# RTU Syllabus Electronics And Communication Engineering 5th Semester

**SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS**

Unit-1

Introduction: Continuous time and discrete time signals and systems, Properties of systems. Linear time invariant systems- continuous time and discrete time. Properties of LTI systems and their block diagrams. Convolution, Discrete time systems described by difference equations.

Unit-2

Fourier series representation of signals: Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signal & its properties. Fourier series representation of Discrete periodic signal & its properties.Continuous time filters & Discrete time filters described by Diff.equation.

Unit-3

Fourier transform: The continuous time Fourier transform for periodic and non-periodic signals, Properties of CTFT. Discrete time Fourier transform for periodic and non-periodic signals Properties of DTFT.

Unit-4

Z-transform & laplace transform: The region of convergence for the Z-transform. The Inverse Z-transform. Two dimensional Z transform.

Properties of Z transform. Laplace transform: Properties of Laplace Transform, Application of Laplace transform to system analysis.

Unit-5

SAMPLING: Mathematical theory of sampling. Sampling theorem. Ideal & Real sampling. Interpolation technique for the reconstruction of a signal from its samples. Aliasing. Sampling in freq. domain. Sampling of discrete time signals.

Text Books :

1. Signals And Systems, Oppenheim, Willsky, Nawab, PHI.(1992)

2. Signals And Systems M J Roberts, Mc-Graw Hill.(2004)

References Books :

1. Principles Of Linear Systems And Signals, 2e (Intl. Version), Lathi 2nd,Oxford

2. Signal & Systems 3e, Chen 3rd, Oxford

3. Fundamentals Of Signals And Systems, Wiley

4. Signals And Systems, P Rao, Mc-Graw Hill

5. Signals And Systems: A Simplified Approach, Ganesh Rao, 4e, Pearson

6. Signals And Systems: Continuous And Discrete, Roger E Ziemer, 4e, PHI

7. Signals And Systems, Ravi Kumar, PHI

8. Signals & Systems, Iyer, Cengage Learning

**LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS**

Unit-1

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS: Basic differential amplifier analysis, Basic structure and principle of operation,

Single ended and double ended configurations ,, calculation of differential gain, common mode gain, Op-amp configurations with feedback, Op-amp parameters, Inverting and Non-Inverting configuration, Comparators, Adder.

Unit-2

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER APPLICATIONS: Integrator, Differentiator, Voltage to frequency & Frequency to voltage converters.

Oscillators: Phase shift, Wien bridge, Quadrature, precision rectifier, half and full wave rectifiers, square wave, triangular wave, sawtooth oscillators. Voltage controlled oscillators.

Unit-3

ACTIVE FILTERS: Low pass, high pass, band pass and band reject filters, All pass filter, Switched capacitor filter, Butterworth filter design, Chebyshev Filter design.

Unit-4

LINEAR ICs: Four quadrant multiplier & its applications, Basic blocks of linear IC voltage regulators, Three terminal voltage regulators, Positive and negative voltage regulators. , A/D and D/A converters, analog switches, The 555 timer as astable and monostable multivibrators. Zero crossing detector, Schmitt trigger and its applications.

Unit-5

Non- linear Applications of OP-AMP: log and antilog amplifiers, and multipliers. Solution of differential equation and analog computer

PHASE-LOCKED LOOPS: Operating Principles of PLL, Linear Model of PLL, Lock range, Capture range, Applications of PLL as FM detector, FSK demodulator, AM detector, frequency translator, phase shifter, tracking filter, signal synchronizer and frequency synthesizer, Building blocks of PLL, LM 565 PLL.

