# RTU Syllabus Mechanical Engineering 6th Semester

**DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS- II**

Unit-1

Fatigue Considerations in Design: Variable load, loading pattern, endurance stresses, Influence of size, surface finish, notch sensitivity and stress concentration. Goodman line, Soderberg line, Design of machine members subjected to combined, steady and alternating stresses. Design for finite life, Design of Shafts under Variable Stresses, Bolts subjected to variable stresses.

Unit-2

Design or IC Engine components: Piston, Cylinder, Connecting Rod and Crank Shaft.

Unit-3

Design of helical compression, tension, torsional springs, springs under variable stresses. Design of belt, rope and pulley drive system,Design of gear teeth: Lewis and Buckingham equations, wear and dynamic load considerations.

Unit-4

Design and force analysis of spur, helical, bevel and worm gears, Bearing reactions due to gear tooth forces.

Unit-5

Design of Sliding and Journal Bearing: Methods of lubrication, hydrodynamic, hydrostatic, boundary etc. Minimum film thickness and thermal equilibrium. Selection of anti-friction bearings for different loads and load cycles,

Mounting of the bearings, Method of lubrication.

Text Books :

1. Design of Machine Elements, Bhandari V.B, 3rd Ed., Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi

Reference Books :

1 Machine Design, Sharma and Aggarwal, Kataria and Sons, Delhi.

2 Mechanical Engg Design, Shigley, Mischke, Budynas and Nisbett, Tata McGraw-Hill

3 PSG Design Data Book, P.S.G. College of TechnoloRY, Coimbatore.

4 A Text Book of Machine Design, Karwa A., Laxmi Publication.

5 Machine Design, Hall, Holwenko and Laughlin, Schaum’s Outlines Series, Tata McGraw Hill.

**MACHINING METHODS NEWER**

Unit-1

Introduction and classification of advanced machining process,

consideration in process selection, difference between traditional and non-traditional process, Hybrid process.

Abrasive finishing processes: AFM, MAF (for Plain and cylindrical surfaces).

Unit-2

Mechanical advanced machining proceBB: Introduction, Mechanics of metal removal, process principle, Advantages, disadvantages and applications of AJM,USM,WJC.

Unit-3

Thermo electric advanced machining process: Introduction, Principle, process parameters,advantages, disadvantages and LBM, PAM, EBM

Unit-4

Electrochemical and chemical advanced machining process: ECM, ECG, ESD, Chemical machining, Anode shape prediction and tool design for ECM process. Tool (cathode) design for ECM Process.

Unit-5

Intorduction to Micro and nanomachining, Nanoscale Cutting, Diamond Tools in Micromachining, Conventional Processes: Microtuming, Microdrilling and Micromilling, Microgrinding, Non-Conventional Processes: Laser Micromachining, Evaluation of Subsurface Damage in Nano and Micromachining, Applications of Nano and Micromachining in Industry.

Text Books :

1 Modern Machining Process, Pandey and Shan, Tata McGraw Hill

Reference Books :

1 Advance Machining Process, Jain V.K., Allied Publishers Ltd.

2 Non Traditional Manufacturing Process, Gary F. Bevedict, Marcel Dekker Inc New York.

3 Non-Conventional Machining Process, Mishra P.K., Narosa Publishing House

4 Non-Conventional Machining Process, J.A. McGeough

5 Nano and Micromachining, J. Paulo Davim, and Mark J. Jackson, Wiley- ISTE

**MECBATRONICS**

Unit-1

Introduction: Introduction, scope and applications of Mechatronics systems. Process control automation, FMS and CNC Machines. MEMS: Basics of Micro- and Nanotechnology, microprocessor-based controllers and Microelectronics

Unit-2

Introduction to Sensors: Linear and Rotational Sensors, Acceleration, Force, Torque, Power, Flow and Temperature Sensors, Light Detection, Image, and Vision Systems, Integrated Micro-sensors,

Introduction to Actuators: Electro-mechanical Actuators, Electrical Machines, Piezoelectric Actuators, Hydraulic and Pneumatic Actuation Systems, MEMS: Micro-transducers Analysis, Design and Fabrication.

Unit-3

Systems and Controls: The Role of Controls in Mechatronics, Role of Modelling in Mechatronics Design, Signals and Systems: Continuous and Discrete-time Signals, Z-Transforms and Digital Systems, Continuous- and Discrete-time State-space Models. Advanced Control Systems: Digital Signal Processing for Mechatronics Applications, Control System Design, Adaptive and Nonlinear Control Design, Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems, Design Optimization of Mechatronics Systems.

