RTU Syllabus Mechanical Engineering 4th Semester
KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
Kinematics: Elements, pairs , mechanisms, four bar chain and its inversions, velocity and acceleration, Klein’s construction, coriolis component, instantaneous center method
Synthesis of mechanisms, pantograph, scott-Russel, Tchbeicheff straight line, indicator diagram mechanisms
Automotive vehicle mechanisms: Overhead valve mechanism, Davis and Ackerman steering mechanism, Trifler suspension and Hooke’s joint.
Power transmission: Belts and ropes, effect of centrifugal force, creep, chain drive Friction: Laws of static, dynamic and rolling friction, dry and viscous friction, inclined plane and screw jack, pivots and friction axis, bearing, Theoryoffilmlubrication.
Brakes: Band, block and band & block brakes, braking action, braking system of automobiles. Clutches Dynamometers: absorption and transmission type dynamometers, prony, rope and hydraulic dynamometers
Cams: Type of cams, displacement, velocity and acceleration curves for different cam followers consideration of pressure angle and wear, analysis of motion of followers for cams with specified contours.
Text Books :
1 Rattan, S.S. “Theory of Machines”, 2nd Ed., Tata McGraw Hill
Reference Books :
1 Bevan, T., “Theory of Machines”, Pearson Education.
2 Uicker, J.J., Pennocle, G.R, and Shigley, J.E, “Theory of Machines and Mechanisms”, Oxford University Press.
3 Ambekar , A. G., “Mechanism And Machine Theory”, Prentice-hall Of India
4 Ghosh, A., “Theory of Mechanisms and Machines”, Affiliated East West Press.
5 Singh, S., “Theory of Machines”, Pearson Education
FLUID MECHANICS & MACHINES
Fluid Properties :Defmition of a fluid, Viscosity-dynamic and kinematic, Surface Tension. Fluid Statics: Basic equation of fluid statics, Manometers, Force on plane areas and curved surfaces, center of pressure, Buoyant force, Stability of floating and submerged bodies.
Fluid Oow concepts and Basic control volume equations: General control equation, conservation of mass, energy equation and its application, Momentum equation and its applications Basic governing differential equation: Reynolds transport equation, continuity equation, momentum equation, energy equation, Bernoulli’s equation.
Viscous Oow: Laminar flow through pipe and between parallel plate. Turbulent Oow: Relation, Prandle mixing length, Losses in open and closed conduit
Measurements:Pressure, Velocity, flow measurement venturimenter, orificemeter, nozzle meter, notches and weirs. Flow through pipe: Major and minor Losses in pipe, Hydra energy gradient line, Network of pipes-series and parallel.
Hydraulic Turbines: Classification of hydraulic turbines, work done and efficiencies of Pelton, Francis and Kaplan turbines, Draft tube, Specific speed and unit quantities Hydraulic systems: Hydraulic press, Hydraulic accumulator, Hydraulic Intensifier, Hydraulic Ram, Hydraulic lift, Hydraulic coupling, Hydraulic torque convertor Gear pump.
Text Books :
1 Yunus A. Cengel and Cimbala, Fluid Mechanics Tata McGrawHill,
Reference Books :
1 Streeter V.L., K.W. Bedford and E.B.Wylie, Fluid Mechanics, Tata McGraw Hill
2 Robert W. Fox and Alan T. McDonald, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons.
3 Potter, Mechanics of Fluids, Cengage Learning.
4 Frank M. White, Fluid Mechanics, Tata McGraw Hill.
5 John F. Douglas, Fluid Mechanics, Pearson Education.
6 Munson, B. R., Young, D. F., & Okiishi, T. H. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, Wiley
7 Som, S. K., & Biswas, G. Introduction to fluid mechanics and fluid machines, Tata McGraw Hill.
8 K.Subramaanya, Hydraulic Machines, McGrawhill,
9 Modi and Seth, Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machinery, Standard Book House
MACHINING AND MACHINE TOOLS
Classification of metal removal process and machines: Concept of generatrix and directrix Geometry of single point cutting tool and tool angles, tool nomenclature in ASA, ORS, NRS and interrelationship. Concept of orthogonal and oblique cutting. Mechanism of Chip Formation: Type of chips. Mechanics of metal cutting; interrelationships between cutting force, shear angle, strain and strain rate. Various theories of metal cutting. Thermal aspects of machining and measurement of chip tool interface temperature. Friction in metal cutting. Introduction to tool geometry of milling cutters and drills.
