# RTU Syllabus Electronics And Communication Engineering 4th Semester

**ANALOG ELECTRONICS**

Unit-1

FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS – Classification, Feedback concept, Feedback Topologies, Transfer gain with feedback, General characteristics of negative feedback amplifiers. Analysis of voltage-series, voltage-shunt, current-series and current-shunt feedback amplifier. Stability criterion. Compensation techniques, miller compensation.

Unit-2

OSCILLATORS & Multivibrators – Classification. Criterion for oscillation. Tuned collector, Hartley, Colpitts, RC Phase shift, Wien bridge and crystal oscillators, Astable, monostable and bistable multivibrators. Schmitt trigger. Blocking oscillators.

Unit-3

HIGH FREQUENCY AMPLIFIERS – Hybrid Pi model, Conductances and capacitances of hybrid Pi model, high frequency analysis of CE amplifier, gain bandwidth product, unity gain frequency fT, Emitter follower at high frequencies.

Unit-4

TUNED AMPLIFIER – Band Pass Amplifier, Parallel resonant Circuits, Band Width of Parallel resonant circuit. Analysis of Single Tuned Amplifier, Primary & Secondary Tuned Amplifier with BJT & FET, Double TunedTransformer Coupled Amplifier. Stagger Tuned Amplifier. Pulse Response of such Amplifier, class C tuned amplifiers, Shunt Peaked Circuits for Increased Bandwidth.

Unit-5

POWER AMPLIFIERS – Classification, Power transistors & power MOSFET (DMOS, VMOS). Output power, power dissipation and efficiency analysis of Class A, class B, class AB, class C, class D and class E amplifiers as output stages. Pushpull amplifiers with and without transformers, Complementary symmetry & quasi complimentary symmetry amplifiers.

Text Books :

1. Millman, Integrated Electronics, TMH.(1972)

2. A. S. Sedra, Kenneth C. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, Oxford University Press.(2007)

References Books :

1. M. H. Rashid, Microelectronic Circuits Analysis and Design, Cengage Learning

2. Electronic Devices and Circuits–II, R.Tiwari, Genius publications

3. Salivahnan, Electronics Devices and Circuits, TMH.

4. Fundamentals of Analog Circuits 2e, Floyd, Pearson

5. David A. BELL, Electronic Devices and Circuits, Oxford University Press.

**RANDOM VARIABLES & STOCHASTIC PROCESSES**

Unit-1

PROBABILITY – Introduction, definitions, conditional probability, combined experiments.

Unit-2

RANDOM VARIABLES – Introduction, Distribution and density functions, Discrete and continuous random variables, (Gaussian), Exponential, Rayleigh, Uniform, Bernoulli, Binominal, Poisson, discrete Uniform and conditional distributions. Functions of one random variable: distribution, mean, variance, moments and characteristics functions.

Unit-3

MULTIPLE RANDOM VARIABLES – distributions, Pne function of two random variables, Two functions of two random variables, Joint moments, Joint characteristics functions, Conditional distributions, conditional expected values, statistical independence. Multiple random variables: multiple functions of multiple random variables, jointly Gaussian random variables, sums of random variable, Central limit theorem.

Unit-4

STOCHASTIC PROCESSES – Definitions, Random process concept, Statistics of stochastic processes: mean, autocorrelation, strict and wide sense stationary, random processes and Linear Systems.

Unit-5

STOCHASTIC PROCESSES IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN – Power spectrum of stochastic processes, Transmission over LTI systems, Gaussian and White processes, Properties of power spectral density.

Text Books :

1. Probability, Random Variables And Stochastic Processes, Papoulis, TMH (2002)

2. Stochastic Processes, 2ed, Ross, Wiley.(1996)

References Books :

1. Devore – Probability and statistics for engineering and sciences, Cengage learning

2. Mendenhall – Introduction to probability and statistics, Cengage learning

3. Probability, Random Variables And Random Signal Principles, Peebles, TMH

4. Probability Theory and Stochastic Processes for Engineers, Bhat, Pearson

5. Probability and Random Processes with Application to Signal Processing, 3/e, Stark,Pearson

6. Random Variables & Stochastic Processes, Gaur and Srivastava, Genius publications

7. Random Processes: Filtering, Estimation and Detection, Ludeman, Wiley

8. An Introduction to Probability Theory & Its App., Feller, Wiley

**ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT & INSTRUMENTATION**

Unit-1

THEORY OF ERRORS – Accuracy & precision, Repeatability, Limits of errors, Systematic & random errors, Modeling of errors, Probable error & standard deviation, Gaussian error analysis, Combination of errors.

Unit-2

ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS – Electronic Voltmeter, Electronic Multimeters, Digital Voltmeter, and Component Measuring Instruments: Q meter, Vector Impedance meter, RF Power & Voltage Measurements, Introduction to shielding & grounding.

