RTU Syllabus Civil Engineering 6th Semester
THEORY OF STRUCTURES-II
Influence line diagram & Rolling load: ILD for beams & frames, Muller-Breslau principle and its application for drawing ILD, Rolling load, maximum stress resultants in a member/section, absolute maximum stress resultant in a structure.
Arches: analysis of three hinged two hinged and fixed type parabolic arches with supports at the same level and at different levels.
Cable and Suspension bridges: Analysis of cables with concentrated and continuous loading, analysis of two & three hinged stiffening girder.
Unsymmetrical bending: Definition, location of NA, computation of stresses and deflection, shear center and its location, Theories of Failures
Introduction to matrix method, Force displacement relation, flexibility and stiffness coefficients, relation between flexibility and stiffness matrices, system approach of flexibility method and stiffness method, coordinate transformation matrix, rotation matrix, element and global stiffness matrix for pin jointed structures and beam element in 2D only.
Reference Books :
1. Mechanics of Structures Vol. I & II by S.B. Junarkar & Shah, Charotar Publishing House.
2. Theory of Structures by B.C. Purnmia, Laxmi Publication (P) Ltd.
3. Theory of Structures by Timoshenko, Mc Graw Hill Book Co.
4. Structural Analysis by Ghali & Neville, E & FN Spon.
5. Structural Analysis by Hibbler R.C., Pearsons
Stresses in Soil under surface loading: Bossinesq’s and Westergaard’s analysis for vertical pressure and its distribution in a soil mass. Vertical stresses due to concentrated loads, Horizontal and shear stresses due to concentrated loads. Isobar diagram, Vertical stress distribution on a horizontal plane. Influence diagram.
Vertical stresses at point under line load and strip load. Vertical stresses at a point under circular and rectangular loaded area. Approximate methods of obtaining vertical pressure due to surface loading. Newmark’s chart, Fensk’s Chart. Pressure bulb and its significance in Foundation exploration. Contact pressure below foundations.
Compressibility and Consolidation: Introduction to consolidation, comparison of compaction and consolidation, Spring Analogy. Terzaghis one dimensional consolidation theory, Degree of consolidation, consolidation test, Compressibility parameters, co-efficient of consolidation. Preconsolidation pressure and its determination. Normally, Over and Under consolidated soils. Methods of computation of Settlement and its rate. Coefficient of consolidation for layered soil. Total and differential Settlement.
Preconsolidation pressure and its determination. Normally, Over and Under consolidated soils. Methods of computation of Settlement and its rate. Coefficient of consolidation for layered soil. Total and differential Settlement.
Stability of Slopes: Classifications of slopes, Stability analysis of infinite slopes. Stability analysis of finite slopes by Swedish and Friction circle method.
Stability analysis by Taylor’s stability number, Taylor stability number curves. Stability of slopes of earthen embankments under sudden draw down, steady seepage and during construction. Bishop’s method of stability analysis.
Earth Pressure: Active, passive and earth pressure at rest. Rankine’s and Coulomb’s theories of earth pressure.
Rebhann’s and Culman’s graphical methods for active earth pressure for vertical and inclined back retaining walls, horizontal and inclined cohesion less back fill.
Earth pressure on cantilever sheet piles Stability analysis of retaining walls.
Bearing Capacity of Soils: Terminology related to bearing capacity, Common types of foundations. Terzaghi and Meyehoff’s theory for bearing capacity.Rankine’s method for minimum depth of foundation. Skempton’s method. Effect of eccentricity and water table on bearing capacity. Plate load and penetration tests for determining bearing capacity. Introduction to pile, well and machine Foundations.
Site Investigations: Methods of explorations. Planning of Investigations, Depth of exploration, Number of boreholes, Undisturbed and Disturbed samples. Types of samplers. Brief description of procedures of sampling, Transportation and Storage of samples. Geophysical methods of investigations.
Text Books :
1. Engineering in Theory & Practice Vol. I by Alam Singh, CBS Publishers and Distributers, Delhi. (2003)
2. Soil Mech. & Foundation Engineering by K.R. Arora, Standard Publishers and Distributers,
Reference Books :
1 Geotechnical Engineering by Purushottam Raj, Tata Mc Graw Hills, Delhi.
2 Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practices by Terzaghi & Peck, John Wiley & Co.
