# RTU Syllabus Mechanical Engineering 3rd Semester

**MECHANICS OF SOLIDS**

Unit-1

Stress and Strain: Elementruy definition of stress and strain, stress- strain relationship, elastic, plastic and visco-elastic behavior of

common materials in tension and compression test, stress-strain curves, Hooke’s law, Poisson’s ratio, elastic constants and their relations for an isotropic hookean material, anisotropic and orthotropic materials.Tension, compression, shearing stress and strain, thermal stresses, composite bars, equations of static equilibrium, concept of free body diagram. Strain energy due to axial loading.

Unit-2

Members Subjected to Flezural Loads: Theory of simple bending, bending moment and shear force diagrams for different types of static loading and support conditions on beams. bending stresses, section modulus and transverse shear stress distribution in circular, hollow circular, I, Box, T, angle sections etc. Strain energy due to bending.

Unit-3

Principal Planes, Streues and Strains: Members subjected to combined axial, bending and torsional loads, maximum normal and shear stresses, concept of equivalent bending and equivalent twisting moments Mohr’s circle of stress and strain.Theories of Elaetic FaUures: The necessity for a theory, different theories, significance and comparison, applications.

Unit-4

Torsion: Torsional shear stress in solid, hollow and stepped circular shafts, angular deflection and power transmission capacity. Strain energy due to torsional loads. StabWty of EquWbrium: Instability and elastic stability, long and short columns, ideal strut, Euler’s formula for crippling load for columns of different ends, concept of equivalent length, eccentric

loading, Rankine formulae and other empirical relations.

Unit-5

Transverse Deflection of Beams: Relation between deflection, bending moment, shear force and load, transverse deflection of beams and shaft under static loading, area moment method, direct integration method.Thin-walled Preuure Veuels: Stresses in cylindrical and spherical vessels.

Text Books :

1 Bansal, R. K., “A Textbook of Strength of Materials Laxmi Publications.

Reference Books :

1 Timoshenko, S.P., and Gere, J.M., “Mechanics of Materials”, 2nd Ed., CBS Publishers

2 Crandall, S.H., Dahl, N.C., and Lardner, T.J., “An Introduction to the Mechanics of Solids”, Tata McGraw-Hill

3 Pytel and Kiusalaas, “Mechanics of Materials” Cengage Learning

4 Punmia, Jain and Jain, “Mechanics of Materials”, Laxmi Publication

5 Popov, E.P., Nagarajan, S., and Lu, Z. A., “Mechanics of Materials”, 2nd Ed., Prentice-Hall of India

**MATERIAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING**

Unit-1

Crystal structure – BCC, FCC and HCP, unit cell, crystallographic planes and directions, miller indices. Crystal imperfections, point, line, surface and volume defects.

Frank Reed source of dislocation, Elastic & plastic modes of deformation, Bauschinger’s effect, slip & twinning, strain hardening, cold/hot working recovery, re-crystallization and grain growth.

Unit-2

Classification of Engineering Materials: Solidification of metals and of some typical alloys, mechanism of crystallization (I) nuclear formation (ii) crystal growth, general principles of phase transformation in alloys, phase rule and equilibrium diagrams, equilibrium diagram of binary system having complete mutual solubility in liquid state and limited solubility in solid state, binary isomorphous alloy system, Hume- Rothery rule , binary system with limited solid solubility of terminal phase and in which solubility decreases with temperature and also alloy with a peritectic transformation, equilibrium diagram of a system whose components are subject to allotropic change. Iron carbon equilibrium diagram, phase transformation in the iron carbon diagram, eutectic, peritectic, eutectoid and peritectoid reactions and microstructures.

Unit-3

Isothermal transformation diagrams -cooling curves superimposed on Isothermal Transformation diagram, critical cooling rate. (i) Formation of Austenite from Pearlite (ii) Transformation of Austenite into Pearlite. Full annealing, stress relief, spheroidizing – normalizing, hardening and tempering of steel. Hardenability, Jominey end quench test – Austempering, martempering. Case hardening, carburising, nitriding, cyaniding, carbonitriding. Flame and Induction hardening.

Unit-4

Non-Metallic Materials- Polymers – types of polymer, commodity and engineering polymers – Properties and applications of PE, PP, PS, PVC, PMMA, PET, PC, PA, ABS, PI, PAl, PPO,PPS, PEEK, PTFE Polymers. Urea and Phenol formaldehydes. Constitution of alloys: Solid solutions – substitutional and interstitial. Ferrous and Non Ferrous Metals- Effect of alloying additions on steel (Mn, Si, Cr, Mo, V, Ti & W)- stainless and tool steels- HSLA steel.

