# RTU Syllabus Electronics And Communication Engineering 3rd Semester

**ELECTRONICS DEVICES & CIRCUITS**

Unit-1

SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS – Mobility and conductivity, Charge densities in a semiconductor, Fermi Dirac distribution, Fermi-Dirac statistics and Boltzmann approximation to the Fermi-Dirac statistics, Carrier concentrations and Fermi levels in semiconductor, Generation and recombination of charges, Diffusion and continuity equation, Transport equations, Mass action Law, Hall effect.

Unit-2

JUNCTION DIODES – Formation of homogenous and hetrojuntion diodes and their energy band diagrams, Calculation of contact potential and depletion width, V-I characteristics, Small signal models of diode, Diode as a circuit element, Diode parameters and load line concept, C-V characteristics and dopant profile. Applications of diodes in rectifier, Clipping, Clamping circuits and voltage multipliers, Transient behavior of PN diode, Breakdown diodes, Schottky diodes, and Zener diode as voltage regulator, Construction, Characteristics and operating principle of UJT.

Unit-3

TRANSISTORS – Characteristics, Current components, Current gains: alpha and beta. Variation of transistor parameter with temperature and current level, Operating point, Hybrid model, DC model of transistor, h-parameter equivalent circuits. CE, CB and CC configuration. DC and AC analysis of single stage CE, CC (Emitter follower) and CB amplifiers AC & DC load line, Ebers-Moll model. Biasing & stabilization techniques. Thermal runaway, Thermal stability.

Unit-4

JFET & MOSFET – Construction and operation, Noise performances of FET, Parasitic of MOSFET, Small signal models of JFET & MOSFET, Biasing of JFET’s & MOSFET’s, Low frequency single stage CS and CD (source follower) JFET amplifiers, FET as voltage variable resistor and FET as active load.

Unit-5

SMALL SIGNAL AMPLIFIERS AT LOW FREQUENCY – Analysis of BJT and FET multistage amplifier, DC and RC coupled amplifiers. Frequency response of single and multistage amplifier, mid-band gain, gains at low and high frequency. Analysis of DC and differential amplifiers, Miller’s Theorem, use of Miller and bootstrap configuration. Cascade and cascode configuration of multistage amplifiers (CE-CE, CE-CB, CS-CS and CS-CD), Darlington pair.

Text Books :

1. Integrated Electronics, Millman Halkias, T.H, (2001)

Reference Books :

1. Electronic devices & circuits theory, R.L. Boylestad, Louis Nashelsky , Pearson education

2. Electronic devices & circuits, David Bell, Oxford Publications

3. M Rashid – Microelectronic circuits : Analysis & Design, Cengage learning

4. Millman, Electronics Devices and Circuits, TMH

5. Electronic Devices,7e, Floyd, Pearson

6. A.S. Sedra and K.C. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, Saunder’s College Publishing

**DATA STRUCTURES & ALGORITHMS**

Unit-1

DEFINITION & CHARACTERISTICS OF ALGORITHMS – Structures, Difficulties in estimating exact execution time of algorithms, Concept of complexity of program, Asymptotic notations: Big-Oh, theta, Omega- Definitions and examples, Determination of time and space complexity of simple algorithms without recursion, Representing a function in asymptotic notations viz 5n2-6n=θ(n2)

ARRAYS: Array as storage element, Row major & column major form of arrays, computation of address of elements of n dimensional array.

Unit-2

ARRAYS AS STORAGE ELEMENTS for representing polynomial of one or more degrees for addition & multiplication, Sparse matrices for transposing & multiplication, stack, queue, Dequeue, Circular queue for insertion and deletion with condition for over and underflow, Transposition of sparse matrices with algorithms of varying complexity (Includes algorithms for operations as mentioned).

EVALUATION OF EXPRESSION – Concept of precedence and associativity in expressions, Difficulties in dealing with infix expressions, Resolving precedence of operators and association of operands, Postfix & prefix expressions, conversion of expression from one form to other form using stack (with & without parenthesis), Evaluation of expression in infix, postfix & prefix forms using stack. Recursion.