Text Books :

1 OP-AMP and linear integrated circuits 2nd edition, PLHI by Ramakant A.Gayakwad.

2 Design with operation amplifiers and Analog Integrated circuits by Sergei Franco.

3 Integrated Electronics: Analog and Digital circuits & system by Millman & Halkias.

4 Linear Integrated Circuits by D.R.Chaudhary (WEL).

References Books :

1. Operational amplifier with linear integrated circuits, 4th edition, W.D. Stanley, Pearson.(2002)

2. Op Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits: Concepts and Applications, Fiore, Cengage learning (2010)

**TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING**

Unit-1

TRANSMISSION LINE: Types of transmission lines, general transmission line equation, line constant, equivalent circuits, infinite line, and reflection on a line, SWR of line with different type of terminations. Distortion less and dissipation less lines, Coaxial cables, Transmission lines at audio and radio frequencies, Losses in transmission line, Characteristics of quarter wave, half wave and lines of other lengths.

Unit-2

TRANSMISSION LINE APPLICATIONS: Smith chart and its application. Transmission line applications, Impedance matching Network. Single & double Stub matching. Measurement of parameters of transmission line, measurement of attenuation, insertion loss, reflection coefficient and standing wave ratio.

Unit-3

ATTENUATORS & FILTERS: Elements of telephone transmission networks, symmetrical and Asymmetrical two port networks. Different Attenuators, π-section & T-section attenuators, stub matching, Transmission equalizers Filters, constant K- section, Ladder type, π-section, T-section filter, m-derived filter sections, Lattice filter section.

Unit-4

TELEPHONY: Voice transmission, Two wire/ Four wire transmission, Multi-channel systems: Frequency division & time division multiplexing, Echo suppressors & cancellers, cross talk. Telephone set, Touch tone dial types, Numbering Concept for Telephony, Essentials of Traffic Engineering, Telephone Traffic Measurements, Subscriber loop Design.

Unit-5

Switching and Signaling for Analog and Digital Telephone Networks: Introduction to switching Concepts, De-generation, Availability and Grading, Principle of Electronic Exchange, EPABX and SPC Digital telephone Exchange, Fascimile services. Approaches to PCM Switching: Multistage switches, Time Switch, Space Switch, STS and TST Switches, Concept of Supervisory and AC signaling.

Text Books :

1. Telecommunication system engineering, roger l. Freeman, wiley (2004)

2. Telecommunication switching systems & networks, thiagrajan vishwanathan, phi(1994)

References Books :

1. Introduction to Telecommunications, Gokhale ,Cengage learning

2. Telecommunication, W.Fraser., PHI

3. Digital Telephony, Bellamy, Wiley.

4. Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Transmission Lines,TMH.

5. Transmission Lines and Networks, Umesh Sinha, Satya Prakashan.

6. E.Keiser&E.Strange, Digital Telephony and Network Integration, (2/e), Van Nostrand,.

7. Principles of Telephony, N.N. Biswas, Sangam Books Limited.

8. Transmission Lines and Networks, Umesh Sinha, Satya Prakashan

9. Telecommunications Switching, Traffic and Networks, J.E. Flood, Pearson

**ANALOG COMMUNICATION**

Unit-1

NOISE EFFECTS IN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS: Representation of Band Limited and Band Pass Process, Noise Sources and Classification, Resistor noise, Networks with reactive elements, Noise temperature, Noise bandwidth, effective input noise temperature, Noise figure. Noise figure & equivalent noise temperature in cascaded circuits. Narrow band Noise Representation.

Unit-2

AMPLITUDE MODULATION: Frequency translation, Single Tone Modulation,

Recovery of base band signal, Spectrum & power relations in AM systems. Methods of Modulation & Demodulation of AM-DSB, DSB-SC and SSB signals. AM Broadcast Transmitters & Receivers, Single Sideband Transmission and Reception, Super heterodyne receivers, Vestigial Sideband Modulation.

Unit-3

FREQUENCY MODULATION: Phase & freq. modulation & their relationship, Spectrum & band width of a Sinusoidal modulated FM signal, Phasor diagram, Narrow band & wide band FM. Generation & demodulation of FM signals. Effect of Channel Non-Linearity, Comparison of AM, FM & PM, Threshold in FM, PLL demodulator. FM Broadcasting transmitters & Receivers.

