Electrical comparator, Optical comparator, Pneumatic comparator; Sine bar, Use of sine bar, Limitations of sine bars, Sources of error in sine bars, Bevel protractor, Applications of bevel protractor ‘

Unit-3

Form measurement: Introduction, Screw thread measurement, Thread gauges, Measurement of gears: Gear errors, Spur gear measurement, Parkinson gear tester, Problems on gear measurement. Surface finish measurement:-Introduction, Elements of surface texture, Analysis of surface finish, Methods of measuring surface finish,

Straightness measurement, Flatness testing, Roundness measurements

Unit-4

Laser and advances in metrology: Laser metrology, Laser telemetric system, Laser and led based distance measuring instruments, pattem formed in a laser, Principle of laser, Interferometry’, Use of laser in interferometry, Laser interferometry. Machine tool metrology: Various geometrical checks on machine tool, Laser equipment for alignment testing, Machine tools tests, Alignment tests on lathe, milling machine, pillar type drilling machine, Acceptance tests for surface grinders, Coordinate measuring machine (CMM):- Types of CMM, Features of CMM, Computer based inspection, Computer aided inspection using robots.

Unit-5

Measurement of power, Oow and temperature related properties Measurement of force, Direct methods, Indirect methods:- Accelerometer, Load cells, Bourdon tube. Torque measurement: Prony brake, Torque measurement using strain gauges, Torque measurement using torsion bars,Measurement of power: Mechanical dynamometers, D.C. dynamometer, Eddy current or inductor dynamometers Meuurement or flow: Orifice meter, Venturimeter, Flow nozzle, Variable area meters- rotameter, Hot wire anemometer, Pitot tube. Temperature measurement, Bimetallic strip, Calibration of temperature measuring devices, Thermocouples (Thermo electric effects), Thermistors, Pyrometers.

Text Books :

1. G.K. Vijayaraghavan & R. Rajappan, Engineering Metrology and Measurements, A.R.S. Publications

Reference Books :

1 Mechanical Measurements , Beckwith T.G. ,N.L. Buck, and R.D. Marangoni , Addison Wesley

2 Dimensional Metrology. Khare & Vajpayee, Oxford & IBH

3 Engineering Metrology, Jain R.K., Khanna Publishers

4 Metrology & Precision Engineering, Scarr, McGraw Hill

5 Handbook of Industrial Metrology, ASTME

**QUALITY ASSURANCE AND RELIABILITY**

Unit-1

The meaning of Quality and quality improvement, dimensions of quality, history of quality methodology, quality control, Quality of design and quality of conformance, Quality policy and objectives, Economicsofquality.

Modeling process quality: Describing variation, frequency distribution, continuous and discrete, probability distributions, pattern of variation, Inferences about process quality: sampling distributions and estimation of process parameters. Analysis of variance.

Unit-2

Statistical Quality Control: Concept of SQC, Chance and assignable causes of variation, statistical basis of control chart, basic principles, choice of control limits, sample size and sampling frequency, analysis of patterns on control charts. The magnificent seven.

Control chart for variables,: X-bar and R charts, X-bar and S charts, control chart for individual measurement. Application of variable control charts.

Unit-3

Control chart for attributes: control chart for fraction non conforming P-chart, np-chart, c-chart and u-chart. Demerit systems, choice between attribute and variable control chart. SPC for short production runs. Process capability analysis using histogram and probability plot, capability ratios and concept of six sigma.

Unit-4

Quality Assurance: Concept, advantages, field complaints, quality rating, quality audit. Acceptance Sampling: Fundamental concepts in acceptance sampling, operating characteristics curve. Acceptance sampling plans, single, double and multiple sampling plans, LTPD, AOQL, AOQ. Introduction to Quality systems like ISO 9000 and ISO 14000.

Unit-5

Reliability and Life Testing- Failure models of components, definition of reliability, MTBF, Failure rate, common failure rate curve, types of failure, reliability evaluation in simple cases of exponential failures in series, paralleled and series-parallel device configurations, Redundancy Maintainability Introduction to Taguchi Method of Design of Experiments, Quality loss function.

