# RTU Syllabus Electronics And Communication Engineering 6th Semester

**MICROWAVE ENGINEERING–II**

Unit-1

IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION AND MATCHING : Lumped elements for MICs and MMICs- printed inductors, capacitors and resonant elements. The Smith chart- combined impedance-admittance chart. Impedance matching with lumped elements (L networks) and Smith chart solutions. Single stub tuning in microstrip circuits using shunt stub. Single section quarter-wave transformer.

Unit-2

MICROWAVE DIODES AND DIODE CIRCUITS: Detector Diodes – Silicon crystal diode and Schottky diode. V-I characteristic of detector diode, basic operation of detection and mixing, single diode mixer circuit. PIN diode – Equivalent circuit and characteristics of PIN diode, single-pole PIN diode switches and single bit phase shifters. Varactor diode- Device characteristics and circuit applications. Gunn diode- Gunn effect, principle of operation and characteristics, typical oscillator circuit using Gunn diode. IMPATT diode- Characteristics, negative resistance, power output and efficiency.

Unit-3

MICROWAVE TRANSISTORS AND CIRCUITS : Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) – Geometry of silicon bipolar transistor, DC biasing, microwave equivalent circuit and characteristics. Microwave Field Effect Transistors (FETs) – Physical structure and principle of operation of JFET, MOSFET and MESFET, characteristics, comparison of FET devices and circuit applications. Single stage FET amplifier – Block schematic of a single stage FET amplifier circuit, Stability considerations, analysis and derivation of expression for transducer gain with unilateral transistor, design criteria for maximum gain.

Unit-4

Klystrons- Limitations of conventional vacuum tubes. Reflex klystron – Basic schematic, mechanism of operation, modes of oscillation and modulation. Velocity modulation and electron bunching (analytical treatment),

Magnetrons- Types of magnetron. Basic structure of magnetron, analysis, resonant modes in magnetron, operation, mechanism of oscillations, practical consideration of cavity magnetron. Introduction to coaxial, frequency angle and voltage tunable magnetrons.

Unit-5

Travelling Wave Tube Amplifier- Basic schematic of helix type TWT tube. Introduction to CW power pulsed dual mode TWT. TWT amplifier operational characteristics. Applications of TWT. Crossed- field amplifier.

Text Books :

1. A. Das and S. Das, Microwave Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill, (2000).

2. S.Y.Liao, Microwave devices and circuits, Prentice Hall, 2nd Edition (1985).

References Books :

1. B. Bhat and S. K. Koul, Stripline-like Transmission Lines for Microwave Integrated Circuits, Wiley Eastern Ltd.,

2. T. C. Edwards, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design, John Wiley & Sons,.

3. K. C. Gupta, R. Garg, I. Bahl and P. Bhartia, Microstrip Lines and Slotlines, Second Edition, Artech House

4. K.C Gupta, Microwaves, Wiley Eastern Ltd.

5. P.A. Rizzi, Microwave Engineering- Passive Circuits, Prentice Hall,.

6. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, John Wiley & Sons,. (Use the latest version)

7. Dennis Roddy, Microwave Technology, Prentice-Hall,

8. Roy Mitra, Microwave semiconductor devices, PHI,

9. Robert E. Collin, Foundations for microwave engineering 2ed

10. Microwave and Radar Engineering, G.S.B. Rao, Pearson

**MICROPROCESSORS**

Unit-1

INTRODUCTION: The 8085 architecture, memory, I/O Devices, Logic devices for interfacing, Memory, Interfacing, addressing modes, Instructions, programming techniques.

Unit-2

INTRODUCTION TO 8085 INSTRUCTIONS: Looping, counting and Indexing, Data Transfer and Arithmetic instructions, Counters and Time Displays, stacks & subroutines, conditional call and return instructions.

Unit-3

Code Conversion, BCD Arithmetic and 16 Bit Data Operations additional data transfer & 16 bit arithmetic Instructions, arithmetic operations related to memory counter and time delays.

Unit-4

Interrupts: The 8085 Interrupt, vectored interrupts, additional I/Oconcepts and processes, serial I/O & data communication.

Unit-5

General purpose programming peripheral devices: 8255 Programmable peripheral interface, Interfacing keyboard and Seven Segment display. The 8254 programmable Interval timer, the 8259 programmable Interrupt controller.8257 DMA controller.