Unit-3

OSCILLOSCOPES – CRT Construction, Basic CRO circuits, CRO Probes, Techniques of Measurement of frequency, Phase Angle and Time

Delay, Multibeam, multi trace, storage & sampling Oscilloscopes.

Unit-4

SIGNAL GENERATION AND SIGNAL ANALYSIS – Sine wave generators, Frequency synthesized signal generators, Sweep frequency generators. Signal Analysis – Measurement Technique, Wave Analyzers, and Frequency – selective wave analyser, Heterodyne wave analyser, Harmonic distortion analyser, and Spectrum analyser.

Unit-5

TRANSDUCERS – Classification, Selection Criteria, Characteristics, Construction, Working Principles and Application of following Transducers:- RTD, Thermocouples, Thermistors, LVDT, Strain Gauges, Bourdon Tubes, Seismic Accelerometers, Tachogenerators, Load Cell, Piezoelectric Transducers, Ultrasonic Flow Meters.

Text Books :

1. Electronic Instrument and Measurment, Bell, Oxford .(2007)

2. Electronic Measurements & Instrumentation, Bernard Oliver, TMH.(1971)

References Books :

1. Electronic Instrumentation, H S Kalsi, TMH

2. Instrumentation Measurement & Analysis, B.C.Nakra,K.K. Chaudhry, TMH

3. Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation, Gupta & Soni, Genius pub.

4. Electronic Measurements & Instrumentation, Bernard Oliver, John Cage, TMH

5. Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation, Lal Kishore, Pearson

6. Elements of Electronic Instrumentation And Measurement, Carr, Pearson

7. Instrumentation for Engineering Measurements, 2ed, Dally, Wiley

8. Introduction To Measurements and Instrumetation, Arun K. Ghosh, PHI

**ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY**

Unit-1

INTRODUCTION – Vector Algebra, different Coordinate system, Relation in rectangular, cylindrical, spherical and general curvilinear coordinates system. Line, Surface and volume integral, Concept and physical interpretation of gradient, Divergence and curl. Divergence, Stoke’s and Green’s theorems.

Unit-2

ELECTROSTATICS – Electric field intensity & flux density (D). Electric field due to various charge configurations. Gauss’s law, divergence of electric flux and Maxwell’s first equation, The potential functions and gradient of electric potential. Maxwell curl equation for static electric field. Poisson’s and Laplace’s equation and their solution. Divergence of current density (J) and Continuity equation for current. Duality of J and D, Capacitance and electrostatics energy. Field determination by method of images, Boundary conditions, Field mapping and concept of field cells.

Unit-3

MAGNETOSTATICS – Bio-Savart’s law, Ampere’s circuital law Magnetic field intensity H, flux density B & magnetization M, their interrelation. Curl of H. Magnetic scalar and vector potential, Faraday’s Law, self & mutual inductance, Energy stored in magnetic field, Boundary conditions, Analogy between electric and magnetic field, Field maping and concept of field cells.

Unit-4

TIME VARYING FIELDS – Displacement currents, displacement vector and equation of continuity. Maxwell’s equations, Uniform plane wave in free space, dielectrics and conductors, Depth of penetration-skin effect, Sinusoidal time variations, Reflection & Refraction of Uniform Plane Wave, standing wave ratio. Pointing vector and power considerations.

Unit-5

RADIATION, EMI AND EMC – Retarded Potentials and concepts of radiation, Radiation from a small current element. Radiation Resistance: Introduction to Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic compatibility, EMI error in equipments, EMI standard, EMI coupling modes, Methods of eliminating interference, shielding, grounding, conducted EMI, EMI testing: emission testing, susceptibility testing.

Text Books :

1. Sadiku, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Oxford .(2000)

2. Mahapatra, Principles of Electromagnetics, TMH.(2011)

References Books :

1. Kshetrimeyum – Electromagnetic field theory, Cengage learning

2. Hayt, Engineering Electromagnetics, TMH

3. Jordan Balmain, Electromagnetic Field Theory and Radiations, PHI

4. Kaduskar ,Principles of Electromagnetics, Wiley

5. Reitz ,Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory, Pearson

6. Seavganokar, Electromagnetic Waves, TMH

7. Rao, Electromagnetic Field Theory and Transmission Lines, Wiley

8. David K. Chang, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Pearson

**OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES**

Unit-1

INTRODUCTION – Historical development, engineering application of optimization, Formulation of design problems as a mathematical programming problem, Classification of optimization problems.

Unit-2

LINEAR PROGRAMMING – Simplex methods, Revised simplex method, Duality in linear programming, post optimality analysis.

Unit-3

APPLICATIONS OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING – Transportation and assignment problems

Unit-4

NON-LINEAR PROGRAMMING – Unconstrained optimization techniques, Direct search methods, Descent methods, Constrained optimization, Direct and Indirect methods.