Unit-3

LINEAR LINKED LISTS – Singly, doubly and circularly connected linear linked lists- insertion, Deletion at/ from beginning and any point in ordered or unordered lists, Comparison of arrays and linked lists as data structures Linked implementation of stack, queue and de-queue, Algorithms for of insertion, deletion and traversal of stack, Queue, Dequeue implemented using linked structures. Polynomial representation using linked lists for addition, Concepts of Head Node in linked lists SEARCHING – Sequential and binary search.

Unit-4

NON-LINEAR STRUCTURES – Trees definition, Characteristics concept of child, Sibling, Parent child relationship etc, Binary tree: different types of binary trees based on distribution of nodes, Binary tree (threaded and unthreaded) as data structure, insertion, Deletion and traversal of binary trees, constructing binary tree from traversal results. Threaded binary Tree. Time complexity of insertion, deletion and traversal in threaded and ordinary binary trees. AVL tree: Concept of balanced trees, balance factor in AVL trees, insertion into and deletion from AVL tree, balancing AVL tree after insertion and deletion. Application of trees for representation of sets.

Unit-5

GRAPHS – Definition, Relation between tree & graph, directed and undirected graph, representation of graphs using adjacency matrix and list. Depth first and breadth first traversal of graphs, Finding connected components and spanning tree. Single source single destination shortest path algorithms

SORTING – Insertion, quick, Heap, Topological and bubble sorting algorithms for different characteristics of input data. Comparison of sorting algorithms in term of time complexity.

Note: Algorithm for any operation mentioned with a data structure or required to implement the particular data structure is included in the curriculum.

Text Books :

1. Malik–Data structures using C++, Cengage Learning (2010)

References Books :

1. Drozdek – Data structures and algorithms in C++ , Cengage learning

2. An introduction to data structures with applications By Jean-Paul Tremblay, P. G. Sorenson, TMH

3. Data Structures in C/C++, Horowitz, Sawhney, Galgotia

4. Gilberg & Forouzan – Data structures: A pseudocode approach with c, Cengage learning

5. Data Structures in C/C++, Tanenbaum, Pearson

6. Data Structures in C++, Weiss, Parson

**DIGITAL ELECTRONICS**

Unit-1

NUMBER SYSTEMS, BASIC LOGIC GATES & BOOLEAN ALGEBRA – Binary Arithmetic & Radix representation of different numbers.

Sign & magnitude representation, Fixed point representation, complement notation, various codes & arithmetic in different codes & their inter conversion. Features of logic algebra, postulates of Boolean algebra, Theorems of Boolean algebra. Boolean function. Derived logic gates: Exclusive-OR, NAND, NOR gates, their block diagrams and truth tables. Logic diagrams from Boolean expressions and vica-versa, Converting logic diagrams to universal logic. Positive, Negative and mixed logic, Logic gate conversion.

Unit-2

DIGITAL LOGIC GATE CHARACTERISTICS – TTL logic gate characteristics. Theory & operation of TTL NAND gate circuitry. Open collector TTL. Three state output logic. TTL subfamilies. MOS & CMOS logic families, Realization of logic gates in RTL, DTL, ECL, C-MOS & MOSFET, Interfacing logic families to one another.

Unit-3

MINIMIZATION TECHNIQUES – Minterm, Maxterm, Karnaugh Map, K- map upto 4 variables, Simplification of logic functions with K-map, conversion of truth tables in POS and SOP form. Incomplete specified functions, Variable mapping. Quinn-Mc Klusky minimization techniques.

Unit-4

COMBINATIONAL SYSTEMS – Combinational logic circuit design, half and full adder, subtractor. Binary serial and parallel adders. BCD adder. Binary multiplier.

Decoder: Binary to Gray decoder, BCD to decimal, BCD to 7-segment decoder.

Multiplexer, Demultiplexer, Encoder. Octal to binary, BCD to excess-3 encoder. Diode switching matrix. Design of logic circuits by multiplexers, encoders, decoders and demultiplexers.

Unit-5

SEQUENTIAL SYSTEMS – Latches, Flip-flops, R-S, D, J-K, Master Slave flip flops. Conversions of flip-flops, Counters: Synchronous & Asynchronous ripple and decade counters, Modulus counter, Skipping state counter, Counter design, State diagrams and state reduction techniques, Ring counter, Counter applications, Registers: Buffer register, Shift register.