Text Books :

1 Introduction to Statistical Quality Control, Douglas C. Montgomery, 2nd Edition, Wiley.

Reference Books :

1 Quality Planning and Analysis, J.M.Juran and F.M. Gryna, McGraw Hill

2 Quality Control, Dale H. Besterfield, 8th Edition, Pearson/Prentice Hall

3 Statistical Quality Control, E. L. Grant and Richard S. Leavenworth, Tata McGraw-Hill

4 Fundamentals of Quality Control and Improvement, Amitava Mitra, 2nd Edition Prentice Hall

5 Design and Analysis of Experiments, 5th Edition, Douglas c. Montgomery, Wiley-India

**SOCIOLOGY AND ELEMENTS OF ECONOMICS FOR ENGINEERS**

Unit-1

Introduction to sociological concepts-structure, system, organization, social institutions, Culture social stratification (caste, class, gender, power).State & civil society. Social change in contemporary India: Modemization and globalization, Secularism and communalism Nature of development,

Unit-2

Processes of social exclusion and inclusion, Changing nature of work and organization. Political economy of Indian society. Industrial, Urban, Agrarian and Tribal society; Caste, Class, Ethnicity and Gender; Ecology and

Environment.

Unit-3

Basic Principles and Methodology of Economics. Demand/Supply – elasticity -. Theory of the Firm and Market Structure. Basic Macroeconomic Concepts (including GDP/GNP/NI/Disposable Income) and Identities for both closed and open economies. Aggregate demand and Supply (IS/LM). Price Indices (WPI/CPI), Interest rates, Direct and Indirect Taxes.

Unit-4

Public Sector Economics -Welfare, Extemalities, Labour Market. Components of Monetary and Financial System, Central Bank – Monetary Aggregates; Commercial Banks & their functions; Capital and Monetary and Fiscal Policy Tools & their impact on the economy – Inflation and Phillips Curve.

Unit-5

Indian economy Brief overview of post independence period – plans.Post reform Growth, Structure of productive activity. Issues of Inclusion -Sectors, States/Regions, Groups of people (M/F), Urbanization.

Employment-Informal, Organized, Unorganized, Public, Private. Challenges and Policy Debates in Monetary, Fiscal, Social, External sectors.

Text Books :

1 Mankiw Gregory N., Principles of Economics, Thompson Asia

Reference Books :

1 Giddens, A, Sociology, Polity, 6th edn.

2 Haralambos M, RM Heald, M Holborn, Sociology, Collins

3 xaxa, V, State, Society and Tribes Pearson

4 Chandoke, Neera & Praveen Priyadarshi, Contemporary India: Economy, Society and Politics, Pearson

5 Mohanty, M, Class, Caste & Gender- Volume 5, Sage

6 Ramaswamy, E.A. and Ramaswamy,U., Industry and Labour, OU Press

7 Bhowmik, S (ed.) Street Vendors in the Global Urban Economy, Routledge

8 Rao, M.S.A. (ed.} Urban Sociology, Orient Longmans

9 V. Mote, S. Paul, G. Gupta, Managerial Economics, Tata McGraw Hill

10 Misra S.K. and Purl , Indian Economy, Himalaya

11 Pareek Saro_i Textbook of Business Economics Sunrise Publishers

**COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND GRAPHICS**

Unit-1

Overview of Computer Graphics: Picture representation, Coordinate Systems, Raster Scan Display, DDA for line generation and Bresenham’s algorithm for line and circle generation; Graphics standards: GKS IGES STEP, DXF. Different types of models. Parametric representation of plane curves: line, circle, ellipse, parabola and hyperbola.

Unit-2

Parametric representation of Space Curves: Cubic spline curve, Bezier Curve and B Spline Curves. Blending of Curves. Parametric representation of Surfaces: Hermite Bicubic surfaces, Bezier surfaces and Bspline surfaces.

Unit-3

Solid Representation: B-rep. and CSG. Comparison between three types of models.

Unit-4

Two and Three Dimensional Transformation of Geometric Models: Translation, Scaling Reflection, Rotation and Shearing, Homogeneous Representation, Combined Transformation. Projection of Geometric models: Parallel and Perspective Projection.

Unit-5

Clipping: Point clipping, Line clipping, Cohen- Sutherland algorithm etc., Viewing transformation. Hidden line and surface removal: Techniques and Algorithms. Shading and Rendering.