Unit-4

NOISE IN AM AND FM: Noise in CW modulation systems, SNR calculations for synchronous detection of DSB and SSB and envelope detection of AM, SNR calculations for angle modulation system, Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, Threshold effect, Noise in Communication subsystems – Internal and external noise.

Unit-5

PULSE ANALOG MODULATION: Practical aspects of sampling: Natural and flat top sampling. Reconstruction, PAM, PWM, PPM modulation and demodulation methods, Noise Performance of Pulse Analog Modulation Systems.

Text Books :

1. Analog Communications Systems, P RamaKrishna Rao, Mc Graw Hill (2008)

2. Communications Systems, 5ed-, Haykins, Wiley (2009)

References Books :

1. Principles of Communication Systems, Herbert Taub, Donald Schilling, Goutam Saha, TMH

2. Analog and Digital Communication, Schum Series, TMH

3. Digital & Analog Communication Systems, Leon W. Couch, Pearson

4. Analog & Digital Communication Systems, Singal, TMH

5. An Introduction To Analog & Digital Communications, Haykins, Wiley

6. Electronic Communication Systems-, Kennedy Devis, TMH

7. Digital And Analog Communication Systems, Shanmugam, Wiley

8. Proakis J. G. and Salehi M., “Communication Systems Engineering”, Pearson Education

9. Electronic Communication Systems, Blake, Cengage learning

MICROWAVE ENGINEERING-I

Unit-1

MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION LINES: Introduction of Microwaves and their applications. Rectangular Waveguides: TE and TM wave solutions, Field patterns, Wave impedance and Power flow.

PLANAR TRANSMISSION LINES: Stripline and microstrip lines – Dominant mode of propagation, Field patterns, Characteristic impedance, Basic design formulas and characteristics. Parallel coupled striplines and microstrip lines- Even- and odd- mode excitations. Slot lines and Coplanar lines. Advantages over waveguides.

Unit-2

MICROWAVE NETWORK ANALYSIS: Impedance and Admittance matrices, Scattering matrix, Parameters of reciprocal and Loss less networks, ABCD Matrix, Scattering matrices of typical two- port, three-port and four-port networks, Conversion between two- port network matrices.

Unit-3

MICROWAVE PASSIVE COMPONENTS: Waveguide Components: E- plane and H- plane Tees, Magic Tee, Shorting plunger, Directional couplers, and Attenuator.

Stripline and Microstrip line Components: Open and shorted ends. Half wave resonator, Lumped elements (inductors, capacitors and resistors) in microstrip. Ring resonator, 3-dB branchline coupler, backward wave coupler, Wilkinson power dividers and rat- race hybrid ring. Low pass and band pass filters.

Unit-4

MICROWAVE MEASUREMENTS: Detection of microwaves, Microwave power measurement, Impedance measurement, Measurement of reflection loss (VSWR), and transmission loss in components. Passive and active circuit measurement & characterization using network analyser, spectrum analyser and noise figuremeter.

Unit-5

MICROWAVE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT TECHNOLOGY: Substrates for Microwave Integrated Circuits (MICs) and their properties. Hybrid technology Photolithographic process, deposited and discrete lumped components. Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology- Substrates, MMIC process, comparison with hybrid integrated circuit technology (MIC technology).

Text Books :

1. A. Das and S. Das, Microwave Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2000.

2. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, 1998. (Use the latest version)

References Books :

1. B. Bhat and S. K. Koul, Stripline-like Transmission Lines for Microwave Integrated Circuits, Wiley Eastern Ltd.,

2. T. C. Edwards, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design, John Wiley & Sons,.

3. K. C. Gupta, R. Garg, I.Bahl and P. Bhartia, Microstrip Lines and Slotlines, Second Edition, Artech House

4. K.C Gupta, Microwaves, Wiley Eastern Ltd.

5. P.A. Rizzi, Microwave Engineering- Passive Circuits, Prentice Hall,.

6. Robert E. Collin, Foundations for microwave engineering 2ed

7. Microwave Engineering , Raghuvanshi,Cengage learning

**BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION**

Unit-1

HUMAN BODY SUBSYSTEMS- Brief description of neural, muscular, cardiovascular and respiratory systems; their electrical, mechanical and chemical activities.