Text Books :

1. Digital integrated electronics, By Herbert Taub, Donald L. Schilling, TMH (2004)

2. Digital Logic and Computer Design By M. Morris Mano, Pearson(1979)

References Books :

1. Ghoshal – Digital Electronics, Cengage Learning

2. Roth – Fundamentals of Logic design, Cengage learning

3. Pulse and digital Switching waveforms By Millman Taub, TMH

4. Fundamentals of Digital circuits, A. Anand kumar, PHI

5. Leach, Digital Principles and Applications, TMH

6. Digital Electronics: Principles and Integrated Circuits, Maini, Wiley

**CIRCUIT ANALYSIS & SYNTHESIS**

Unit-1

NETWORK THEOREMS AND ELEMENTS – Thevenin’s, Norton’s, Reciprocity, Superposition, Compensation, Miller’s, Tellegen’s and maximum power transfer theorems. Networks with dependent sources. Inductively coupled circuits – mutual inductance, coefficient of coupling and mutual inductance between portions of same circuits and between parallel branches. Transformer equivalent, inductively and conductively coupled circuits.

Unit-2

TRANSIENTS ANALYSIS – Impulse, Step, Ramp and sinusoidal response analysis of first order and second order circuits. Time domain & transform domain (frequency, Laplace) analysis. Initial and final value theorems. Complex periodic waves and their analysis by Fourier analysis. Different kind of symmetry. Power in a circuit.

Unit-3

NETWORK FUNCTIONS – Terminals and terminal pairs, Driving point impedance transfer functions, Poles and zeros, Restrictions on pole and zero location in s-plane. Time domain behavior from pole and zero plot, Procedure for finding network functions for general two terminal pair networks, Stability & causality, Hurwitz polynomial, positive real function.

Unit-4

TWO PORT NETWORKS – Two Port General Networks: Two port parameters (impedance, admittance, hybrid, ABCD and S parameters) and their inter relations. Equivalence of two ports. Transformer equivalent, interconnection of two port networks. The ladder network, image impedance, image transfer function, application to L-C network, attenuation and phase shift in symmetrical T and pi networks.

Unit-5

NETWORK SYNTHESIS – The four-reactance function forms, specification for reactance function. Foster form of reactance networks. Cauer form of reactance networks Synthesis of R-L and R-C and L-C networks in Foster and Cauer forms.

Text Books :

1. Network Analysis & Synthesis, Kuo, Wiley (2006)

References Books :

1. Circuits And Networks: Analysis And Synthesis, Sudhakar, TMH

2. Sivanagaraju – Electrical circuit analysis, Cengage learning

3. Robbins – Circuit analysis : Theory and Practice, Cengage Learning

4. Electrical Networks, Singh, TMH

5. Electric Circuits, Nilsson, Pearson

6. Linear Circuits Analysis, Decarlo, Oxford

7. Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, Irwin, Wiley

8. Network Theory: Analysis And Synthesis, Smarjit Ghosh, PHI

9. Electric Circuit Analysis, Xavier, S.P. Eugene, New Age

**ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS**

Unit-1

DIELECTRICS MATERIALS – Introduction, Polarization, Polarizability, Different types of polarization, Electronic, ionic, Orientation and space polarization, frequency and temperature dependence of different polarization, Dielectric loss and loss tangent, energy store and loss in dynamic polarization, Phenomenon of spontaneous polarization and ferro-electricity, Ferroelectric hysteresis loop, Piezoelectricity, piezoelectric materials: Quartz, Rochelle salt and PZT , Applications of dielectrics.

Unit-2

MAGNETIC MATERIALS – Introduction, magnetization, theory of Dia, Para, Ferro- Ferrimagnetism and antiferromagnetism, Weiss field and magnetic domains, BH hysteresis loop, soft and hard magnetic materials and their applications, magnetic energy. Magnetostriction, giant magnetostriction resistor (GMR) and engineering applications of it. Magnetic spin, new electronic devices based on magnetic spin.

Unit-3

SEMI CONDUCTOR MATERIALS – Introduction, Energy band gap structures of semiconductors, Classifications of semiconductors, Degenerate and non-degenerate semiconductors, Direct and indirect band gap semiconductors, Electronic properties of Silicon, Germanium, Compound Semiconductor, Gallium Arsenide, Gallium phosphide & Silicon carbide, Variation of semiconductor conductivity, resistance and bandgap with temperature and doping. Thermistors, Sensitors.