Unit-4

Data Acquisition and related Instrumentation: Introduction to Data Acquisition Measurement Techniques: Sensors and Transducers, Quantizing theory, Analog to Digital Conversion, Digital to Analog (D/ A) conversation, Signal Conditioning. Real time Instrumentation: Computer-Based Instrumentation Systems, Software Design and Development, Data Recording and Logging.

Unit-5

Design of Mechatronics systems: Introduction of mechatronics systems: Home appliances, ABS (anti-lock braking system) and other areas in automotive engineering, Elevators and escalators, Mobile robots and manipulator arms, Sorting and packaging systems in production lines, Computer Numerically Control (CNC) production machines, Aeroplanes and helicopters, Tank fluid level and temperature control systems.

Text Books :

1. Bolton, W., “Mechatronics: Electronic Control Systems in Mechanical and 2011 Electrical Engineering

Reference Books :

1 Mechatronics HMT Hand Book, Tata McGraw Hill

2 Alciatore and Histand, “Introduction to Mechatronics and Measurement Systems”, Tata McGraw Hill

3 Smaili and Mrad, “Mechatronics: Integrated Technologies for Intelligent Machines” Oxford

4 Mahalik N.P., “Mechatronics: Principles, Concepts and applications”, Tata McGraw Hill.

**VIBRATION ENGINEERING**

Unit-1

Introduction to Sound: Frequency dependent human response to sound, Sound pressure dependent human response, Relationship amonsound power, sound intensity and sound pressure level. Introduction to l!foise: Auditory and Non auditory effects of Noise, Major sources of the noise, Industrial noise sources, Industrial noise control strategies. Introduction to Vibration: Importance and scope of vibrations, terminology and classification, Concept of Degrees of freedom, Harmonic motion, vectorial representation, complex number representation, addition.

Unit-2

Undamped Single Degree of Freedom System: Derivation of equation of motion for one dimensional longitudinal, transverse and torsional vibrations without damping using Newton’s second law, D’ Alembert’s principle and Principle of conservation of energy, Compound pendulum and centre of percussion. Damped vibrations of single degree of freedom systems: Viscous damping, under-damped, critically damped and over-damped systems, Logarithmic decrement. Vibration characteristics of Coulomb damped system and Vibration characteristics of Hysteretic damped systems.

Unit-3

Forced Vibrations of Single Degree of Freedom Systems: Forced vibration with constant harmonic excitation, Steady state and transient parts, Frequency response curves and phase angle plot, Forced vibration due to excitation of support.

Vibration Isolation and TransmiuibWty: Force transmissibility, Motion transmissibility, Forced vibration with rotating and reciprocating unbalance, Materials used in vibration isolation.

Unit-4

System with Two Degrees of Freedom: principle mode of vibration, Mode shapes, Undamped forced vibrations of two degrees of freedom system with harmonic excitation, Vibration Absorber, Undamped dynamic vibration absorber and centrifugal pendulum absorber Critical Speed of Shaft: Critical speed of a light shaft without

damping, critical speed of shaft having multiple discs, secondary critical speed.

Unit-5

Many Degrees of Freedom Systems (Exact analysis): Equation of Motion, The matrix method, EigenValues and EigenVectors, Method of influence Coefficients and Maxwell’s reciprocal theorem. Torsional vibrations of multi rotor system, vibrations of geared system, Generalized coordinates and coordinate coupling Many Degrees of Freedom Systems (apprmdmate methods}: Rayleigh’s, Dunkerley’s, Stodola’s and Holzer’s methods.

Vibrations of continuous systems: Transverse vibration of a string, Longitudinal vibration of a bar, Torsional vibration of a shaft.

Text Books :

1. Rao S.S., “Mechanical Vibrations”, Pearson Education, 2nd Indian reprint.

Reference Books :

1 Ambekar A.G., “Mechanical Vibrations and Noise Engineering”, Prentice- Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.

2 Kelly, S.G., “Mechanical Vibrations, Theory and Applications, Cengage Learning

3 Thomson, W.T., and Dahleh, M.D., PadmanabhanTheory of Vibrations with Applications, Pearson Education.

4 Meirovitch, L., “Elements of Vibration Analysis”, Tata McGraw-Hill

5 Tongue, B.H., “Principles of Vibration”, Oxford Publication

**STEAM ENGINEERING**

Unit-1

Steam generators: Classification of Boilers, water and flre tube boilers, High pressure boilers, Advantages of high pr. Boilers, NatW’al and forced circulation boilers, Water wall. Steam drum intemal, steam super heaters, Economizers, air preheater, induced, forced and balanced draught boilers, Fluidized bed boilers

Unit-2

Deflnition and type of nozzle and diffuser equation of continuity, sonic velocity, mach no. and stagnation properties, the steady flow energy equation for nozzles, momentum energy equation for flow through steam nozzles nozzle efficiency, effect of friction, nozzle for uniform pressure drop, throat pressure for maximum discharge or chock flow, critical pressure ratio, design of nozzle and diffuser.