TRANSDUCERS AND ELECTRODES- Principles and classification of transducers for Bio-medical applications, Electrode theory, different types of electrodes, Selection criteria for transducers and electrodes.

Unit-2

BIOPOTENTIALS- Electrical activity of excitable cells, ENG, EMG, ECG, ERG, ECG. Neuron potential. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM MEASUREMENTS- Measurement of blood pressure, blood flow, cardiac output, cardiac rate, heart sounds, Electrocardiograph, phonocardiograph, Plethysmograph, Echocardiograph.

Unit-3

INSTRUMENTATION FOR CLINICAL LABORATORY- Measurement of pH value of blood, ESR measurement, hemoglobin measurement, O2 and CO2 concentration in blood, GSR measurement. Spectrophotomentry, chromatography, Hematology,

MEDICAL IMAGING: Diagnostic X-rays, CAT, MRI, thermography, ultrasonography, medical use of isotopes, endoscopy.

Unit-4

PATIENT CARE, BIOTELEMETRY AND SAFETY MEASURES Elements of Intensive care monitoring basic hospital systems and components, physiological effects of electric current shock hazards from electrical equipment, safety measures, Standards & practices. Biomedical Telemetry: Introduction, block diagram and description of single channel/multi channel telemetry systems.

THERAPEUTIC AND PROSTHETIC DEVICES – Introduction to cardiac pacemakers, defibrillators, ventilators, muscle stimulators, diathermy, heart lung machine, Hemodialysis, Applications of Laser.

Unit-5

APPLICATIONS OF BIOPOTENTIALS: Electrocardiographic diagnostic criteria for Identification of cardiac disorders, Electro cardiographic pattern of ischemia, Atrial abnormalities, Ventricular enlargement, Abnormal ECG patterns, Clinical applications of EEG, EMG, ERG.

COMPUTER APPLICATIONS: data acquisition and processing, remote data recording and management. Real time computer applications

Text Books :

1. L. Cromwell, F. J. Weibell, and L. A. Pfeiffer, Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements, Pearson Education, Delhi, (1990)

2. J. J. Carr and J. M. Brown, Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology, 4th ed., Pearson Education, Delhi, (2001)

References Books :

1. Biomedical Instrumentation Systems , Chatterjee, Cengage learning

2. Aston, “Principles of Biomedical Instrumentation and measurements”, McGraw Hill publishing Co,

3. L.A. Geddes and L.E. Baker, Principles of Applied Biomedical Instrumentation , John Wiley & Sons, Inc,

4. Richard Aston, Principles of Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurement , Merrill Publishing Company,.

5. Jacobson B. and Webster J.G., Medical Clinical Engineers , Prentice Hall Inc.,.

6. J. G. Webster, Medical Instrumentation Application and Design, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, N.Y.,

7. R. S. Khandpur, Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation, 2nd ed., Tata McGraw Hill,

8. R. Anandanatarajan, “Biomedical Instrumentation”, PHI Learning

**ADVANCED DATA STRUCTURES AND ALGORITHMS**

Unit-1

Basic Concepts of OOPs – Templates Function and class templates -Algorithms: performance analysis: time complexity and space complexity– ADT – List (Singly– Doubly and Circular) Implementation – Array – Pointer – Cursor Implementation

Unit-2

Stacks and Queues – ADT– Implementation and Applications – Trees – General– Binary – Binary Search – Expression Search – AVL – Introduction to Red Black trees and Splay tree – B Trees – Implementations – Tree Traversals

Unit-3

Set – Implementation – Basic Operations on Set – Priority Queue – Implementation – Graphs – Directed Graphs – Shortest Path Problem Undirected Graph – Spanning Trees – Graph Traversals: hash table representation: hash functions: collision resolution: separate chaining: open addressing: linear probing: quadratic probing: double hashing: rehashing.

