# RTU Syllabus Electrical Engineering 3rd Semester

**ELECTRONIC DEVICES & CIRCUITS**

Unit-1

Semiconductor Physics: Mobility and conductivity, charge densities in a semiconductor, Fermi Dirac distribution, Fermi-Dirac statistics and Boltzmann approximation to the Fermi-Dirac statistics, carrier concentrations and Fermi levels in semiconductor. Generation and recombination of charges, diffusion and continuity equation, transport

equations, Mass action Law, Hall effect.

Unit-2

Junction Diodes: Formation of homogenous and hetrojuntion diodes and their energy band diagrams, calculation of contact potential and depletion width, V-I characteristics, Small signal models of diode, Diode as a circuit element, diode parameters and load line concept, C-V characteristics and dopant profile. Applications of diodes in rectifier, clipping, clamping circuits and voltage multipliers.Transient behavior of PN diode.Breakdown diodes, Schottky diodes, and Zener diode as voltage regulator.Construction, characteristics and operating principle of UJT.

Unit-3

Transistors: Characteristics, Current Components, Current Gains: alpha and beta. Variation of transistor parameter with temperature and current level, Operating point, Hybrid model, DC model of transistor, h-parameter equivalent circuits.CE, CB and CC configuration DC and AC analysis of single stage CE, CC (Emitter follower) and CB amplifiers AC & DC load line, Ebers-Moll model.Biasing & stabilization techniques.Thermal runaway, Thermal stability.

Unit-4

JFET & MOSFET:Construction and operation of JFET & MOSFET, noise performances of FET, parasitic of MOSFET, small signal models of JFET & MOSFET Biasing of JFET’s & MOSFET’s. Low frequency single stage CS and CD (source follower) JFET amplifiers.FET as voltage variable resistor and active load.

Unit-5

Small Signal Amplifiers at Low Frequency: Analysis of BJT and FET multistage amplifier, DC and RC coupled amplifiers. Frequency response of single and multistage amplifier, mid-band gain, gains at low and high frequency.

Analysis of DC and differential amplifiers, Miller’s Theorem, use of Miller and bootstrap configuration.Cascade and cascade configuration of multistage amplifiers (CE-CE, CE-CB, CS-CS and CS-CD), Darlington pair.

Text Books :

1. Millman Halkias, Integrated Electronics, TMH

2. R. L. Boylestad, Louis Nashelsky, Electronic devices & circuits theory, Pearson Education

Reference Books :

1. David Bell, Electronic Devices & Circuits, Oxford Publications

2. Schultz, Grob’s, Basic Electronics, TMH

3. Millman, Electronics Devices and Circuits, ed. 3, TMH

4. Cathey, Electronics Devices and Circuits, ed. 3, TMH

5. J. Millman and A. Grabel, Microelectronics, TMH, International

6. B. G. Streetman, Solid State Electronic Devices, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi

7. A. S. Sedra and K. C. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, Saunder’s College, Publishing

8. Salivahnan, Electronics Devices and Circuits, ed. 3, TMH.

**CIRCUIT ANALYSIS-I**

Unit-1

Introduction: Introduction to circuit elements and their characteristics. Current and voltage reference. Response of single element, double element and triple element circuits. Resonance, selectivity & Q-factor in ac circuits.

Network Analysis: Network voltages. Mesh & node systems of network equations and their comparison. Graph of network, tree, incidence matrix, fundamental circuit functions, cut sets, f-circuits analysis and f-cut set analysis, node and node pair analysis. Duality. Method of obtaining dual network.

Unit-2

Network Theorems:Thevenis’s, Norton’s, Superposition, Reciprocity, Compensation, Millman’s theorem Tellegen’s, Maximum power transfer and Miller`s theorems in DC & AC Circuits.

Unit-3

Polyphase Circuits: General Circuit Relations: Three Phase Star, Three Phase Delta, Star and Delta Combination, Four Wire Star Connection.Balanced and unbalanced Three Phase Voltages, currents and Impedances. Power and Reactive Volt-Amperes in a 3-Phase System Power Relations in AC Circuits: Instantaneous Power in AC Circuits, Power Factor, Apparent Power, Reactive Power, Power Triangle, Complex Power.

Unit-4

Non-Sinusoidal Waves: Complex Periodic Waves and Their Analysis By Fourier Series. Different Kinds of Symmetry, Determination of Co-Efficient. Average and Effective Values of a Non-Sinusoidal Wave, Power in a Circuit of Non-Sinusoidal Waves of Current and Voltage Form Factor, Equivalent Sinusoidal Wave and Equivalent Power Factor. Response of Linear Network to Non-Sinusoidal Periodic Waves.