Unit-3

Steam Turbines: Principle and working of steam tW’bines, type of turbines, compounding for pressure and velocity. Overview and difference of various type of turbine, different types of governing of turbines. Impulae turbine: The effect of blade friction on velocity diagram. Force, work and power, Blade or diagram efficiency, Gross stage efficiency, steam speed to blade, speed ratio for optimum performance, turbine performance at various loads

Unit-4

Impulse reaction turbine: Velocity diagram and work done, degree of reaction, Parson turbine, blade efficiency, gross stage efficiency comparison of enthalpy drop in various stages, size of blades in impulse reaction tW’bines for various stages of impulse reaction and impulse turbine. Regenerative Feed Heating Cycles: Introduction, Ideal regenerative

feed heating cycle, Regenerative heating cycles and their representation on T-s and h-s Diagram, Representation of actual process on T-s and h-s Diagram Regenerative cycles, types of feed heating arrangements, Optimum feed water temperature and saving in Heat Rate. direct contact and surface heaters.

Unit-5

Reheating of steam: Practical reheating and Non- reheating cycles,advantage and disadvantages of reheating, reheat regenerative cycle regenerative water extraction cycles. Process heat and by product power cycle, pass out turbine, Binary vapour cycle. Condensers.

Text Books :

1. Steam, Gas Turbine and Power Plant Engineering, Yadav R., CPH Allahabad

Reference Books :

1 A Practical Guide to Steam Turbine, Heinz P. Bloch, McGraw Hill Publication

2 Steam Turbines: Design Application and Rerating, Heinz P. Bloch, McGraw Hill Publication.

3 Steam Turbine: Theory and Design, Shlykhin P., University press of Pacific.

4 Steam Turbine: Theory and Construction, Wilde and Salter, Merchant Books.

5 Power Plant Engineering, Nag P.K., Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi.

6 Thermal Science & Engineering, Kumar D.S., S.K.Kataria & Sons

7 Engineering Thermodynamics, Nag P.K., Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi

8 Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics, Gordan J Van Wylen, Willey Eastern Ltd.

**DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING OF PLASTIC PRODUCTS**

Unit-1

Plastics Materials: An Overview, Classification, Thermoplastics, Thermosets, Crystalline, Amorphous, and Liquid, Crystalline Polymers, Copolymers, Alloys, Elastomers, Additives, Reinforcements, and Fillers, Physical Properties and Terminology. Mechanical Properties, Thermal Properties, Electrical Properties, Environmental Considerations.

Unit-2

Design Considerations for IDjection-Molded Parts: Injection Molding Process, Design Strategy, Efficient and Functional Design, Material Selection, Nominal Wall Thickness, Normal Ranges of Wall Thickness, Structural

Requirements of the Nominal Wall, Insulation Characteristics of the Nominal Wall, Impact Response of the

Nominal Wall, Draft, Structural Reinforcement, Ribs, Other Geometric Reinforcement, Bosses, Coring, Fillets and Radii, Undercuts.

Unit-3

Polymer processing techniques such as extrusion, compression and transfer moulding. Injection moulding, blow moulding, thermoforming, rotational moulding, calendaring.

Unit-4

Assembly: General Types of Assembly Systems, Molded-In Assembly Systems, Snap-Fit Assembly, Molded-In Threads, Press-Fits, Chemical Bonding Systems, Solvent Welding, Adhesive Bonding, Thermal Welding

Methods. Spin Welding, Radio Frequency (RF) Welding, Electromagnetic or Induction Welding, Assembly with Fasteners, Bolted Assembly, Threaded Metal Inserts, Self-Tapping Screws, Riveted Assembly, Sheet Metal Nuts, Specialty Plastic Fasteners.

Unit-5

Machining of Plastics: Drilling and Reaming,Thread Tapping, Sawing, Milling, Tuming, Grinding. Finishing and Decorating of Plastics: Painting, Vacuum Metallizing and Sputter Plating, Electroplating, Flame Spraying/ Arc Spraying, Hot Stamping.

