# RTU Syllabus Electrical Engineering 7th Semester

**POWER SYSTEM PLANNING**

Unit-1

Introduction of power planning, National and Regional Planning, structure of P.S., planning tools Electricity Regulation, Electrical Forecasting, forecasting techniques modeling.

Unit-2

Generation planning, Integrated power generation cogeneration/captive power, Power pooling and power trading. Transmission and distribution planning. Power system Economics. Power sector finance, financial planning, private participation Rural Electrification investment, concept of Rational tariffs.

Unit-3

Power supply Reliability, Reliability planning. System operation planning, load management, load prediction, reactive power balance

Online power flow studies, state estimation, computerized management, power system simulator.

Unit-4

Computer aided planning, wheeling. Environmental effects, the greenhouse effect Technological impacts. Insulation coordination. Reactive compensation.

Unit-5

Optimal power system expansion planning : Formulation of least cost optimization problem incorporating the capital, Operating and maintenance cost of candidate plants of different types (Thermal, Hydro, Nuclear, Non-conventional etc.) and minimum assured reliability constraint – optimization techniques for solution by programming.

Text Books :

1. X. Wang, J. R. Mc Donald: Modern Power System Planning, MGH.

2. A. S. Pabla: Electrical Power System Planning, Machmillan India Ltd.

Reference Books :

1. M. Tllic, F. Faliana and L. Fink: Power System Restructuring Engineering and Economics, Kulwar Academic Publisher.

2. L. L. Lie: Power System Restructuring and Deregulation, John Willey & Sons UK.

**POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS**

Unit-1

Percent and per unit quantities. Single line diagram for a balanced 3-phase system Admittance Model: Branch and node admittances Equivalent admittance network and calculation of Y bus. Modification of an existing Y bus.

Unit-2

Impendence Model: Bus admittance and impedance matrices. Thevenin’s theorem and Z bus. Direct determination of Z bus. Modification of an existing bus. Symmetrical fault Analysis: Transient on a Transmission line, short circuit of a synchronous machine on no load, short circuit of a loaded synchronous machine. Equivalent circuits of synchronous machine under sub transient, transient and steady state conditions. Selection of circuit breakers, Algorithm for short circuit studies. Analysis of three-phase faults.

Unit-3

Symmetrical Components: Fortescue theorem, symmetrical component transformation. Phase shift in star-delta transformers. Sequence Impedances of transmission lines, Synchronous Machine and Transformers, zero sequence network of transformers and transmission lines. Construction of sequence networks of power system. Fault Analysis: Analysis of single line to ground faults using symmetrical components, connection of sequence networks under the fault condition.

Unit-4

Unsymmetrical Fault Analysis: (i) Analysis of line-to-line and double line to ground faults using symmetrical components, connection of sequence networks under fault conditions. Analysis of unsymmetrical shunt faults using bus impedance matrix method.

Unit-5

Load Flow Analysis:Load flow problem, development of load flow equations, bus classification Gauss Seidel, Newton Raphosn, decoupled and fast decoupled methods for load flow analysis. Comparison of load flow methods.

Text Books :

1. X. Wang, J. R. Mc Donald: Modern Power System Planning, MGH.

2. A. S. Pabla: Electrical Power System Planning, Machmillan India Ltd.

Reference Books :

1. J. D. Glover, M. S. Sharma & T. J. Overbye: Power System Analysis and Design, Cengage Learning.

2. Nasser Tleis: Power System Modelling and Fault Analysis, Elsevier.

3. Kothari & Nagrath: Modern Power System Analysis, MGH.

4. Haadi Saadat: Power System Analysis.

**ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES**

Unit-1

Artificial Intelligence: Introduction to AI and knowledge based Expert systems, Introduction, Importance and Definition of AI, ES, ES building tools and shells.

Unit-2

Knowledge Representation: Concept of knowledge, Representation of knowledge using logics rules, frames. Procedural versus. Declarative knowledge, forward versus backward chaining Control Strategies: Concept of heuristic search, search techniques depth first

search, Breath first search, Generate & test hill climbing, best first search.

Unit-3

Artificial Neural Network: Biological Neurons and synapses, characteristics Artificial Neural Networks, types of activation functions.