Concept of machinability, machinability index, factors affecting machinability, Different mechanism of tool wear. Types of tool wear (crater, flank etc), Measurement and control of tool wear, Concept of tool life Taylor’s tool life equation (including modified version). Different tool materials and their applications including effect of tool coating. Introduction to economics of machining. Cutting fluids: Types, properties, selection and application methods.
Basic machine tools: Constructional configuration, specifications and estimation of machining time on lathe, drilling, shaping, milling, win.dinand broachinmachine. Special Purpose Machine Tools: Automatic lathes, capstan and turret lathe machines, operational planning and turret tool layout, sequence of operations.
Introduction to Grinding-Need and different methods of grinding, Abrasives; natural and synthetic, manufacturing and selection of grinding wheels, Wheel specifications, mounting and dressing. Surface finishing: Honing, lapping, super-finishing, polishing and buffing. Thread Manufacturing: casting; thread chasing; thread cutting on lathe; thread rolling, die threading and tapping; thread milling and thread grinding.
Gear Manufacturing Processes: hot rolling; stamping; powder metallurgy; extruding etc. Gear generating processes: gear hobbling, gear shaping. Gear finishing processes: shaving, grinding, lapping, shot High Velocity Forming Methods: Defmition; Hydraulic forming, Explosive forming, Electro-hydraulic forming, Magnetic pulse forming.
Text Books :
1 Rao. P.N., Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 1,2 and 3, Tata McGraw Hill
Reference Books :
1 Lal G.K., Introduction to Machining Science, New Age international Publishers.
2 Ghosh, A., & Mallik, A. K. 1986. Manufacturing Science: East West Press Private Limited.
3 Schey, Introduction to Manufacturing Processes, Tata McGraw Hill
4 Kalpakjian, S., & Schmid, S. R., Manufacturing processes for engineering materials, Pearson Education.
5 Pandey & Singh, Production Engineering Science, Standard Publishers Distributer, Delhi.
6 Stephenson, D. A., & Agapiou, J. S. Metal cutting theory and practice: CRC Taylor & Francis.
DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS – I
Materials: Mechanical Properties and IS coding of various materials, Selection of material from properties and economic aspects. Manufacturing Considerations in DelligD: Standardization, Interchangeability, limits, fits tolerances and surface roughness, BIS codes, Design consideration for cast, forged and machined parts. Design for assembly.
Design for Strength: Modes of failure, Strength and Stiffness considerations, Allowable stresses, factor of safety, Stress concentration: causes and mitigation, fatigue failures. Design of Members subjected to direct stress: pin, cotter and keyed joints.
Design of Members in Bencling: Beams, levers and laminated springs. Design for stiffne.. or beam: Use of maximum deflection formula for various end conditions for beam design
Design of Members in Torsion Shaft and Keys: Design for strength, rigidity. Solid and hollow shafts. Shafts under combined loading. Sunk keys. Couplings: Design of muff coupling, flanged couplings: rigid and flexible
Design of Threaded fasteners: Bolt of uniform strength, Preloading of bolts: Effect of initial tension and applied loads, Eccentric loading Power screws like lead screw, screw jack Design of members which are curved like crane hook, body of C-clamp, machine frame etc.
Text Books :
Bhandari, V. B., Introduction to Machine Design, McGraw Hill Education
Reference Books :
1 Bahl and Goel, Mechanical Machine Design, Standard Publishers Distributors
2 Shigley, Joseph E., Mechanical Engineering Design, McGraw Hill Education (India)
3 Sharma and Aggarwal, Machine Design, S.K.Kataria and Sons, Delhi.
4 Sharma and Purohit, Design of Machine Elements, Prentice Hall India.
5 Jindal U C, Machine Design, Pearson Education India
Concept and definition of Industrial Engineering,Historical development of IE, Role of Industrial Engineer, Applications of IE. Concept of Productivity, Work Study and Productivity,Techniques of work study, basic procedure, approach to method study, method study charts and diagrams, principles of motion economy
Work measurement; basic procedure, techniques: Stop watch time study and work sampling, rating, determination of standard time Evolution of Management Theory, scientific management, Contributions of Taylor, Fayol, Mayo to scientific management, Levels of Management Administration and Management, fundamental functions of management, Decision making.