Unit-5

Time Domain and Frequency Domain Analysis: Response of networks to step, ramp, impulse, pulse and sinusoidal inputs. Time domain and frequency domain analysis of circuits. Shifting theorem, initial and final value theorems. Special signal wave forms with Laplace transform & applications to circuit operations.

Text Books :

1. Van Valkenburg, Network Analysis, PHI

2. Hayt & Kemmerly, Engineeirng Circuit Analysis

Reference Books :

1. J. Edminster & M. Nahvi, Electric Circuits (SIE), 5/e, Scaum’s Out Line.

2. Nagsarkar & Sukhija, Circuits & Networks, Oxford

3. John Bird, Electric Circuit Theory & Technology, ELSEVIER

4. D. Roy Chodhary, Network & Systems, New Age

5. Ghosh & Chakrabarti, Network Analysis and Synthesis, (TMH)

6. A. Chakarvorty, Circuit Theory, Publisher DhanpatRai& Co. (Pvt.) Ltd.

**DIGITAL ELECTRONICS**

Unit-1

Number Systems, Basic Logic Gates & Boolean Algebra: Binary Arithmetic & Radix representation of different numbers. Sign & magnitude representation, Fixed point representation, complement notation, various codes & arithmetic in different codes & their inter conversion. Features of logic algebra, postulates of Boolean algebra. Theorems of Boolean algebra.Boolean function. Derived logic gates: Exclusive-OR, NAND, NOR gates, their block diagrams and truth tables. Logic diagrams from Boolean expressions and vica-versa. Converting logic diagrams to universal logic. Positive, negative and mixed logic.Logic gate conversion.

Unit-2

Digital Logic Gate Characteristics: TTL logic gate characteristics: Theory & operation of TTL NAND gate circuitry. Open collector TTL. Three state output logic. TTL subfamilies.MOS & CMOS logic families. Realization of logic gates in RTL, DTL, ECL, C-MOS & MOSFET. Interfacing logic families to one another.

Unit-3

Minimization Techniques: Minterm, Maxterm, Karnaugh Map, K map upto 4 variables. Simplification of logic functions with K-map Conversion of truth tables in POS and SOP form. Incomplete specified functions. Variable mapping.Quinn-McKlusky minimization techniques.

Unit-4

Combinational Systems: Combinational logic circuit design, half and full adder, subtractor. Binary serial and parallel adders.BCD adder.Binary multiplier. Decoder: Binary to Graydecoder, BCD to decimal, BCD to 7-segment decoder.

Multiplexer, demultiplexer,encoder.Octal to binary, BCD to excess-3 encoder.Diode switching matrix.Design of logic circuits by multiplexers, encoders, decoders and demultiplexers.

Unit-5

Sequential Systems: Latches, flip-flops, R-S, D, J-K, Master Slave flip flops. Conversions of flip-flops. Counters: Synchronous & asynchronous ripple and decade counters, Modulus counter, skipping state counter, counter design, state diagrams and state reduction techniques. Ring counter. Counter applications. Registers: buffer register, shift register.

Text Books :

1. Herbert Taub, Donald L. Schilling, Digital Integrated Electronics, TMH

2. M. Morris Mano, Digital Logic and Computer Design, Pearson Edu.

Reference Books :

1. Millman Taub, Pulse Switching and Network, TMH

2. A. Anandkumar, Fundamentals of Digital circuits, PHI

3. Floyd, Digital Funadamentals, Pearson

4. S. Salivahanan, Sarivazhagan, Digital circuit design, Vikas publications

5. Leach, Digital Principles and Applications, ed. 7, TMH

6. Mandal, Digital Electronics: Principles and Applications, TMH

**OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING**

Unit-1

Introduction: Review of structures in C, accessing members of structures using structure variables, pointer to structures, passing structures to functions Structures as user defined data types.

Unit-2

Introduction to Programming Paradigms: (Process oriented and Object oriented). Concept of object, class, objects as variables of class data type, difference in structures and class in terms of access to members, private and public Basics of C++: Structure of C++ programs, introduction to defining member functions within and outside a class, keyword using, declaring class, creating objects, constructors & destructor functions, Initializing member values with and without use of constructors, simple programs to access & manipulate data members, cin and cout functions.

Dangers of returning reference to a private data member, constant objects and members function, composition of classes, friend functions and classes, using this pointer, creating and destroying objects dynamically using new and delete operators. Static class members, container classes and iterators, proxy classes. Members of a class, data & function members. Characteristics of OOP- Data hiding, Encapsulation, data security.

Unit-3

Operator Overloading: Fundamentals, Restrictions, operator functions as class members v/s as friend functions.

Overloading stream function, binary operators and unary operators.Converting between types.

Unit-4

Inheritance: Base classes and derived classes, protected members, relationship between base class and derived classes, constructors and destructors in derived classes, public, private and protected inheritance Relationship among objects in an inheritance hierarchy, abstract classes, virtual functions and dynamic binding, virtual destructors.