Perceptions: Perception representation, limitations of perceptrons. Single layer and multiplayer perceptrons. Perceptron learning algorithms.

Unit-4

Basic Concepts in Learning ANN: Supervised learning, Back propagation algorithm, unsupervised learning, Kohonen’s top field network & Algorithm.

Unit-5

Fuzzy Logic: Fuzzy logic concepts, Fuzzy relation and membership functions, Defuzzification, Fuzzy controllers, Genetic Algorithm: concepts, coding, reproduction, crossover, mutation, scaling and fitness.

Text Books :

1. Saroj Kaushik: Artificial Intelligence, Cengage Learning.

2. Elaine Rich and Kevin Knight: Artificial Intelligence 3/e, MGH

Reference Books :

1. Padhy: Artificial Intelligence & Intelligent Systems, Oxford

2. James Anderson: An introduction to Neural Networks.

3. Dan. W Patterson: Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

4. Kumar Satish: Neural Networks, 2nd ed., MGH.

5. S. Rajsekaran & G. A. Vijayalakshmi Pai: Neural Networks, Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithm- Synthesis and Applications, Prentice Hall of India.

6. Siman Haykin: Neural Netowrks, Prentice Hall of India.

**NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES**

Unit-1

Introduction: World energy situation, conventional and non-conventional energy sources, Indian energy scene. Tidal Energy: Introduction to tidal power. Components of tidal power plants, double basin arrangement. Power generation. Advantages and limitations of tidal power generation. Prospects of tidal energy in India.

Unit-2

Solar Energy: Solar radiation, solar radiation geometry, solar radiation on tilted surface. Solar energy collector. Flat- plate collector, concentrating collector – parabolidal and heliostat. Solar pond. Basic solar power plant. Solar cell, solar cell array, basic photo-voltaic power generating system.

Unit-3

Wind Energy: Basic principle of wind energy conversion, efficiency of conversion, site selection. Electric power generation-basic components, horizontal axis and vertical axis wind turbines, towers, generators, control and monitoring components. Basic electric generation schemes- constant speed constant frequency, variable speed constant frequency and variable speed variable frequency schemes. Applications of wind energy. Geothermal Energy: Geothermal fields, estimates of geothermal power. Basic geothermal steam power plant, binary fluid geothermal power plant and geothermal preheat hybrid power plant. Advantages and disadvantages of geothermal energy. Applications of geothermal energy. Geothermal energy in India.

Unit-4

Nuclear Fusion Energy: Introduction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Requirements for nuclear fusion. Plasma confinement magnetic confinement and inertial confinement. Basic Tokamak reactor, laser fusion reactor. Advantages of nuclear fusion. Fusion

hybridand cold fusion.

Unit-5

Biomass Energy: Introduction, biomass categories, bio-fuels. Introduction to biomass conversion technologies. Biogas generation, basic biogas plants-fixed dome type, floating gasholder type, Deen Bandhu biogas plant, Pragati design biogas plant. Utilization of bio gas. Energy plantation. Pyrolysis scheme. Alternative liquid fuels –ethanol and methanol. Ethanol production.

Text Books :

1. G. D. Rao: Renewable Energy

2. B. H. Khan: Non-Conventional Energy Resources, MGH.

Reference Books :

1. A. N. Mathur: Non-Conventional Resources of Energy.

2. Boyle: Renewable Energy, 3rded Oxford.

3. Bent Sorensen, 4th ed.: Renewable Energy, Elsevier.

4. V. V. N. Kishore: Renewable Energy Engineering and Technology, TERI.

5. Garg & Prakash: Solar Energy : Fundamentals and Applications, MGH

6. David Boyles: Bio Energy, Elis Horwood Ltd.,

**POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERING**

Unit-1

Economic Operation of Power Systems: Introduction, system constraints, optimal operation of power systems. Input output, heat rate and incremental rate curves of thermal generating units. Economic distribution of load between generating units within a plant. Economic distribution of load between power stations, transmission loss equation. Introduction to unit commitment and dynamic programming.