Business Forms and Organization: Forms of Business: Single proprietorship, partnership, joint stock company, co-operative society, State undertakings. Formation of Joint Stock Companies: Registration, issue of Prospectus, Commencement Certificate. Organization: meaning, Types of organization; Line, Functional, Line Staff organization and line Staff Committee organization, span of control. Finance & Financial Statements: Introduction, Needs of Finance, Kinds of Capital, Sources of fixed capital, Shares. Borrow capital, surplus profits.
Sources of working capital and its management, Profit & Loss Statement, Balance Sheet, Financial ratios: Liquidity ratio, Profits investment ratio, eQuity ratio, inventory ratio. Time value of money: Simple and compound interest, Time value equivalence, Compound interest factors, Cash flow diagrams, Calculation of time -value equivalences. Present worth comparisons, Comparisons of assets with equal, unequal life, comparison of deferred investments, Time value of money II: Future worth comparison, payback period comparison. Rate of return, internal rate of return, comparison of IRR with other methods
Depreciation: Causes, Basic methods of computing depreciation charges; Straight line, Sinking fund, Declining Balance and Sum of year’s digits method. Breakeven analysis: Basic concepts, Linear Breakeven analysis for single product, Breakeven charts, Dumping.
Text Books :
1.Motion and Time Study and Measurement of Work, Ralph, M Barnes , John Wiley and Sons.
Reference Books :
1 Introduction to Work Study, George Kanawaty, ILO.
2 Prasad, L.M., Principles and practice of Management, Sultan Chand & Sons.
3 Sushil Kumar Basu, K. C. Sahu, N. K. Datta, Works Organisation & Management, Oxford & IBH.
4 Dexter S. Kimball, Principles of Industrial Organization, Read Books.
History of IC : Nomenclature, Classification & Comparison, SI & CI, 4stroke- 2 stroke, First Law analysis, Energy Balance. Fuel-air cycles, Actual cycles.. Tuting & Perfonnance: Performance parameters, Measurement of operating parameters e.g. speed, fuel & air consumption, Powers, IHP, BHP, FHP, Efficiencies Thermal, Mechanical, Volumetric, Emission Measurement Indian & International standards of Testing, Emission.
Fuel & Combu•tion: Combustion in CI & SI engines, Ignition Limits, Stages of combustion, Combustion parameters. Delay period and Ignition Lag, Turbulence and Swirl, Effects of engine variables on combustion parameters, abnormal combustion in CI & SI engines, Detonation & knocking, Theories of detonation, Control of abnormal combustion, Combustion chamber design principles, Types of Fuel: Conventional Petroleum, structure, Refining Fuels for SI & CI engines, Knock rating, Additives, Fuels for Turbine & Jet Propulsion.
Alternative Fuels: Methanol, Ethanol, Comparison with gasoline, Manufacturing, Engine performance with pure Methanol, Ethanol & blends, Alcohols with diesel engine, Vegetable oils, Bio gas.
Engine System & Component.: Fuel System (SI Engine), Carburetion & Injection, process & parameters, properties of AIF mixture, Requirements of AIF ratios as per different operating conditions, Carburettors, types, Aircraft carburettor, comparison of carburetion & injection, FI A ratio calculations. CI engine: Mixture requirements & constraints, Method of injection, Injection systems, CRDI etc. system components, pumps injectors. Ignition .,..tem: Conventional & Modern ignition systems Magneto vIs Battery, CB point vis Electronic ignition, Fuel Ignition Energy requirements. Spark advance, centrifugal, vacuum Firing order, spark plugs.
Engine Friction & Lubrication : Determination of friction, Lubrication principles, Types of lubrication, Places of lubrication Bearings and piston rings etc., Functions of Lubrication, Properties, Rating and Classification of lubricating oil, Additives, Lubrication systems. Engine Cooling: Requirements of cooling, Areas of heat flow, High temperature regions of combustion chamber. Heat Balance, Cooling Systems, Air, Water Cooling, Cooling system components. Supercharging: Objectives, Thermodynamic cycle & performance of super charged SI & CI engines, Methods of super charging, Limitations, Two stroke engines: Comparison of 4s & 2s engines construction & valve lining scavenging. Process parameters, systems, supercharging of 2 stroke engines.