Text Books :

1 Rattan, S.S. “Theory of Machines”, 2nd Ed., Tata McGraw Hill

Reference Books :

1 Rao P.N. CAD I CAM Principles and Applications, McGraw Hill.

2 Pao Y.C., Elements of Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing, John Wiley and Sons.

3 Alavala C.R., CAD/CAM: Concepts and Applications, Prentice Hall of India.

4 Xiang and Plastock, Computer Graphics, Schaum’s Outlines, Tata McGraw Hill.

**AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING**

Unit-1

Frame & Body: Layout of chassis, types of chassis frames and bodies, their constructional features and materials.

Clutches: single plate, multi-plate, cone clutch, semi centrifugal, electromagnetic, vacuum and hydraulic clutches. Fluid coupling. Brakes: Classification and function; Mechanical, hydraulic, vacuum air and self engineering brakes; Brake shoes and lining materials.

Unit-2

Gear BOlll:ea: Sliding mesh, constant mesh, synchromesh and epicyclic gear boxes, Automatic transmission system; Hydraulic torque converter; Drives: Overdrive, Propeller shaft, Universal joints, Differential; Rear axle drives. Hotchkiss and torque tube drives; Rear axle types; Front wheel and All wheel drive.

Unit-3

Wheels and Tyres: Tyre types, Tyre construction; Tyre inflation pressure, Tyre wear and their causes; Re-treading of the tyre, Steering system: steering gear boxes, Steering linkages, Steering mechanism, Under and Over steering. Steering Geometry, Effect of camber, caster, king pin inclination, toe in and toe out; Power steering; Integral and linkage types Suspension system: objective and requirements, Suspension spring, front and rear suspension systems, Independent suspension system Shock absorbers.

Unit-4

Automotive Electrical System: Battery construction, Charging and testing, battery types, Starting and Battery Charging System: Starter motor construction, types of drive, Alternator construction, regulation and rectification.

Ignition System: Magneto and coil ignition systems, System components and requirements, Automotive lighting: Wiring systems Electrical instrwnents; head lamp, electric hom, fuel level indicator.

Unit-5

Automotive Air Conditioning: Introduction, Loads, Air conditioning system Components, Refrigerants, Fault Diagnosis. Automotive Safety: Safety requirements, Safety Devices, Air bags, belts radio ranging, NVS (Night Vision System} GPS (Global Positioning System)

Text Books :

1 RP SHARMA,A Course in Automobile Engineering,Dhanpat Rai & Sons

2 P S Gill,A Text book of Automobile Engineering,KATSON Books VOL 1&2

3 Kirpal Singh,Automobile Engineering, Standard

Reference Books :

1 R K Rajpoot,A Text book of Automobile Engineering,LaxmiPublications

2 Jornsen Reimpell, Helmut Stoll,The Automotive Chassis:Engineering Principles,Jurgen Betzler (P) Ltd

**STATISTICS FOR DECISION MAKING**

Unit-1

Introduction – Statistical Terminology: Descriptive statistics or exploratory data analysis, inferential statistics, population, sample, variable, parameter, statistic, random sample. Collecting Data: Historical data, types of studies (comparative, descriptive or noncomparative, observational, experimental), sample surveys, sampling and nonsampling errors, bias, representative sample, judgment sampling, quota sampling, simple random samples, sampling rate, sampling frame, stratified random sampling, multistage cluster sampling, probability-proportional-to-size sampling, systematic sampling.

Unit-2

Summarizing and Exploring Data: Variable types (categorical, qualitative, nominal, ordinal, numerical, continuous, discrete, interval, ratio), summarizing categorical data (frequency table, bar chart, Pareto chart, pie chart), summarizing numerical data (mean, median), skewness, outliers, measures of dispersion (quantiles, range, variance, standard deviation, interquartile range, coefficient of variation) s tandardized z-scores, histogram, bivariate numerical data (scatter plot, simple correlation coefficient, sample covariance), straight line regression, summarizing time-series data, data smoothing, forecasting techniques. Basic Concepts of Inference: Estimation, hypothesis testing, point estimation, confidence interval estimation, estimator, estimate, bias and variance of estimator, mean square error, precision and standard error, confidence level and limits, null and altemative hypothesis, type I and II error, probabilities of type I and II error, acceptance sampling, simple and composite hypothesis, P-value, one-sided and two -sided tests.