Unit-5

Mechanical Properties and Testing: Types of fracture, testing of materials under tension, compression and shear loads- hardness tests (Brinell, Vickers and Rockwell) Impact test Izod and charpy, fatigue and creep test. Classification of steels and cast iron constitution and properties. BIS standards. Engineering Ceramics – Properties and applications of Al203, SiC, Si3N4, PSZ etc. Fiber and particulate reinforced composites and resin plastics. Introduction to Nano materials- Nano structured materials. Nano clusters & Nano crystals.

Text Books :

1 Material Science and Engineering An Introduction, William D.Callister, John Wiley and Sons.

Reference Books :

1 Material Science, Ra van V., Prentice Hall India

2 Principles of Material Science and Engineering, William F.Smith, Tata McGraw-Hill Publications.

3 Engineering Physical Metallurgy, Lakhtin Y., Mir Publisher.

4 Introduction to Engineering materials Tata McGraw-Hill Publications.

5 Engineering materials properties and selection Budinski and Budinski, PHI

**ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS**

Unit-1

Basic Concepts and definitions of Thermodynamics: System, Surroundings, Property, Energy, Thermodynamic Equilibrium, Process, work and modes of work.

Zeroth and First Law of Thermodynamics: Zeroth of Thermodynamics, Temperature scale, First law of thermodynamics, First law analysis of some elementary processes. Steady and unsteady flow energy equations.

Unit-2

Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat engine, Heat pwnp and refrigerator, Second law of thermodynamics, Equivalence of the Kelvin- Plank and Clausius statements. Reversible and Irreversible Processes, Carnot engine, Efficiency of a Carnot engine, Carnot principle, thermodynamic temperature scale, Clausis Inequality.

Entropy: Entropy, Calculation of Entropy change, Principle of entropy increase. Temperature-Entropy diagram, Second law analysis of a control volume. AvaUabWty: Available energy, Loss in available energy, Availability Function, Irreversibility.

Unit-3

Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids: Pure substance, Concept of Phase, Graphical representation of p-v-T data, Properties of steam. Steam tables, Mollier chart

Ideal Gas and Real Gas: Ideal gas, Real gas, Internal energy, enthalpy and specific heats of an ideal gas, equations of state, Dalton’s law of partial pressures, Gibbs Dalton law, Thermodynamic properties of gas mixtures.

Unit-4

Thermodynamic Relations: Thermodynamic variables, Independent and dependent variables, Maxwell’s thermodynamic relations, Thermodynamic relations involving entropy, Thermodynamic relations involving enthalpy and intemal energy, Joule-Thomson coefficient, Clapeyron equation. Power Cycles: Otto cycle, Diesel cycle, Dual cycle, Brayton cycle and Ericsson cycle.

Unit-5

Vapour power cycle: Rankine cycle, effect of operating conditions on its efficiency, properties of ideal working fluid in vapour power cycle Reheat cycle, regenerative cycle, bleeding extraction cycle, feed water heating co-generation cycle.

Text Books :

1 Nag P.K., Engineering Thermodynamics, Tata Mc-Graw Hill

Reference Books :

1 Chattopadhyay P., Engineering Thermodynamics, Oxford University Press.

2 Van G.J. Wylen and Sonntag R.E., Fundamental of Thermodynamics

**MANUFACTURING PROCESSES**

Unit-1

General Classification and Introduction to Manufacturing processes. Foundry Technology: Casting: Definition and major classification; Casting materials, Patterns: types, material and pattern allowances. Moulding sands; composition, preparation, properties and testing; Grain fineness; moisture content, clay content and permeability test. Core & core prints; Gating system: types, pouring basin, sprue, nmner and risers; Melting, pouring and solidification. Principles and method of floor mould casting, shell mould casting, pit mould and loam mould casting; centrifugal casting, investment casting; Permanent mould casting. Die casting; Slush casting. Casting defects; types, causes and remedy

Unit-2

Forming Proceues: Classification; Hot working and cold working; principle, advantages, disadvantages and applications. Forging: Classification, drop forging and press forging methods and use; Forging dies; types, materials. RoWng: Characteristics and applications of hot rolling and cold rolling; Extrusion; Work materials and products; Press tool works; Basic principles, system, operations and applications. Shearing; Parting, notching, trimming, nibbling, blanking and piercing, Drawing: wire drawing, tube drawing and deep drawing. Design of blanks for blanking, piercing and drawing operations. Estimation of forces and power required for shearing and drawing operations. Introduction to Spinning, Bulging, Coining, embossing, cold heading and riveting process; Metal working defects.