3 Theory and Practice Of Foundation Design by Som and Das, PRENTICE Hall of India Delhi (PHI).
4 Soil Mechanics in Engineering and Practice by Terzaghi, CBS Publishers and Distributors.
5 Getechnical Engineering by Gulhati and Datta, Tata Mc Graw Hill, Delhi.
6 An Introduction to Geotechnical Engineering by Robert D.Holtz, William D. Kovacs, Thomas C. Sheahan, Pearson Education Delhi.
General: Terms: sewerage, domestic sewage, sewage treatment, disposal scope, Role of an Environmental engineer, historical overview.
Sewage Characteristics: Quality parameters: BOD, COD, TOC, Solids, DO, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Standards of disposal into natural watercourses and on land, Indian standards.
Collection of Sewage: Systems of sewerage, Separate, combined, and partially separate, components of sewerage systems, systems of layout, quantity of sanitary sewage and variations, quantity of storms water, rational method, shapes of sewer, Hydraulic design of sewers: diameter self cleansing velocity and slopes, construction and testing of sewer line, Sewer materials, joints and appurtenances, Sewage pumping and pumping stations, maintenance of sewerage system.
Sewage Treatment: Various units: their purpose, sequence and efficiencies, preliminary treatment, screening and grit removal units, oil and grease removal, primary treatment, secondary treatment, activated sludge process, trickling filter, sludge digestion and drying beds, stabilization pond, septic tank, soakage systems, recent trends in sewage treatment, advanced wastewater treatment :nutrient removal, solids removal.
Wastewater Disposal and Reuse: Disposal of sewage by dilution, self- purification of streams, sewage disposal by irrigation sewage farming, waste waters reuse.
Plumbing for Design of Buildings: Various systems of plumbing – one pipe, two pipes, single stack, traps, layout of house drainage.
Air and Noise Pollution: Air quality, Emission standards, vehicular pollution, Effect of air pollution on human health, Noise Pollution, global effect of air and noise pollution, green house effect, acid rain etc.
Text Books :
1.Strength of Materials & Mechanics of Structures: Vol. I by Dr. B.C. Punmia Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.
Reference Books :
1. Environmental Engineering II by B.C. Punmia, Arihant Publishers, Jodhpur.
2. Sanitary Engineering by SK Garg, Khanna Publishing Co.
3. Manual on Sewage and Sewage Treatment Ministry of Urban Development Govt. of India.
4. Water and Waste Water Engineering by Fair, G.M., Geyer G.C. and Okun D.A, Ann Arbor Sc.Publishing.
DESIGN OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES-I
Objective and fundamental concepts of design of RC members, Types and function of reinforcement. Introduction to various related IS codes. Design Philosophies: Working stress, ultimate strength and limit states of design. Analysis and Design of singly reinforced rectangular beam section for flexure using Working Stress Method and Limit State Method.
Analysis and design of singly reinforced, flanged beams and doubly reinforced rectangular beams for flexure using Limit State Method. Limit state of serviceability for deflection, control of deflection as per codal provisions of empirical coefficients.
Limit state of collapse in shear: analysis and design of prismatic sections for shear using LSM. Limit state of collapse in bond: concept of bond stress, anchorage length and development length, curtailment of reinforcement as per codal provisions.
Analysis and design of one way and two way slabs using LSM and Flat slab using direct design method as per code, Detailing of reinforcement.
Columns: Short and long columns, their structural behaviour. Analysis and design of axially loaded short columns, using LSM. Analysis of uniaxially eccentrically loaded short columns. Introduction to Pu-Mu interaction curves and their use for eccentrically loaded columns. Design of Column Footings: Analysis and design of Isolated column footing and combined footing for two columns (without central beam) for axial loads using LSM.
Reference Books :
1. Illustrated Reinforced Concrete Design by Karve & Shah; Standard Publishers, Delhi.
2. Limit State Design of Reinforced Concrete by Verghese P.C.; PHI Delhi.
3. Limit State Design by Dayaratnam; Oxford and IBH Publishing House.
4. Reinforced Concrete : Limit State Design by A.K.Jain; Nem Cahnd and Brothers, Roorkee.
5. Reinforced Concrete Structural Elements by P Purushothaman; Mc Graw Hill
6. Reinforced Concrete Fundamentals by Phil M. Ferguson; Prentice Hall
7. Design of reinforced Concrete by Jack C. Cormac & James K. Nelson; C.H.I.P.S.
8. Reinforced Concrete Design by Wang & Salmon; Harper & Row.
9. Design of Concrete Structures by Nilson & Winter; Mc Graw Hill
Introduction: Importance and Role of Transportation Systems, Technological and Operating Characteristics of Transportation Systems, Components of transportation Systems, Transportation Coordination, Transportation Modes and their comparison. Highway Planning: Highway Planning Process, specifically in India, Transport or Highway related Agencies in India, Classification of Roads and Road Development Plans, Road Patterns, Controlling Factors and Surveys for Highway Alignment.