Unit-4

CONDUCTIVE & SUPERCONDUCTIVE MATERIALS – Electrical properties of conductive and resistive materials. , Energy bandgap structures of metals, resistivity of conductors and multiphase solids, Matthiessen’s rule, Important characteristics and electronic applications of specific conductor & resistance materials, Superconductor phenomenon, Type I and Type II superconductors. Theory of superconductors, High temperature superconductors and their applications.

Unit-5

NANOMATERIALS – Introduction, Change in band structure at nano-stage. Structure of Quantom dots (nano-dots) & Quantom wires, Fabrication & Characterization of nanomaterials, Structure of single wall and multi-wall carbon nanotube (CNT), Change in electrical, Electronic and optical properties at nano stage, Potential applications of nano materials.

Text Books :

1. Kasap, Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, TMH (2005).

2. Robert M Rose, Lawrence A. Shepard and Jhon Wulff, The structure and peroperties of materials vol.4

References Books :

1. Askeland – The science and engineering of materials, Cengage learning

2. Electronic Materials and Processes, Kaul Bhan & Jain, Genius publications

3. Allison, Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, TMH

4. Neamen, Semiconductor Physics and Devices, TMH

5. Guozhong Cao, Ying Wang Nanostructures and Nanomaterials Synthesis

6. Dekker, Electrical properties of materials

**ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS I**

Unit-1

LAPLACE TRANSFORM – Laplace transform with its simple properties, applications to the solution of ordinary and partial differential equations having constant co-efficients with special reference to the wave and diffusion equations.

Unit-2

FOURIER SERIES & Z TRANSFORM – Expansion of simple functions in fourier series. Half range series, Change of intervals, Harmonic analysis. Z TRANSFORM – Introduction, Properties, Inverse Z Transform.

Unit-3

FOURIER TRANSFORM – Complex form of Fourier Transform and its inverse, Fourier sine and cosine transform and their inversion. Applications of Fourier Transform to solution of partial differential equations having constant co- efficient with special reference to heat equation and wave equation.

Unit-4

COMPLEX VARIABLES – Analytic functions, Cauchy-Riemann equations, Elementary conformal mapping with simple applications, Line integral in complex domain, Cauchy;s theorem. Cauchy’s integral formula.

Unit-5

COMPLEX VARIABLES -Taylor’s series Laurent’s series poles, Residues, Evaluation of simple definite real integrals using the theorem of residues. Simple contour integration.

Text Books :

1. Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Irvin Kreyszig, Wiley (2010)

2. Engineering Mathematics: A Foundation for Electronic, Electrical, Communications and Systems Engineers, 3/e Croft, Pearson (2009)

References Books :

1. Datta – Mathematical methods of science and engineering, Cengage Learning

2. O’neil – Advanced engineering mathematics, Cengage learning

3. Engineering Mathematics, T Veerarajan, TMH

4. Advance Engineering Mathematics, Potter, Oxford

5. Mathematical Methods, Dutta, D., New Age

6. Elementary Number Theory with applications: Thomas Koshy, 2nd Ed., Elsevier.

7. Engineering Mathematics III By Prof. K.C. Sarangi and others, Genius publications

8. Engineering Mathematics, Babu Ram, Pearson

**ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION WORKSHOP**

Experiments :

1. Identification, Study & Testing of various electronic components : (a) Resistances- Various types, Colour coding (b) Capacitors-Various types, Coding, (c) Inductors (d) Diodes (e) Transistors (f) SCRs (g) ICs (h) Photo diode (i) Photo transistor (j) LED (k) LDR (l) Potentiometers .

2. Study of symbols for various Electrical & Electronic Components, Devices, Circuit functions etc.

3. To study and perform experiment on CRO demonstration kit.

4. Soldering & Desoldering practice.

5. To Design & fabricate a PCB for a Regulated power supply. Assemble the Regulated power supply using PCB and test it.

6. To study and plot the characteristics of following Opto-Electronic devices –(a) LED (b) LDR (C) Photovoltatic cell (d) Opto-coupler (e) Photo diode (f) Photo transistor (g) Solar cell

7. To study the specifications and working of a Transistor radio (AM & FM) kit and perform measurements on it.

8. To study the specifications and working of a Public address System.

9. To prepare design layout of PCBs using software tools.

10.To fabricate PCB and testing of electronics circuit on PCB.