Unit-4

Issues – Managing Equal Sized Blocks – Garbage Collection Algorithms for Equal Sized Blocks – Storage Allocation for Objects with Mixed Sizes – Buddy Systems – Storage Compaction

Unit-5

Searching Techniques – Sorting – Internal Sorting – Bubble Sort – Insertion Sort – Quick Sort – Heap Sort – Bin Sort – Radix Sort – External Sorting – Merge Sort – Multiway Merge Sort – Polyphase Sorting – Design Techniques – Divide and Conquer – Dynamic Programming – Greedy Algorithm – Backtracking – Local Search Algorithms.

Text Books :

1. Tanenbaum A.S, Langram Y, Augestien M.J., Data Structures using C & C++, Prentice Hall of India, (2002).

2. Data structures, Algorithms and Applications in C++, S.Sahni, University Press (India) Pvt.Ltd, 2nd edition, Universities Press Orient Longman Pvt. Ltd. (2005)

References Books :

1. Mark Allen Weiss:Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in C++,Pearson Education

2. Aho Hopcroft Ullman, ―Data Structures and Algorithms, Pearson Education,

3. Horowitz Sahni, Rajasekaran, ―Computer Algorithms, Galgotia,.

4. Data structures and Algorithms in C++, Michael T.Goodrich, R.Tamassia and Mount, Wiley student edition, John Wiley and Sons.

5. Data Structure and Algorithm in C++ , Drozdek, Cengage learning

6. Data Structures: A Pseudocode Approach with C, Gilberg,Cengage learning

**COMPUTER ORIENTED NUMERICAL & STATISTICAL METHODS**

Unit-1

SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS- Cramer’s Rule, Gauss Elimination, Gauss Jordan Elimination and Gauss Seidal Iterative Methods

Unit-2

SOLUTION OF NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS- Interval Bisection Method, Secant Method, Regula- Falsi Method, Curve Fitting, Method of

Least Squares and their Computer Programming in C

Unit-3

SOLUTION OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS- Solution of Partial Differential Equations with Special Reference to Heat Equation, Laplace Equation and Wave Equation Milne’s and their Computer Programming in C. Curve Fitting Methods – Method of Least Squares, Fitting a Straight Line, Parabola.

Unit-4

STOCHASTIC PROCESSES – Definitions, Random Process Concept, Statistics of Stochastic Processes: Mean, Autocorrelation, Autocovariance. Stationary Processes, Strict and Wide Sense Stationary, Random Processes and Linear Systems.

Unit-5

STOCHASTIC PROCESSES IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN – Power Spectrum of Stochastic Processes, Transmission over LTI systems, Gaussian and White Processes, Properties of Power Spectral Density.

Text Books :

1. Numerical methods for Scientific and Engineering Computation by M.K.Jain, S.R.K.Iyengar, R.K. Jain. (2003)

2. Computer based numerical algorithms by E.V. Krishnamoorthy.(2004)

References Books :

1. Introduction to Numerical Analysis by E. Atkinson

2. Peebles, P. Probability, random variables and random signal principles. Mc Graw Hill.

3. Computer Oriented Numerical & Statistical Methods by Dr. Gokhroo & Others

4. Elementary Numerical Analysis by Samuel D.Conte and Cart de Boor, McGraw Hill International Edition.

5. Numerical methods for Science and Engineering, PHI by R.G.Stanton

6. Papoulis, A. Probability, random variables and stochastic processes. Mc Graw Hill (international Students’ edition), Singapore.

7. Childers, D. G. Probability and random processes using MATLAB. Mc Graw Hill,

8. Smith, G. D. Numerical Solution of PDE, Oxford Uni. Press

**ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING DESIGN LAB**

Experiments :

1. Op-Amp characteristics and get data for input bias current measure the output-offset voltage and reduce it to zero and calculate slew rate.