Highway Materials and Construction: Desirable Properties, Testing Procedures, Standards and standard values relating to Soil, Stone Aggregates, Bitumen and Tar, fly-ash/pond-ash. Methods of constructing different types of roads viz. Earth roads, Stabilized roads, WBM roads, fly ash embankments, Bituminous roads and Concrete roads. Specific features of rural roads. Equipments for highway construction of rigid and flexible pavements.
Highway Geometric Design: Cross Sectional Elements, camber, Sight Distances – definition and analysis of SSD and OSD, Design of Horizontal Alignment – Super elevation, extra widening, transition curves. Design of Vertical Alignment – Gradients, Vertical curves. Recommendations Indian Road congress code of Practice.
Elementary Traffic Engineering: Significance of different Traffic Engineering Studies viz. Speed, Volume, O & D, Parking and Accident’s Study. Importance and types of Traffic Signs, Signals, Road Markings and Road Intersections.
Structural design of Highway Pavements: Design of Flexible Pavements by G. I. and CBR methods. Design of Rigid Pavements by Westergard and modified methods. Design as guide lines of relevant Indian Road congress code of Practice.
Hill Roads: Special factors in Alignment and Geometric design, Drainage and maintenance of Hill roads. Road side Arboriculture and Landscaping. Recent Developments in Urban Roads and their role in economic developments.
Reference Books :
1. Highway Engineering by Khanna SK & CG Justo, Nem Chand and Brothers, Roorkee.
2. Highway Engg. by L.R. Kadiyali, Khanna Tech Publications, Delhi.
3. Specification for Roads & Bridges by Ministry of Road Transports & Highways and Indian Road Congress.
4. Transportation Engineering and Planning, 3rd ed., Papacostas & Prevedouros, PHI Publishers.
5. Highway Engineering by Rangawala, Charotar Publishing House.
REMOTE SENSING AND GIS
Photogrammetry: Definition of Photogrammetric Terms, Geometry of aerial and terrestrial photographs, Aerial camera and photo-theodolite, Scale of a Photograph, Tilt and Height displacements, Stereoscopic vision and stereoscopes, Height determination from parallax measurements, Flight planning, Maps and Map substitutes and their uses.
Remote Sensing: Introduction and definition of remote sensing terms, Remote Sensing System, Electromagnetic radiation and spectrum, Spectral signature, Atmospheric windows.
Different types of platforms, sensors and their characteristics, Orbital parameters of a satellite, Multi concept in Remote Sensing.
Image Interpretation: Principles of interpretation of aerial and satellite images, equipments and aids required for interpretation, ground truth – collection and verification, advantages of multidate and multiband images. Digital Image Processing concept.
Geographic Information System (GIS) : Introduction & applications of GIS in map revision, Land use, Agriculture, Forestry, Archaeology, Municipal, Geology, water resources, Soil Erosion, Land suitability analysis, change detection.
Reference Books :
1. Basics of Remote Sensing & GIS by Dr. S.Kumar,Univertsity Sc. Press.
2. Geographic Information System by Kang Tsung Chang, Tata Mc Graw Hills.
3. Remote Sensing and GIS by Legg.C.A., Ellis Horwood, London.
4. Remote sensing and GIS by Bhatt Oxford University Press.
ENGINEERING CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS: Objectives, Intact rock classification, Rock mass Classification. Terzaghi’s, Rock load classification, Austrian classification, Deere’s rock quality classification, rock structure rating concept, RMR classification, Q classification. Inter relation between Q and RMR, prediction of ground condition and support pressure. Effect of Tunnel size on support pressure.
ENGINEERING PROPERTIES AND LABORATORY TESTS ON ROCKS: Porosity, Density, Moisture content, Degree of saturation, Co- efficient of permeability, Durability, Compressive strength, Tensile strength, Shear strength, elasticity, Plasticity Deformability.
Sampling and Samples Preparations, Uniaxial Compressive strength, Tensile Strength – Brazilian test, Shear strength test – Direct Shear test and Punch shear test, Triaxial Test, Flexural strength.