Text Books :

1. Microprocessors Architecture, Programming &Application, Ramesh S. Gaonkar, (2000)

2. A Textbook of Microprocessors and Microcontrollers, R.S. Kaler I.K International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.

References Books :

1.Introduction to Microprocessors, A.P. Mathur, Mc Graw Hill

**INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS**

Unit-1

SEMICONDUCTOR POWER DEVICES – Basic characteristics & working of Power Diodes, Diac, SCR, Triac, Power Transistor, MOSFETs, IGBT, and GTO.

Unit-2

RECTIFIERS & INVERTERS – Working principles of single and three phase bridge rectifiers, Voltage and current source inverters.

Unit-3

POWER SUPPLIES: Principle of operation of choppers. Step up, Step down and reversible choppers. High frequency electronic ballast, Switch Mode Power Supply: Fly back converter, forward/buck converter, Boost converter and buck-boost converter. Uninterruptible Power Supply.

Unit-4

MOTOR CONTROL: Introduction to speed control of DC motors using phase controlled converters and choppers, Basic idea of speed control of three phase induction motors using voltage and frequency control methods.

Unit-5

Stepper Motors: Variable reluctance, Permanent magnet and hybrid stepper motors. Induction and dielectric heating control.

Text Books :

1. Power Electronics Principles & Applications, Joseph Vithayathil, TMH , (2010).

2. Power Eletronics, Ravish Singh, TMH, (2012).

References Books :

1. Industrial Electronics And Control, Ttti, TMH

2. Power Electronics: Converters Applications., Mohan, Robbins, Wiley

3. Power Electronics, Moorthi, Oxford

4. Elements Of Power Electronics, Krein, Oxford

5. Power Electronics, R.S.Murthy, Pearson

6. Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices And Applications

**DIGITAL COMMUNICATION**

Unit-1

Digital Transmission Of Analog Signals: Uniform and Non-uniform quantization. PCM and delta modulation, Signal to quantization noise ratio in PCM and delta modulation. DPCM, ADM, T1 Carrier System, Error probability in PCM system.

Unit-2

Base Band Transmission: Line coding (RZ, NRZ): Polar, Bipolar, Manchester, AMI. Inter symbol interference, Pulse shaping, Nyquist criterion, Raised cosine spectrum. Optimum detection, Matched filter.\

Unit-3

Digital Modulation Techniques: Geometric interpretation of signals and Orthogonalization. ASK, BPSK, BFSK, QPSK, M-ary PSK, MSK and GMSK modulation techniques and Coherent detection of these techniques. Signal constellation and calculation of error probabilities.

Unit-4

Information Theory: Measure of Information, Average Information, Entropy, Information rate, Increase in Average information per bit by coding, Shannon’s Theorem and Shannon’s bound, Capacity of a Gaussian Channel, BW-S/N trade off.

Unit-5

Source & Error Control Coding: Coding and decoding of Information Source coding, Entropy coding, Hamming code, Single Parity- Bit Code, Linear Block code, Cyclic code & Convolutional code.

Text Books :

1. Digital Communications Systems, P RamaKrishna Rao, Mc Graw Hill

2. Digital Communications Systems, Simon Haykins, Wiley

References Books :

1. Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications, Bernard Sklar, Pearson Education

2. Analog and Digital Communication, Schum Series, TMH

3. Digital & Analog Communication Systems, Leon W. Couch, Pearson

4. Analog & Digital Communication Systems, Singal, TMH

5. An Introduction To Analog & Digital Communications, Haykins, Wiley

6. Digital And Analog Communication Systems, Shanmugam, Wiley

7. Proakis J. G. and Salehi M., “Communication Systems Engineering”, Pearson Education

8. Electronic Communication Systems-, Kennedy Devis, TMH

**CONTROL SYSTEM**

Unit-1

CONTROL SYSTEM AND THEIR REPRESENTATION: Terminology and basic structure of control system, Open loop and Closed loop systems, servomechanism, regulatory system, analogous systems. Physical Systems and their models, Electromechanical systems, electrical analogy of physical systems.

Transfer function, Block diagram representation of physical systems, Block diagram algebra, Signal Flow graph and Mason’s formula.