Unit-3

Inference for Single Samples: Inference for the mean (large samples), confidence intervals for the mean, test for the mean, sample size determination for the z-interval, one-sided and two -sided z-test, inference for the mean (small samples), t distribution. Inference for Two Samples: Independent sample design, matched pair design, pros and cons of each design, side by side box plots, comparing means of two populations, large sample confidence interval for the difference of two means, large sample test of hypothesis for the difference of two means, inference for small samples (confidence intervals and tests of hypothesis).

Unit-4

Inference for Proportions and Count Data: Large sample confidence interval for proportion, sample size determination for a confidence interval for proportion, Large sample hypothesis test on proportion, comparing two proportions in the independent sample design (confidence interval and test of hypothesis), chi-square statistic

Unit-5

Simple Linear Regression and Correlation: Dependent and independent variables, probability model for simple linear regression, least squares fit, goodness of fit of the LS line, sums of squares, analysis of variance, prediction of future observation, confidence and prediction intervals, Multiple Linear Regression: Probability model for multiple linear regression, least squares fit, sums of squares.

Text Books :

1 Ajit Tamhane and Dorothy Dunlop “Statistics and Data Analysis: From Elementary to Intermediate” Prentice Hall

Reference Books :

1 Richard Ivor Levin, David S. Rubin, Statistics for Managements, Prentice Hall Intemational

2 J. K. Sharma, Statistics for Management, Pearson Education India

**HEAT TRANSFER LAB**

Experiments :

1 To Determine Thermal Conductivity of Insulating Powders.

2 To Determine Thermal Conductivity of a Good Conductor of Heat (Metal Rod).

3 To determine the transfer Rate and Temperature Distribution for a Pin Fin.

4 To Measure the Emissivity of the Test plate Surface.

5 To Determine Stefan Boltzmann Constant of Radiation Heat Transfer.

6 To Determine the Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient For Heated Vertical Cylinder in Natural Convection.

7 Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Drop Wise and Film Wise condensation.

8 To Determine Critical Heat Flux in Saturated Pool Boiling.

9 To Study and Compare LMTD and Effectiveness in Parallel and Counter Flow Heat Exchangers.

10 To Find the Heat transfer Coefficient in Forced Convection in a tube.

11 To study the rates of heat transfer for different materials and geometries

12 To understand the importance and validity of engineering assumptions through the lumped heat capacity method.

**DYNAMICS OF MACHINES LAB. – II**

Experiments :

1 To verifY the torque relation for RVTOscope.

2 To plot force vs. radius and lift vs. speed curves for governors.

3 To plot pressure distribution curves on a journal bearing.

4 To perform wheel balancing.

5 To perform static and dynamic balancinJ:!: on balancinJ:!; set up.

6 To determine mass moment of inertia of a flywheel.

7 Study of a lathe gear box.

8 Study of a sliding mesh automobile gear box.

9 Study of a planetary gear box.

**PRODUCTION ENGINEERING LAB**

Experiments :

1 Study of various measuring tools like dial gauge, micrometer, vernier caliper and telescopic gauges.

2 Measurement of angle and width of a V-groove by using bevel protector..

3 (a) To measure a gap by using slip gauges (b) To compare & access the method of small-bore measurement with

the aid of spheres.

4 Measurement of angle by using sine bar.

5 (a) Measurement of gear tooth thickness by using gear tooth vernier caliper. (b) To check accuracy of gear proftle with the help ofproftle projector.

6 To determine the effective diameter of external thread by using three-wire method.

7 To measure flatness and surface defects in the given test piece with the help of monochromatic check light and optical flat.

8 To check the accuracy of a ground, machined and lapped surface – (a) Flat surface (b) Cylindrical surface.

9 Find out Chip reduction co-efficient (reciprocal of chip thickness ratio) during single point turning.

10 Forces measurements during orthogonal turning.

11 Torque and Thrust measurement during drilling.

12 Forces measurement during plain milling operation.

13 Measurement of Chip tool Interface temperature during turning using thermocouple technique.

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