2. Op-Amp in inverting and non-inverting modes.

3. Op-Amp as scalar, summer and voltage follower.

4. Op-Amp as differentiator and integrator.

5. Design LPF and HPF using Op-Amp 741

6. Design Band Pass and Band reject Active filters using Op-Amp 741.

7. Design Oscillators using Op-Amp (i) RC phase shift (ii) Hartley (iii) Colpitts

8. Design (i) Astable (ii) Monostable multivibrators using IC-555 timer

9. Design Triangular & square wave generator using 555 timer.

10. Design Amplifier (for given gain) using Bipolar Junction Transistor.

**MICROWAVE ENGINEERING LAB**

Experiments :

1. Study of various microwave components and instruments like frequency meter, attenuator, detector and VSWR meter. (a) Measurement of guide wavelength and frequency using a X-band slotted line setup. (b) Measurement of low and high VSWR using a X-band slotted line setup.

2. Measurement of SWR and shift in the standing wave minimum with unknown load, and calculation of unknown load impedance using Smith chart.

3. (a) Draw the V-I characteristics of a Gunn diode, and determine the output power and frequency as a function of voltage (b) Study the square wave modulation of microwave signal using PIN diode modulator.

4. Measurement of resonance characteristics of a microstrip ring resonator using power meter and Determination of the substrate dielectric constant.

5. (a) To study the coupling characteristics of (i) a microstrip 3dB branchline coupler, and (ii) a stripline backward wave coupler as a function of frequency. Compare the bandwidth in the two cases. (b) Measure the microwave input, direct, coupled and isolated powers of a backward wave stripline coupler at the centre frequency using a power meter. From the measurements calculate the coupling, isolation and directivity of the coupler.

6. Measure the power division and isolation characteristics of a microstrip 3dB power divider.

7. Study of rat race hybrid ring (equivalent of waveguide Magic-Tee) in microstrip

8. (a) Study of low pass and band pass microstrip filters (b) Measurement of gain versus frequency of a microwave amplifier using power meter.

**COMMUNICATION LAB – I**

Experiments :

1. To generate the different type of waveforms using fundamental frequency and its harmonics and also analysis these waveforms.

2. Perform the experiment of the amplitude modulation and calculate the modulation index. Also study the DSB, DSB-SC, SSB modulation & demodulation and also observe the effect of AGC.

3. To Study the properties of Super Heterodyne receiver in AM transmitting & receiving. Sensitivity, selectivity through experimental setup.

4. To perform the different type of FM modulation & demodulation schemes and study the effect of Amplitude limiter in FM demodulator.

5. To find the characteristics impedance, input impedance, losses, standing waves, phase shifting in transmission line.

6. To perform the PAM (natural, flat top, sample & hold sampling), PWM, PPM Modulation & demodulation techniques.

7. To perform the experiment of and observe the effect of change in type of modulating signal as sine , square, arbitrary and change in frequency of sampling signal in PAM, PWM, PPM modulation and demodulation.

8. To Study & observation of the four channel analog TDM using DSB-SC through experimental setup.

9. To Study& observation of the FDM through experimental setup.

10. To perform the experiment of the various sampling (natural, flat top & sample & hold) of analog signal of type sine, square & arbitrary.

**SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB**

Experiments :

1. Simulation in MATLAB Environment: Generation of continuous and discrete elementary signals (periodic and non-periodic) using mathematical expression.

2. Generation of Continuous and Discrete Unit Step Signal.

3. Generation of Exponential and Ramp signals in Continuous & Discrete domain.

4. Continuous and discrete time Convolution (using basic definition).

5. Adding and subtracting two given signals. (Continuous as well as Discrete signals)

6. To generate uniform random numbers between (0, 1).

7. To generate a random binary wave.

8. To generate random sequences with arbitrary distributions, means and variances for following :

(a) Rayleigh distribution (b) Normal distributions: N(0,1). (c) Gaussion distributions: N (mx, σ 2) x

9. To plot the probability density functions. Find mean and variance for the above distributions