11. To design and test Switch Mode Power Supply using ICs

12. To study the specifications and working of a DVD Player.

13. To study the specifications and working of LCD TV.

14. To study the specifications and working of LED TV.

**COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LAB-I**

Experiments :

1. Write a simple C program on a 32 bit compiler to understand the concept of array storage, size of a word. The program shall be written illustrating the concept of row major and column major storage. Find the address of element and verify it with the theoretical value. Program may be written for arrays upto 4-dimensions.

2. Simulate a stack, queue, circular queue and dequeue using a one dimensional array as storage element. The program should implement the basic addition, deletion and traversal operations.

3. Represent a 2-variable polynomial using array. Use this representation to implement addition of polynomials.

4. Represent a sparse matrix using array. Implement addition and transposition operations using the representation.

5. Implement singly, doubly and circularly connected linked lists illustrating operations like addition at different locations, deletion from specified locations and traversal.

6. Repeat exercises 2, 3 & 4 with linked structures.

7. Implementation of binary tree with operations like addition, deletion, traversal.

8. Depth first and breadth first traversal of graphs represented using adjacency matrix and list.

9. Implementation of binary search in arrays and on linked Binary Search Tree.

10. Implementation of insertion, quick, heap, topological and bubble sorting algorithms.

**ELECTRONIC DEVICE LAB**

Experiments :

1. Study the following devices: (a) Analog & digital multimeters (b) Function/ Signal generators (c) Regulated d. c. power supplies (constant voltage and constant current operations) (d) Study of analog CRO, measurement of time period, amplitude, frequency & phase angle using Lissajous figures.

2. Plot V-I characteristic of P-N junction diode & calculate cut-in voltage, reverse Saturation current and static & dynamic resistances.

3. Plot V-I characteristic of zener diode and study of zener diode as voltage regulator. Observe the effect of load changes and determine load limits of the voltage regulator.

4. Plot frequency response curve for single stage amplifier and to determine gain bandwidth product

5. Plot drain current – drain voltage and drain current – gate bias characteristics of field effect transistor and measure of Idss & Vp

6. Application of Diode as clipper & clamper

7. Plot gain- frequency characteristic of two stage RC coupled amplifier & calculate its bandwidth and compare it with theoretical value.

8. Plot gain- frequency characteristic of emitter follower & find out its input and output resistances.

9. Plot input and output characteristics of BJT in CB, CC and CE configurations. Find their h-parameters

10.Study half wave rectifier and effect of filters on wave. Also calculate theoretical & practical ripple factor.

11. Study bridge rectifier and measure the effect of filter network on D.C. voltage output & ripple factor.

**DIGITAL ELECTRONICS LAB**

1. To verify the truth tables of basic logic gates: AND, OR, NOR, NAND, NOR. Also to verify the truth table of Ex-OR, Ex-NOR (For 2, 3, & 4 inputs using gates with 2, 3, & 4 inputs).

2. To verify the truth table of OR, AND, NOR, Ex-OR, Ex-NOR realized using NAND & NOR gates.

3. To realize an SOP and POS expression.

4. To realize Half adder/ Subtractor & Full Adder/ Subtractor using NAND & NOR gates and to verify their truth tables

5. To realize a 4-bit ripple adder/ Subtractor using basic Half adder/ Subtractor & basic Full Adder/ Subtractor.

6. To verify the truth table of 4-to-1 multiplexer and 1-to-4 demultiplexer. Realize the multiplexer using basic gates only. Also to construct and 8-to-1 multiplexer and 1-to-8 demultiplexer using blocks of 4-to-1 multiplexer and 1-to-4 demultiplexer

7. Design & Realize a combinational circuit that will accept a 2421 BCD code and drive a TIL -312 seven-segment display

8. Using basic logic gates, realize the R-S, J-K and D-flip flops with and without clock signal and verify their truth table.

9. Construct a divide by 2, 4 & 8 asynchronous counter. Construct a 4-bit binary counter and ring counter for a particular output pattern using D flip flop.

10. Perform input/output operations on parallel in/Parallel out and Serial in/Serial out registers using clock. Also exercise loading only one of multiple values into the register using multiplexer.

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