Text Books :

1 Design and Manufacture of Plastic Parts, R.L.E. Brown, John Wiley and Sons New York

Reference Books :

1 Designing with Plastics, Gerhard, Hanser Verlag

2 Handbook of Plastics Joining: a practical guide, PDL handbook series, Plastics Design Library, William Andrew

3 Modern Plastics Handbook, McGraw Hill handbooks, Modern plastics series, Charles A. Harper, McGraw-Hil

4 Industrial Plastics: theory and applications, Erik Lokensgard and Terry L. Richardson Cengage Leanting

**MACHINE DESIGN SESSIONAL-II**

Experiments :

1 Fatigue loading.

2 Helical compression, tension and torsional springs design.

3 Curved Beams.

4 Preloaded bolts and bolts subjected to variable stresses.

5 Belt Rope and Chain drive system.

6 Gear Design.

7 Sliding contact bearing design.

8 Anti-friction bearing selection

**INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING LAB-I**

Experiments :

1 Case study on X bar charts and process capability analysis

2 PChart: (a)Verify the Binomial Distribution of the number of defective balls by treating the balls with a red colour to be defective.

(b) Plot a P-chart by taking a sample of n=20 and establish control limits

3 To plot C-chart using given experimental setup

4 Operating Characteristics Cmve: (a) Plot the operating characteristics CUIVe for single sampling attribute plan for n = 20 ; c = 1 , 2 , 3 Designate the red ball to defective.

(b) Compare the actual O.C. curve with theoretical O.C. curve using

approximation for the nature of distribution

5 Distribution Verification: (a) Verification of Normal Distribution. (b) To fmd the distribution of numbered cardboard chips by random drawing one at a time with replacement. Make 25 subgroups in size 5 and 10 find the type of distribution of sample average in each case. Comment on your observations

6 Verification of Poisson distribution

7 Central Limit Theorem: (a) To show that a sample means for a normal universe follow a normal distribution

(b) To show that the sample means for a non normal universe also follow a normal Distribution.

8 Solve problems using available Statistical Process Control software in lab

**MECBATRONICS LAB**

Experiments :

1 Study the following devices (a) Analog & digital multimeter (b) Function/ Signal generators (c) Regulated d. c. power supplies (constant voltage and constant current operations)

2 Displacement Measurement using Capacitive & inductive Pick -ups.

3 Study of Speed Measurement System: (a) Magnetic Pick-up (b) Stroboscope

4 Study of Load Measurement System Load Cell

5 Measurement of temperature using thermocouple, thermistor and RTD

6 Measurement of displacement using POT LVDT & Capacitive transducer

7 Torque measurement using torque measuring devices

8 Strain Measurement using strain gauge

9 Frequency to Voltage Converter and vice versa

10 Position and velocity measurement using encoders

11 Study on the application of data acquisition system for industrial purposes

12 Speed control of DC motor using PLC.

13 Study of Load Measurement System Load Cell

**VIBRATION ENGINEERING LAB**

Experiments :

1 To verify relation T = 2n”‘ (1/g) for a simple pendulum.

2 To determine radius of gyration of compound pendulum.

3 To determine the radius of gyration of given bar by using bifllar suspension.

4 To determine natural frequency of a spring mass system.

5 Equivalent spring mass system.

6 To determine natural frequency of free torsional vibrations of single rotor system. i. Horizontal rotor ii.Vertical rotor

7 To verify the Dunkerley’s rule.

8 Performing the experiment to find out damping co-efficient in case of free damped torsional vibration

9 To conduct experiment of trifler suspension.

10 Harmonic excitation of cantilever beam using electro-dynamic shaker and determination of resonant frequencies.

11 Study of Vibration measuring instruments.

12 Perform study of the following using Virtual Lab

13 Forced Vibration of a Cantilever Beam with a Lumped Mass at Free End: To calculate the natural frequency and damping ratio for forced vibration of a single DOF cantilever beam system, experimentally; and compare the results with theoretical values.

14 Harmonicaly Excited Forced Vibration of a Single DOF System: To analyze the forced vibration response of a single DOF system at different damping ratio and frequency ratio.

15 Perform study of the following using Virtual Lab

16 Forced Vibration of a Cantilever Beam with a Lumped Mass at Free End: To calculate the natural frequency and damping ratio for forced vibration of a single DOF cantilever beam system, experimentally; and compare the results with theoretical values.

17 Harmonicaly Excited Forced Vibration of a Single DOF System: To analyze the forced vibration response of a single DOF system at different damping ratio and frequency ratio.

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