Unit-3

Metal Joining Processes: Welding, Brazing and soldering, classification of welding process, Principle, characteristics and applications of gas welding, thermit welding, electrical arc welding; Submerged arc welding; TIG and MIG welding; Resistance welding; Spo welding; Butt welding; Seam welding; Projection welding. Laser beam welding. Principles and process details of Forge welding; Friction welding; Diffusion welding; Ultrasonic welding. Explosive welding. Welding

defects; Types, causes, effects and remedy. Electrodes and Electrode Coatings

Unit-4

Powder Metallurgy: Properties of Powder processed materials, Powder manufacturing, mechanical pulverization, sintering, Electrolytic Process, chemical reduction, atomization, properties of metal powders, compacting of powders sintering, advantages and applications of Powder metallurgy. Rapid Prototyping Operations: Introduction, subtractive processes, additive processes, Virtual Prototyping and applications

Unit-5

Plastic Technology: Classification of Plastics, Ingredients of Moulding compounds, General Properties of Plastics, Plastic part manufacturing processes such as compression moulding, transfer moulding, injection moulding, extrusion moulding, blow moulding, calendaring, thermoforming, slush moulding, laminating.

Text Books :

1 Rao.P.N., Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 1,2 and 3, Tata McGraw Hill

Reference Books :

1 Ghosh, A., & Mallik, A. K. 1986. Manufacturing Science: Ellis Horwood.

2 Schey, Introduction to Manufacturing Processes, Tata McGraw Hill

3 Kalpakjian, S., & Schmid, S. R., Manufacturing processes for engineering materials, Pearson Education.

4 Campbell, J. S. Principles of manufacturing materials and processes: Tata McGraw-Hill

5 Heine, R.W., Loper, C.R., and Rosenthal, P.C., “Principles of Metal casting”, Tata McGraw Hill.

6 Groover, M.P., Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes and systems, Prentice Hall, New Jersey

7 Kalpakjian, S. & Schmid S.R, Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Addison Wesley Longman

8 Little R.L., Welding and welding technology Tata McGraw-Hill Education

9 Shan H.S., Manufacturing Process Pearson Education.

**ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS**

Unit-1

Laplace Transform: Laplace transform with its simple properties, applications to the solution of ordinary and partial differential equations having constant coefficients with special reference to wave and diffusion equations, digital transforms.

Unit-2

Fourier Transform: Discrete Fourier transform, Fast Fourier transform, Complex form of Fourier transform and its inverse applications Fourier transform for the solution of partial differential equations having constant coefficients with special reference to heat equation and wave equation.

Unit-3

Fourier Series: Expansion of simple functions in Fourier series, half range series, change of interval, harmonic analysis. Calculus of Variation: Functional, strong and weak variations, simple variation problems, Euler’s equation

Unit-4

Complex Variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy–Riemann equations, Elementary conformal mapping with simple applications Line integral in complex domain, Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula.

Unit-5

Complex Variables: Taylor’s series, Laurent’s series, poles, Residues. Evaluations of simple definite real integrals using the theorem of residues.Simple contour integration.

Text Books :

1. M. Ray, J. C. Chaturvedi & H.C. Sharma, Differential Equations, Students friends & company

2. Chandrika Prasad, Mathematics for Engineers, Prasad Mudralaya

Reference Books :

1. Bird, Higher Engineering Mathematics, ELSEVIER.

2. Jeffrey, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, ELSEVIER.

3. Chandrika Prasad, Advanced Mathematics for Engineers, Prasad Mudralaya

4. Ervin Kreyzig, Advanced Engineering Maths, Wiley.

**OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING IN C **++

Unit-1

Introduction to Object Oriented Programming: Basic concepts: Class, Object, Method, Message passing, Inheritance, Encapsulation, Abstraction, Polymorphism.

Basics of C++ Environment: Variables; Operators; Functions; user defined, passing by reference, passing an array to the function, inline function, scope, overloading.