Unit-5

Multiple inheritance, virtual base classes, pointers to classes and class members, multiple class members. Templates, exception handling.

Text Books :

1. Dietel, How to Program C++, Pearson

2. K. R. Venugopal, Mastering C++, TMH

Reference Books :

1. Robert Lafore, Object Oriented Programming in C++, Pearson

2. Rambaugh, Object Oriented Design & Modelling, Pearson

**ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I**

Unit-1

(i)Magnetic circuits:Magnetic circuits, magneto motive force magnetic field strength, permeability, reluctance, analogy between electric and magnetic-circuits, B-H curve, hysteresis, series and parallel magnetic circuits, practical magnetic circuits, permanent magnet and their applications.

(ii)Electromechanical energy conversion: Basic principles, conservation of energy, physical phenomenon involved in conversion, energy balance, energy stored in magnetic field.

Unit-2

DC Generators: Introduction, construction, types, emf equation, lap and wave windings, armature reaction, commutation, methods of improving commutation, equalizer rings Demagnetizing and cross magnetizing ampere turns, various characteristics of shunt, series and compound generators, voltage build up, losses and efficiency, condition for maximum efficiency.

Unit-3

DC Motors: Introduction, principals, back-emf, torque of motor, types, characteristics of shunt, series and compound motors, speed control (field and armature control methods), basic idea of solid state devices in controlling of DC motors Starting of DC motors, three point and four point starters, losses and efficiency, testing

(brake test and swimburnes test), electric braking of DC motors, Applications.

Unit-4

Transformer: Construction, Principal, Types, emf equation, no load and short circuit test, equivalent circuits, back-to-back (Sumpner’s test), phasor diagram, Voltage regulation Efficiency, Condition for maximum efficiency, all day efficiency, parallel operation , auto-transformer, basic idea of welding transformer, current and potential transformer,separation of losses.

Unit-5

Polyphase Transformer: Construction,Various connections and groups, choice of connections, open delta connection, Scott connection, three phase to two phase conversion and vice-versa, Applications, Parallel operation and its conditions Three to six phase conversion.Excitation phenomenon in transformers, magnetizing

harmonic currents and their effects,switching currents in transformers, inrush of magnetizing current.Three winding transformer.

Text Books :

1. A. E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley Jr and Umans, Electric Machinery, 6th Edition McGraw Hill

2. Kothari & Nagrath, Electric Machines,TMH

Reference Books :

1. M. G. Say, The Performance and Design of AC machines, Pit man & Sons.

2. Guru, Electric Machinery, 3e, Oxford

3. R. K. Srivastava, Electrical Machines, Cengage Learning.

4. P. S. Bimbhra, Electrical Machinery, Khanna Pub.

5. Stephen J Chapman, Electric Machinery Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill

6. Husain Ashfaq, Electrical Machines, DhanpatRai& Sons

**ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS-I**

Unit-1

Laplace Transform: Laplace transform with its simple properties, applications to the solution of ordinary and partial differential equations having constant coefficients with special reference to wave and diffusion equations, digital transforms.

Unit-2

Fourier Transform: Discrete Fourier transform, Fast Fourier transform, Complex form of Fourier transform and its inverse applications Fourier transform for the solution of partial differential equations having constant coefficients with special reference to heat equation and wave equation.

Unit-3

Fourier Series: Expansion of simple functions in Fourier series, half range series, change of interval, harmonic analysis. Calculus of Variation: Functional, strong and weak variations, simple variation problems, Euler’s equation

Unit-4

Complex Variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy–Riemann equations, Elementary conformal mapping with simple applications Line integral in complex domain, Cauchy’s theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula.

Unit-5

Complex Variables: Taylor’s series, Laurent’s series, poles, Residues. Evaluations of simple definite real integrals using the theorem of residues.Simple contour integration.

Text Books :

1. M. Ray, J. C. Chaturvedi & H.C. Sharma, Differential Equations, Students friends & company

2. Chandrika Prasad, Mathematics for Engineers, Prasad Mudralaya

Reference Books :

1. Bird, Higher Engineering Mathematics, ELSEVIER.

2. Jeffrey, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, ELSEVIER.

3. Chandrika Prasad, Advanced Mathematics for Engineers, Prasad Mudralaya

4. Ervin Kreyzig, Advanced Engineering Maths, Wiley.

**ELECTRONIC DEVICES LAB**

Experiments :

1. Study the following devices: (a) Analog & digital multimeters (b) Function/ Signal generators (c) Regulated d. c. power supplies (constant voltage and constant current operations) (d) Study of analog CRO, measurement of time period, amplitude, frequency & phase angle using Lissajous figures.