Dual & Multi fuel engine•: Principle, fuels, Combustion, performance Advantages, Modification in fuel system.
Special Engine : Working principles of Rotary, Stratified charge, Free piston, Variable compression ratio engines.
Text Books :
1 Mathur & Sharma, Internal Combustion Engines, Dhanpat Rai & Sons
Reference Books :
1 Gupta H.N., Fundamentals of Internal Combustion Engines, Prentice Hall
KINEMATICS OF MACHINES LAB
1 To study inversions of four bar chain: Coupling Rod, Beam Engine
2 To study Steering; Mechanisms; Davis and Ackerman.
3 Study of quick return mechanism and draw velocity and acceleration diagram.
4 Study of inversion of Double slider chain Oldham Coupling, Scotch Yoke and Elliptical Trammel.
5 Study of various cam-follower arrangements.
6 To plot displacement vIs angle of rotation curve for various cams
7 To determine co-efficient of friction using two roller oscillating arrangement.
8 Study of various types of dynamometers, Brakes and Clutches.
9 To determine moment of inertia of the given object using of Trifler suspension.
10 Perform study of the following using Virtual Lab http:jjwww.vlab.co.in/
11 Position, velocity and acceleration analysis of Grashof four bar mechanism
12 Position, velocity and acceleration analysis of Slider Crank mechanism
FLUID MECHANICS LAB
1 Determination of Meta-centric height of a given body.
2 Determination of Cd, CV & Cc for given orifice.
3 Calibration of contracted Rectangular Notch and f Triangular Notch and determination of flow rate.
4 Determination of velocity of water by Pitot tube.
5 Verification of Bernoulli’s theorem.
6 Calibration and flow rate determination using Venturimeter & Orifice meter and Nozzle meter
7 Determination of head loss in given length of pipe.
8 Determination of the Reynold’s number for laminar, turbulent and transient flow in pipe.
9 Determination of Coefficient for minor losses in pipes.
10 To study the velocity distribution in a pipe and also to compute the discharge by integrating the velocity profile.
11 To study the boundary layer velocity profile over a flat plate and to determine the bound la er thiclmess.
1 To study of single point cutting tool geometry and to grind the tool as per given tool geometry.
2 To study the milling machine, milling cutters, indexing heads and indexinJ:!: methods and to prepare a J:!:ear on millin J:!: machine.
3 To machine a hexagonal I octagonal nut using indexing head on milling machine.
4 To cut BSW/Metric internal threads on lathe machine.
5 a) To cut multi-start Square/Metric threads on lathe machine. b) Boring using a boring bar in a centre lathe.
6 Study of capstan lathe and its tooling and prepare a tool layout & job as per given drawing.
7 Demonstration on milling machine for generation of plane surfaces and use of end milling cutters.
8 Grinding of milling cutters and drills.
9 Exercise on cylindrical and surface grinders to machine surfaces as per drawing.
10 Cylindrical grinding using grinding attachment in a centre lathe
THERMAL ENGINEERING LAB-1
1 Study of working of four stroke petrol engine and four stroke diesel engine with the help of cut section models.
2 Study of working of two stroke petrol and two stroke diesel engine with the help of cut section models.
3 To draw valve timing diagram for a single cylinder diesel engine.
4 Study of various types of boilers.
5 Study of various types of mountings and accessories.
6 Demonstration of steering system and measurement of steering geometry angles and their impact on vehicle performance.
7 Study of braking system with specific reference to types of braking system, master cylinder, brake shoes.
8 Study of transmission system including clutches, gear box assembly and differential.
9 Study of fuel supply system of a petrol engine (fuel pump and simple carburetor)
10 Study of fuel supply system of a Diesel engine (fuel pwnp and fuel injector)
11 Study of Ignition systems of an IC Engine (Battery and Magneto ignition system) and Electronic ignition system.
12 Study of Lubrication system of an IC Engine (mist, splash and pressure lubrication)
13 Study of cooling systems of an IC Engine (air cooling and water cooling)
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