Unit-2

Pointers: objects and lvalue, arrays and pointers, the new and delete operators, dynamic arrays, arrays of pointers and pointers to arrays, pointers to pointers and functions; Strings: String I/0, character functions in ctype.h, string functions in string.h.

Unit-3

Object oriented concepts using C++: Classes: Member functions, Friend functions, Constructors, Access functions, Private member functions, class destructor, static data and function members; Overloading: inline functions, this operator, overloading various types of operators, conversion operators; the String Class; Composition and Inheritance: Hierarchy and types of inheritance, protected class members, private versus protected access, virtual functions and polymorphism virtual destructors, abstract base classes.

Unit-4

Templates and Iterators: function and class templates, container classes, subclass templates, iterator classes; Libraries: standard C++ library, contents of a standard C headers, string streams, file processing: Files and streams classes, text files, binary files, classification of files, the standard template library.

Unit-5

Data Structures Using C++: Linked lists – Singly linked list, Doubly linked lists, Circular lists, Stacks, Queues.

Text Books :

1 Balaguruswamy E.: Object Oriented Programming in C++ , McGraw Hill Education {India)

Reference Books :

1 Sahay: OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING WITH C++ , Oxford

2 Hubbard, John., Programming with C++ , McGraw Hill Education (India)

3 Rambaulili James etal “Object Oriented Design and Modellin2” PHI.

4 Budd, Timothy, “An Introduction to Object Oriented Programming”, Pearson Education

5 Venugopal, K.R., Mastering C++, McGraw Hill Education (India)

6 Ravichandra, D., Programming with C++, McGraw Hill Education (India)

**MATERIAL SCIENCE AND TESTING LAB**

Experiments :

1 (a) Study of various ccystals structures through models BCC, FCC, HCP, tetrahedral and octahedral voids. (b) Material identification of, say, 50 common items kept in a box.

2 Specimen preparation for metallographic examination Imicro structural examination-cutting, grinding, polishing, etching.

3 Comparative study of microstructures of different given specimens (mild steel gray C.l. brass, copper etc.)

4 Heat treatment experiments such as annealing, normalizing, quenching, case hardening and comparison of hardness before and after.

5 Study of Microstructure and hardness of steel at different rates of cooling. Microstructure examination ofwhite cast iron.

6 To perform Tensile/Compressive/Shear/torsion test on a given material and to determine its various mechanical properties under tensile jcompression/ShearItorsional loading

7 To determine Rockwell/ VickersiBrinell hardness of a given material

8 To perform Impact test on a given material and to determine its resilience.

9 To study and perform Fatigue test on a given material and to determine fatigue strength of the material

10 To perform Bending test and to determine the Young’s Modulus of Elasticity via deflection of beam.

11 Creep testing on creep testing machine

**BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING LAB**

Experiments :

1 To study lathe machine construction and various parts including attachments, lathe tools cutting speed, feed and depth of cut.

2 To perform step turning, knurling and chamfering on lathe machine as per drawin .

3 To perform taper turning

(a) by tailstock offset method as per drawing

(b) Using compound rest.

4 To prepare the job by eccentric turning on lathe machine.

5 To study shaper machine, its mechanism and calculate quick return ratio. To prepare a job on shaper from given mild steel rod. Foundry Shop

6 To prepare mould of a given pattern requiring core and to cast it in aluminium.

7 To perform moisture test and clay content test.

8 Strength Test (compressive, Tensile, Shear Transverse etc. in green and dry conditions) and Hardness Test (Mould and Core).

9 To perform permeability test

10 A.F.S. Sieve analysis test. Weldina: Shop

11 Hands-on practice on spot welding.

12 Hands-on practice on submerged arc welding

13 Hands-on practice on metal inert gas welding (MIG) and tungsten inert gas welding (TIG).

**COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LAB.**

Experiments :

List of Programs in C++

1 Program using basic 1/0 and control statements.

2 Program using class, objects, objects as function parameters.

3 Program using functions and passing reference to a function, inline functions. Program using

4 Inheritance and virtual base class.

5 Program using pointers, arrays, dynamic arrays. Program using functions defined in ctype.h and string.h.

6 Program using constructors, destructors. Program using function and operator over Loading

List of program in C++ implementing Data Structures.

7 Creating and managing (add, delete, print, insert) nodes of a Linked list

8 Creating and managing (create, pop, push etc.} stacks and queues.

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