2. Plot V-I characteristic of P-N junction diode & calculate cut-in voltage, reverse saturation current and static

& dynamic resistances.

3. Plot V-I characteristic of zener diode and study of zener diode as voltage regulator. Observe the effect of load changes and determine load limits of the voltage regulator.

4. Plot frequency response curve for single stage amplifier and to determine gain bandwidth product.

5. Plot drain current – drain voltage and drain current – gate bias characteristics of field effect transistor and measure of Idss & Vp.

6. Application of Diode as clipper & clamper.

7. Plot gain- frequency characteristic of two stage RC coupled amplifier & calculate its bandwidth and compare it with theoretical value.

8. Plot gain- frequency characteristic of emitter follower & find out its input and output resistances.

9. Plot input and output characteristics of BJT in CB, CC and CE configurations. Find their h-parameters.

10. Study half wave rectifier and effect of filters on wave. Also calculate theoretical & practical ripple factor.

11. Study bridge rectifier and measure the effect of filter network on DC voltage output and ripple factor.

**ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT LAB**

Experiments :

1. Draw the circuit symbols.

2. Verify theorems for A. C. & D. C. circuits.

3. PSPICE Programs for Circuit Analysis:

a. DC: Analysis resistor networks to determine node voltages, components voltages, and component currents.

b. DC: Analysis of resistor networks that have several voltage and current sources and variable load resistors.

c. Transient: Analysis of RC & RL circuits to produce tables of component voltage & current levels for a given set of time instants & to produce graphs of voltages & currents versus time.

d. AC: Analysis of impedance networks to determine the magnitude & phase of node voltages, components voltages and component currents.

4. Determine the magnitude & phase and component voltages and currents in resonant circuits & produce voltage and current verses frequency graphs.

5. Programs for Circuit Analysis:

a. Calculate the resistance of a conductor, given its dimensions & resistivity or determine the change in conductor resistance when the temp changes.

b. D.C.: Analysis of resistor networks to determine all junction voltages, component voltages, and component currents.

c. Transient: Analysis RC & RL circuits to produce tables of component voltage & current levels for a given set of time instants.

6. Convert Y-connected resistor networks to delta-connected circuits.

**DIGITAL ELECTRONICS LAB**

Experiments :

1. To verify the truth tables of basic logic gates: AND, OR, NOR, NAND, NOR. Also to verify the truth table of Ex-OR, Ex-NOR (For 2, 3, & 4 inputs using gates with 2, 3, & 4 inputs).

2. To verify the truth table of OR, AND, NOR, Ex-OR, Ex-NOR realized using NAND & NOR gates.

3. To realize an SOP and POS expression

4. To realize Half adder/ Subtractor& Full Adder/ Subtractor using NAND & NOR gates and to verify their truth tables.

5. To realize a 4-bit ripple adder/ Subtractor using basic Half adder/ Subtractor& basic Full Adder/ Subtractor.

6. To verify the truth table of 4-to-1 multiplexer and 1-to-4 demultiplexer. Realize the multiplexer using basic gates only. Also to construct and 8-to-1 multiplexer and 1-to-8 demultiplexer using blocks of 4-to-1 multiplexer and 1-to-4 demultiplexer.

7. Design & Realize a combinational circuit that will accept a 2421 BCD code and drive a TIL -312 seven- segment display.

8. Using basic logic gates, realize the R-S, J-K and D-flip flops with and without clock signal and verify their truth table

9. Construct a divide by 2,4& 8 asynchronous counter. Construct a 4-bit binary counter and ring counter for a particular output pattern using D flip flop.

10. Perform input/output operations on parallel in/Parallel out and Serial in/Serial out registers using clock. Also exercise loading only one of multiple values into the register using multiplexer.

**C++ PROGRAMMING LAB**

Experiments :

1. To write a simple program for understanding of C++ program structure without any CLASS declaration.

Program may be based on simple input output, understanding of keyword using.

2. Write a C++ program to demonstrate concept of declaration of class with public & private member, constructors, object creation using constructors, access restrictions, defining member functions within and outside a class. Scope resolution operators, accessing an object’s data members and functions through different type of object handle name of object, reference to object, pointer to object, assigning class objects to each other.

3. Program involving multiple classes (without inheritance) to accomplish a task. Demonstrate composition of class.

4. Demonstration Friend function friend classes and this pointer.

5. Demonstration dynamic memory management using new & delete & static class members.

6. Demonstration of restrictions an operator overloading, operator functions as member function and/ or friend function, overloading stream insertion and stream extraction, operators, overloading operators etc.

7. Demonstrator use of protected members, public & private protected classes, multi-level inheritance etc.

8. Demonstrating multiple inheritance, virtual functions, virtual base classes, abstract classes