Unit-2

Power System Stability-I: Power angle equations and power angle curves under steady state and transient conditions. Rotor dynamics and swing equation (solution of swing equation not included). Synchronizing power coefficient. Introduction to steady state and dynamic stabilities, steady state stability limit.

Unit-3

Power System Stability-II: Introduction to transient stability. Equal area criterion and its application to transient stability studies under basic disturbances. Critical clearing angle and critical clearing time. Factors affecting stability and methods to improve stability.

Unit-4

Excitation Systems: Introduction of excitation systems of synchronous machines, types of excitation systems, Elements of various excitation systems and their control (functional block diagrams and their brief description)-DC excitation systems, AC excitation systems, brushless excitation system. Interconnected Power Systems: Introduction to isolated and interconnected powers systems. Reserve capacity of power stations, spinning and maintenance resaves. Advantages and problems of interconnected power systems. Power systems inter connection in India.

Unit-5

Tap Changing transformer, phase angle control and phase shifting transformer. Series compensation of transmission lines, location and protection of series capacitors, advantages and problems Introduction to power system security. Introduction to voltage stability.

Text Books :

1. J. Nagrath and D.P. Kothari: Power System Engineering 2/e, MGH.

2. J. J. Grainger and W. D. Stevenson: Power System Analysis, MGH.

Reference Books :

1. B. R. Gupta: Power System Analysis and Design, Third Edition, S. Chand & Co.

2. C. L. Wadhwa: Electrical Power Systems, New age international Ltd. Third Edition

3. W. D. Stevenson: Element of Power System Analysis, MGH.

4. B. R. Gupta: Generation of Electrical Energy, S. Chand Publication.

**ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY**

Unit-1

Introduction: Vector Relation in rectangular, cylindrical, spherical and general curvilinear coordinate system. Concept and physical interpretation of gradient, Divergence and curl, Green’s Stoke’s and Helmholz theorems

Unit-2

Electrostatics: Electric field vectors-electric field intensity, flux density & polarization. Electric field due to various charge configurations. The potential functions and displacement vector. Gauss’s law, Poisson’s and Laplace’s equation and their solution. Uniqueness

theorem. Continuity equation. Capacitance and electrostatics energy. Field determination by method of images. Boundary conditions. Field mappings and concept of field cells.

Unit-3

Magnetostatics: Magnetic field vector: Magnetic field intensity, flux density & magnetization, Bio-Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Magnetic scalar and vector potential, self & mutual inductance. Energy stored in magnetic field, Boundary conditions, Analogy between electric and

magnetic field, Field mapping and concept of field cells.

Unit-4

Time Varying Fields: Faraday’s law, Displacement currents and equation of continuity. Maxwell’s equations, Uniform plane wave in free space, dielectrics and conductors, skin effect sinusoidal time variations, reflections, refraction & polarization of UPW, standing wave ratio. Pointing vector and power considerations.

Unit-5

Transmission Lines: The high-frequency circuit. LCR ladder model. The transmission Lin equation. Solution for loss-less lines. Wave velocity and wave impedance. Reflection and Transmission coefficients at junctions. VSWR.

Text Books :

1. Hayt: Engineering Electromagnetics, 7/e, (With CD), MGH

2. Matthew N. O. Sadiku: Principles of Electromagnetics, 4th ed., Oxford

Reference Books :

1. G. S. N. Raju: Electromagnetic Field Theory and Transmission Lines, Pearson.

2. J. D. Kraus: Electromagnetic. 5th edition, MGH.

3. S. Baskaran and K. Malathi: Electromagnetic Field and Waves, Scitech Pub.

4. R. S. Kshetrimayum, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Cengage Learning.

5. V.V. Sarwate: Electromagnetic Field and Waves, Willey Eastern Ltd.

**COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF ELECTRICAL**

Unit-1

Basic Principles of Electrical Machine Design: Specifications, Factors affecting the design, Limitations, main dimension, loadings, output equation, factor affecting the size and rating, Electrical Engineering Materials: conducting, magnetic and insulating materials.

Magnetic Circuit Calculation: Ohm’s law for magnetic circuit, mmf required for air gap and iron parts, tapered teeth, real and apparent flux density, magnetizing current.