Unit-2

TIME RESPONSE: Types of test inputs, Response of first and second order system, Time domain specifications, Error coefficients, generalized error series.

STABILITY: Concepts of stability, location of roots in s-plane for stability, asymptotic stability and relative stability, Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion.

Unit-3

ROOT LOCUS: Root locus plot, Properties of Root loci and applications, Stability range from the loci. Determination of roots of the closed loop system, Effect of pole zero addition.

NYQUIST PLOTS: Polar plots, Nyquist plots and Nyquist stability criterion.

Unit-4

BODE PLOTS: Concepts of Gain margin and phase margin, Bode plots. Frequency-domain specifications M and N loci ,Nichols chart.

Unit-5

CONTROLLERS: Introduction to PID and Lag-lead type Controllers.

STATE VARIABLE ANALYSIS: Concepts of state, state variable and state model. State variable models for LTI systems. Canonical representations, Transfer function to state-space and vice-versa. Solution to state equations. Concepts of controllability & observability.

COMPENSATION DESIGN: compensation design using frequency domain techniques.

Text Books :

1. Modern control Engineering, Ogata, Pearson.(2009)

2. Nise’s Control System Engineering, Rajeev Gupta, Wiley (2011)

References Books :

1. Control Systems: Principles & Design, M. Gopal, TMH

2. Automatic Control System,B. C. Kuo,Wiley

3. Singh & Janardhanan – Modern control engineering, Cengage learning

4. Control Systems,Srivastava,TMH

5. Systems and Control – Stanislawhizak, Oxford

6. Control System Engineering,S. K. Bhattacharya,Pearson

7. Control Systems: Theory And Applications,Ghosh,Pearson

8. Manik – Control systems, Cengage learning

**NEURAL NETWORKS**

Unit-1

NEUROPHYSIOLOGY: Introduction: Elementary neurophysiology – From neurons to ANNs – Neuron model McCulloch-Pitts model, Hebbian Hypothesis; limitations of single-layered neural networks.

Unit-2

LINEAR NETWORKS: Adaline-the adaptive linear element. Linear regression. The Wiener-Hopf equation. The Least-Mean-Square (Widrow-Hoff) learning algorithm. Method of steepest descent. Adaline as a linear adaptive filter. A sequential regression algorithm.

Unit-3

MULTI-LAYER FEEDFORWARD NEURAL NETWORKS: Multi- Layer Perceptrons. Supervised Learning. Approximation and interpolation of functions. Back-Propagation Learning law. Fast training algorithms. Applications of multilayer perceptrons: Image coding, Paint- quality inspection, Nettalk.

SELF-ORGANISING SYSTEMS: Unsupervised Learning. Local learning laws. Generalised Hebbian Algorithm. The Oja’s and Sanger’s rules. Principal component analysis-Karhunen-Loeve transform.

Unit-4

COMPETITIVE LEARNING: MinNet and MaxNet networks. Clustering. Learning Vector Quantisation. Codebooks. Application in data compression.

SELF-ORGANISING FEATURE MAPS: Kohonen networks.RADIAL-BASIS FUNCTION NETWORKS: Radial-Basis function (RBF) networks and their application in function interpolation, approximation and modelling probability distributions. RECURRENT NETWORKS: Hopfield networks.

Unit-5

APPLICATIONS OF NEURAL NETWORKS: Pattern classification, Associative memories, Optimization, Applications in Image Processing- Iris, finger print & face, Applications in decision making, TSP Problem.

Text Books :

1. Jacek M. Zurada, Introduction to artificial neural systems, Jaico Publ. House, (1994).

2. S.N. Sivanandam, S. Sumathi and S.N. Deepa, Introduction to Neural Networks using MATLAB 6.0, Tata McGraw-Hill, (2006).

References Books :

1. Artificial Neural Network,Robert Schalloff,TMH

2. Fundamental Of Neural Network Architecture And Application,Laurene V. Fausett,Pearson

3. Neural Network Algorithm And Programing Tech,James A Freeman,Pearson

4. Neural N/W For Pattern Recognition,Cristopher, M.Bhishop,Oxford

5. Fuzzy Neuro Approach To Agent Application,Lee ,Raymond S.T.,New Age

6. Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks: Basic Concept And Application,A Lavala, Chemakesava R.,New Age

7. Neural Network Design w/CD, Hagan, Cengage Learning

**PARALLEL COMPUTATION & ARCHITECTURE**

Unit-1

Overview Of Parallel Processing: Constraints of conventional architecture, Parallelism in uniprocessor system, Architectural Classification.