Unit-5

DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING- Introduction, multi-decision processes, computational procedure

Text Books :

1. Albright – Data analysis, optimization and simulation modeling, Cengage learning .(2011)

References Books :

1. Hiller and Lieberman, Introduction to Operation Research (Seventh Edition),TMH

2. Prasad – Operations Research, Cengage learning

3. Ravindren Philips and Solberg, Operation Research Principles and Practice (Second Edition), Wiley

4. Anderson – An introduction to management science, quantitative approaches to decision making, Cengage learning

**ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-II**

Unit-1

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS- Finite differences – Forward, Backward and Central differences. Newton’s forward and backward differences, interpolation formulae. Stirling’s formula, Lagrange’s interpolation formula.

Unit-2

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS- Integration-Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s one third and three-eighth rules. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations of first order – Picard’s mathod, Euler’s and modified Euler’s methods, Miline’s method and Runga-Kutta fourth order method, Differentiation.

Unit-3

SPECIAL FUNCTIONS – Bessel’s functions of first and second kind, simple recurrence relations, orthogonal property of Bessel’s, Transformation, Generating functions, Legendre’s function of first kind. Simple recurrence relations, Orthogonal property, Generating function.

Unit-4

STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY – Elementary theory of probability, Baye’s IV theorem with simple applications, Expected value, theoretical probability distributions-Binomial, Poisson and Normal distributions. Lines of regression, co-relation and rank correlation.

Unit-5

CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS – Functional, strong and weak variations simple variation problems, the Euler’s equation.

Text Books :

1. Advanced Engg. Mathematics, Irvin Kreyszig, Wiley .(2007)

References Books :

1. Datta – Mathematical methods of science & engineering, Cengage learning

2. O’neil – Advanced Engineering mathematics, Cengage learning

3. Applied Statics & Probability, Montgomery, Wiley

4. Engineering Mathematics, T Veerarajan, TMH

5. Mathematical Techniques, Jordan, Oxford

6. Engineering Mathematics IV, K.C. Sarangi and others, Genius publications

7. Advance Engineering Mathematics, Potter, Oxford

8. Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 2/e, Greenberg

**COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LAB-II**

Experiments :

1. Write a program to perform the complex arithmetic.

2. Write a program to perform the rational number arithmetic.

3. Write a program to perform the matrix operations. (Transpose, addition, subtraction, multiplication, test if a matrix is symmetric/ lower triangular/ upper triangular)

4. Implement Morse code to text conversion and vice-versa.

5. To calculate Greatest Common Divisor of given numbers.

6. To implement tower of Hanoi problem.

7. To implement spell checker using dictionary.

8. To implement a color selector from a given set of colors.

9. To implement a shape selector from a given set of shapes.

10. To implement a calculator with its functionality.

11. By mapping keys to pens of different colors, implement turtle graphics.

12. To implement a graph and display BFS/DFS order of nodes.

**ANALOG ELECTRONICS LAB**

Experiments :

1. Plot gain-frequency characteristics of BJT amplifier with and without feedback in the emitter circuit and determine bandwidths, gain bandwidth products and gains at 1kHz with and without negative feedback.

2. Study of series and shunt voltage regulators and measurement of line regulation and ripple factor.

3. Plot and study the characteristics of small signal amplifier using FET.

4. Study of push pull amplifier. Measure variation of output power & distortion with load.

5. Study Wein bridge oscillator and observe the effect of variation in R oscillator frequency

6. Study transistor phase shift oscillator and observe the effect of variation in R & C on oscillator frequency and compare with theoretical value.

7. Study the following oscillators and observe the effect of variation of C on oscillator frequency: (a) Hartley (b) Colpitts

8. Design Fabrication and Testing of k-derived filters (LP/HP).

9. Study of a Digital Storage CRO and store a transient on it.

10. To plot the characteristics of UJT and UJT as relaxation.

11. To plot the characteristics of MOSFET and CMOS.

**MEASUREMENT & INSTRUMENTATION LAB**

Experiments :

1. Measure earth resistance using fall of potential method.

2. Plot V-I characteristics & measure open circuit voltage & short circuit current of a solar panel

3. Measure unknown inductance capacitance resistance using following bridges (a) Anderson Bridge (b) Maxwell Bridge

4. To measure unknown frequency & capacitance using Wein’s bridge.

5. Measurement of the distance with the help of ultrasonic transmitter & receiver.

6. Measurement of displacement with the help of LVDT.

7. Draw the characteristics of the following temperature transducers (a) RTD (Pt-100) (b) Thermistors.

8. Draw the characteristics between temperature & voltage of a K type thermocouple.

9. Calibrate an ammeter using D.C. slide wire potentiometer.

10. Measurement of strain/ force with the help of strain gauge load cell.

11. Study the working of Q-meter and measure Q of coils.

12. Calibrate a single-phase energy meter (Analog and Digital) by phantom loading at different power factor by: (i) Phase shifting transformer (ii) Auto transformer .