Unit-2

Heating and Cooling of Electrical Machines: heat dissipation and heat flow equations, Newton’s law of cooling, equations for temperature rise, Rating of Machines: Continuous, short and intermittent ratings, mean temperature rise, hydrogen cooling of turbo alternators, quantity of cooling medium.

Unit-3

Computer Aided Design of Transformers: Power and Distribution Transformers, core and yoke cross sections, square and stepped core, output equations, main dimensions, types & design of windings, optimization concepts.

Unit-4

Computer Aided Design of Synchronous Machines: Turbo and Hydro alternators, choice of specific magnetic & electric loading, short circuit ratio and its effects air gap length, output equation, main dimensions, flow charts for design of synchronous machine, design of stator core & winding.

Unit-5

Computer Aided Design of Induction Machines: Output equation, main dimensions, design criteria, flow charts for design of induction motor, air gap length, design of stator core and winding, rotor design.

Text Books :

1. A. K. Sawhney: A Course in Electrical Machine Design, Dhanpat Rai & Sons.

2. B. Edikins: Generalized Theory of Electrical Machines.

Reference Books :

1. Fitzegerald: Electrical Machinery, Kingsley.

2. M. G. Say: The Performance and Design of AC Machines, Pitman & Sons.

3. R. K. Agrawal: Electrical Machine Design

**ECONOMIC OPERATION OF POWER SYSTEMS**

Unit-1

Economics of Power Generation: Introduction, cost of electrical energy, expression for cost of electrical energy, depreciation, power plant cost analysis, economics in plant selection, selection of types of generation and types of equipments, factors effecting economic generations and distributions, generating cost, economics of different types of generating plants

Unit-2

Economical Operations of Thermal Power Plants: Methods of loading turbo generators, input, output and heat rate characteristics, incremental cost, two generations units, large no of units, sequence of adding units, effects of transmission losses, economic scheduling considering transmission losses, coordination equations, penalty factors

Unit-3

Hydro Thermal coordination: Advantages of combined operation, base load peak load operation requirement, combined working of run-off river and steam plant Reservoirs hydroplants and thermal plants (long term operational aspects), short term hydro thermal coordination, coordination equations, scheduling methods and applications.

Unit-4

Parallel Operations of Generators: Conditions, synchronizingcurrent and power, two alternators in parallel (effect of change in excitation, load sharing, sharing of load currents), Infinite bus bars, active and reactive power control, synchronizing power, torque, operating limits of alternators, operating characteristics of cylindrical alternator rotor.

Unit-5

Economics for Electrical Engineers: Concepts of physical and financial efficiencies of electrical goods and services, supply and demand, break even and minimum cost analysis, linear and nonlinear break even, min cist analysis.

Text Books :

1. A. K. Sawhney: A Course in Electrical Machine Design, Dhanpat Rai & Sons.

2. B. Edikins: Generalized Theory of Electrical Machines.

Reference Books :

1. O. I. Elgerd: Electric Energy System Theory, MGH.

2. P. Kundur: Power System Stability and Control, MGH.

3. Arthur R. Bergen and Vijay Vittal: Power System Analysis, Second Edition. PHI.

4. C. L. Wadhwa: Electrical Power Systems, Newage International (P) Ltd.

5. C. Gross, Power Systems Analysis, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons.

**POWER SYSTEM PLANNI****NG LAB**

Experiments :

1. Status of National and Regional Planning, for power system

2. Write components of Structure of power system

3. Explain in detail various planning tools.

4. Write short note on Electricity Regulation

5. Modeling of Electrical Forecasting techniques

6. Transmission and distribution planning

7. concept of Rational tariffs

8. Rural Electrification

**POWER SYSTEM MODELLING AND SIMULATION LAB**

1. Simulate Swing Equation in Simulink (MATLAB)

2. Modeling of Synchronous Machine.

3. Modeling of Induction Machine.

4. Simulate simple circuits using Circuit Maker.

5. (a) Modeling of Synchronous Machine with PSS (b) Simulation of Synchronous Machine with FACTS device.

6. (a) Modeling of Synchronous Machine with FACTS device (b) Simulation of Synchronous Machine with FACTS devices.

7. FACTS Controller designs with FACT devices for SMIB system.

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