Applications of parallel processing, Sorting networks, PRAM models, interconnection network, memory consistency models, shared memory multiprocessors.

Unit-2

Hardware taxonomy: Flynn’s classification, Handler’s classification, Software taxonomy, Kung’s taxonomy, SPMD, Basic Algorithms Fast Fourier Transform, Linear System Solution etc.

Unit-3

Instruction level Parallelism and Thread Level Parallelism, Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) Architecture, Principles of scalable performance: Performance Metrics and Measures, Speedup Performance Laws efficiency utilization, overheads.

Unit-4

Vector and Array Processor Basic vector architecture, Issues in Vector Processing, Vector performance modeling, SIMD Computer Organization Masking and Data network mechanism. Inter PE Communication, Interconnection networks of SIMD, Static V s

Dynamic network, cube hyper cube and Mesh Interconnection network, Parallel Algorithms For Array Processors.

Unit-5

Multiprocessor Architecture Loosely and Tightly coupled multiprocessors, Processor characteristics of multiprocessors, Inter Processor communication network, Time shared bus, Crossbar switch.

Text Books :

1. V.Rajaraman, L Sivaram Murthy, “Parallel Computers”, PID. (2004)

2. William Stallings, “Computer Organization and Architecture, Designing for performancePrentice Hall, Sixth edition.(2007)

References Books :

1. Kai Hwang, Scalable Parallel Computing.

2. Harrold Stone, High performance computer Architectures.

3. Richard Y. Kain , Advanced Computer Architecture.

4. Parallel Computing in C and OpenMPI , M. J. Quinn, McGraw-Hill

5. Assembly Language and Computer Architure Using C++ and JAVA w/CD, Reis, Cengage Learning

**OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION**

Unit-1

Optical Fiber Overview- Introduction, Ray theory, Optical fibers: multimode, single mode, step index, graded index, plastic & glass fibers.

Transmission Characteristics of Optical Fibers – Introduction, Attenuation, Material absorption loss, Fiber bend loss, scattering, Dispersion (intermodal & intramodal), Dispersion Shifted Fibers, Dispersion Compensating Fiber. Manufacturing of Optical Fibers – preparation of optical fiber, Liquid phase techniques and vapor phase depositions techniques.

Unit-2

OPTICAL FIBER SOURCES- Laser- Emission and absorption of radiation, Einstein relation, Absorption of radiation, Population inversion, Optical feedback, Threshold condition. Population inversion and threshold, working of three levels & four level lasers. Basic idea of solid state, semiconductors, gas & liquid laser. Basic concept of Q-switching and mode locking.

Unit-3

Optical Detectors – Optical detection principles, quantum efficiency, Responsivity, PIN photo diode, Avalanche photo diodes, Noise in Detectors, Photo Diode Materials. Optical Connectors – Fiber Alignment, fiber splices, fiber connectors, expanded beam connectors, fiber couplers.

Unit-4

Optical Fiber Measurements – Measurements of Fiber Attenuation, Dispersion, Refractive Index Profile, Cut off Wave Length, Numerical Aperture & Diameter. Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) – Field measurement through optical time domain reflectometry, Laser based systems for measurement of distance, Velocity, Holography.

Unit-5

Optical Fiber Systems–Wavelength division multiplexing, DWDM, active and passive components, optical sensors, optical amplifiers.

Optical Fiber Applications – public network applications, military, civil and industrial applications.

Text Books :

1. J.M. Senior, Optical Fiber Communication: Principles and Practice, Pearson Education. (2013)

2. R.P. Khare, Fiber Optics & Optoelectronics, Oxford Publications. (2014)

References Books :

1. R.P. Khare, Fiber Optics & Optoelectronics, Oxford Publications.

2. J.Gowar, Optical Communication Systems, PHI.

3. A.Ghatak & K.Thygarajan, Introduction to Fiber Optics, Cambridge University Press.

4. Joseph C Palais, Fiber Optics Communication, PHI.

5. Harold Kolimbris, Fiber Optics Communication, Pearson Education.

6. D. Anuradha, Optical Fiber and Laser, Principles and Applications, New Age.

**COMMUNICATION LAB–II**

Experiments :

1. To identify & solve the aliasing problem and verify the Nyquist criteria through the experimental setup.

2. To perform the experiment of observe the transmission of four signals over a single channel using TDM-PAM method.

3. To study the 4 channel PCM multiplexing & de-multiplexing in telephony system and calculate line speed and baud rate through the experimental setup.