INSITU TESTS ON ROCKS: Necessity of Insitu test, Plate load test for deformability, Shear test, Test for internal stresses – flat Jack, pressure meter test.
JOINTED ROCKS: Rocks Joint properties, Joint properties, Joint Roughness Co-efficient, Scale effects, Dilation, Orientation of Joints, Gouge, Joint Intensity, Uniaxial Compressive strength of Jointed Rocks.
STRENGTH OF ROCKS IN UNCONFINED CONDITION : Ramamurthy Strength Criteria, Singh and Rao Strength Criteria, Kulatilake Methodology, Hoek Criteria, Barton Methodology.
STRENGTH OF ROCKS IN CONFINED CONDITION: History of Hoek and Brown Failure Criterions and latest methodology, Parabolic Strength Criteria.
GROUTING AND ROCK BOLTING: Grouting materials, Grouting operations, methods of Grouting, Mechanism of Rock Bolting, Principal of design.
BEARING CAPACITY OF ROCKS: Bearing capacity of intact rocks, jointed rocks, IS Code methodology, Singh and Rao Method and latest methodologies.
Reference Books :
1 Rock Engg. For Engineers by B.P. Verma , Khanna Publishers.
2 Rock Engg. By Bhawani Singh, Elsevier Science Ltd.
3 Foundation on Rocks by Duncan C.Wyllie, Spon Press.
4 Engineering in Rock for Slopes, Foundation and Tunnels, by Ramamurthy, PHI Delhi.
5 IS Codes on Rocks
REPAIR AND REHABILITATION OF BUILDINGS
Deterioration of concrete in structures: physical processes of deterioration like F & T abrasion, erosion, pitting, chemical processes like carbonation, chloride ingress, corrosion, alkali aggregate reaction, sulphate attack; their causes, mechanism, effect, preventive measures. Cracks: Cracks in concrete, type, pattern, quantification, measurement & preventive measures etc.
N.D.T.: Non destructive test methods for concrete including rebound hammer, ultrasonic pulse velocity, rebar locator, corrosion meter, penetration resistance and pull out test, core cutting etc.
Corrosion: Methods for corrosion measurement and assessment including half-cell potential and resistivity, Mapping of data.
Materials for repair: polymers and resins, self curing compound, FRP, Ferro cement etc; properties, selection criterion, bonding aspect.
Repair Techniques: grouting, jacketing, shotcrete, externally bonded plates and under water repair; materials, equipments, precautions process etc.
Investigation for structures: Distress, observation and preliminary test methods. Case studies: related to rehabilitation of bridge piers, dams, canals, heritage structures, corrosion damaged structures.
Reference Books :
1. Properties of Concrete by A.M. Neville, Pearson.
2. Concrete Technology by M.S. Shetty, S.Cahnd & Comp.
3. Hand book of Analytical Techniques in Concrete Tech by V.S.. Ram Chandran, Standard Publishers.
GEOTECHNICAL ENGG. DESIGN AND LABORATORY– II
1. To determine the differential free swell index of soil.
2. To determine the grain size distribution of fine grained soil by Hydrometer.
3. To determine the CBR of soil.
4. To determine the compressibility parameters of soil by consolidation test.
5. To determine the swelling pressure of soil.
6. To determine the permeability of soil by constant and falling head methods.
7. To determine the shear strength parameters of soil by tri-axial test.
8. Design problems based different units of theory syllabus.
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LAB. & DESIGN–II
1. To determine the pH of the given sample of sewage.
2. To determine Total Solids of the given sewage sample.
3. To determine the Total Dissolved Solids of the given sewage sample.
4. To find out Total Settle-able Solids of the given sewage sample.
5. To determine Total Suspended Solids of the given sewage sample.
6. To find out the Quantity of Dissolved Oxygen present in the given water sample by Winkler’s Method.
7. To determine Biochemical Oxygen Demand exerted by the given wastewater sample.
8. To find out Chemical Oxygen Demand of the waste water sample.
9. To study various Sanitary Fittings.
ROAD MATERIAL TESTING LAB
1. Aggregate Impact test
2. To determine the flakiness index & Angularity number test of given sample of aggregate.
3. To determine fineness modulus of a given sample of coarse aggregate.
4. Los angles abrasion test
5. Aggregate crushing value test
6. Specific gravity and water absorption test of aggregate.
7. Standard tar viscometer test
8. To determine the elongation index for given sample of aggregate.
9. Ductility test
10. To determine the softening point for give sample of bitumen.
11. Marshell stability test
12. Float test
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