4. To study the PCM, DPCM modulation & demodulation and study the effect of channel like as attenuation, noise in between modulator & demodulator through the experimental setup.

5. To study the Delta, Adaptive delta & sigma delta modulation & demodulation and also study the effect of channel like as attenuation, noise in between modulator & demodulator through the experimental setup.

6. To perform the experiment of generation and study the various data formatting schemes (Uni-polar, Bi-polar, Manchester, AMI etc.)

7. To perform the experiment of generation and detection of ASK, FSK, BPSK, DBPSK signals with variable length data pattern

8. To perform the experiment of generation and detection of QPSK, OQPSK, DQPSK signals with variable length data pattern.

9. To study the working of MSK modulation and its demodulation through the experimental setup.

10. To study the working of cyclic code, block code error check methods in communication system through the experimental setup.

**MICROPROCESSOR LAB**

Experiments :

1. Arranging a set of data in Ascending order.

2. Arranging a set of data in Descending order.

3. Finding out number of Positive, Negative and Zeros from a Data Set.

4. Searching the Existence of a certain data in a given data.

5. BCD to Binary conversion.

6. Binary to BCD conversion

7. Design a Up/Down Counter

8. Multiply Two 8 Bit Numbers using Successive Addition and Shifting method.

9. Find Factorial of a number.

10. Solve the given Algebraic Equation

11. Generate a Software Delay.

12. Division of 8 bit Unsigned Numbers.

13. A program to display real time clock. Assume a periodic signal is interrupting RST 7.5 signal after every 0.5 seconds,

14. Generate a square wave and rectangular wave of given frequency at the Output pin of 8255 chip.

**RF SIMULATION LAB**

Experiments :

1. Study of field pattern of various modes inside a rectangular waveguide.

2. Study of field pattern of various modes inside a rectangular waveguide cavity.

3. Observe the transient phenomenon of terminated coaxial transmission lines in order to study their time domain behaviour.

4. Study the behavior of terminated coaxial transmission lines in frequency domain.

5. Introduction to Smith chart and its application for the unknown impedance measurement.

6. Study the behavior of impedance matching for passive networks (RL, RC, RLC, T- and Π-network) using Smith chart.

7. Find the change in characteristics impedance and reflection coefficients of the transmission line by changing the dielectric properties of materials embedded between two conductors.

8.Design and simulate the following Planar Transmission Lines:

1. Stripline and microstrip lines

2. Parallel coupled striplines and microstrip lines

3. Slot lines and Coplanar lines

Determine their Field patterns and Characteristic impedance.

9. Design and simulate the following;

1. 3-dB branchline coupler,

2. backward wave coupler,

3. Wilkinson power dividers

4. rat- race hybrid ring.

5. Low pass filters

6. band pass filters.

10. Design RF amplifier using microwave BJT.

11 Design RF frequency doublers using microwave FET.

**INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS LAB**

Experiments :

1. Study the characteristics of SCR and observe the terminal configuration, Measure the breakdown voltage, latching and holding current. Plot V-I characteristics.

2. Perform experiment on triggering circuits for SCR. i.e. R-triggering,R-C triggering and UJT triggering circuit.

3. Study and test AC voltage regulators using triac, antiparallel thyristors and triac & diac.

4. Study and obtain the waveforms for single-phase bridge converter.

5. Perform experiment on single phase PWM inverter.

6. Perform experiment on buck, boost and buck-boost regulators.

7. Control speed of a dc motor using a chopper and plot armature voltage versus speed characteristic.

8. Control speed of a single-phase induction motor using single phase AC voltage regulator.

9. i) Study single-phase dual converter. ii) Study speed control of dc motor using single-phase dual converter.

10. Study single-phase cycloconverter.

11. Perform experiment on Motor control – open loop & closed loop.

12. Design, observe and perform experiment on various type of pulse generation from DSP/ FPGA Platform. Perform experiment for PWM inverters and choppers.