# RTU Syllabus Civil Engineering 4th Semester

**STRENGTH OF MATERIALS–II**

Unit-1

Deflection of Beams: Differential relation between load, shear force, bending moment, slope deflection. Slope & deflection in determinate beams using double integration method, Macaulay’s method, area moment method and conjugate beam method.

Unit-2

Analysis of prop cantilever structures, Analysis of Indeterminate Structure using Area moment method, Conjugate beam method Combined direct and bending stress, middle third rule, core of a section, gravity retaining wall

Unit-3

Fixed Beams & Continuous Beams: Analysis of fixed beams & continuous beams by three moments Theorem and Area moment method.

Unit-4

Torsion: Elementary concepts of torsion, shear stress in solid and hollow circular shafts, angle of twist, power transmitted by a shaft, combined bending and torsion

Springs: Stiffness of springs, springs in series and parallel, laminated plate springs, leaf spring, close coiled helical springs, open coiled springs.Vibrations: Elementary concepts of structural vibration, Mathematical models, basic elements of vibratory system. Degree of freedom. Equivalent Spring stiffness of springs in parallel and in series.

Unit-5

Simple Harmonic Motion: vector representation, characteristic, addition of harmonic motions, Angular oscillation. Undamped free vibration of SDOF system: Newton’s law of motion, D’Almbert’s principle, deriving equation of motions, solution of differential equation of motion, frequency & period of vibration, amplitude of motion; Introduction to damped and forced vibration.

Text Books :

1. Strength of Materials & Mechanics of Structures: Vol. I by Dr. B.C. Punmia Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.

Reference Books :

1. Strength of Material by Singer and Pytel, Harper Collins Publishers.

2. Elements of Strength of Materials by Timoshenko & Young, Mc Graw Hill Book Co.

3.Mechanics of Structures by Timoshenko & Gere, CBS Publishers and Distributers.

4.Mechanics of Structures Vol. I & II by S.B Junarkar, Charotar Publishing House.

**CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY**

Unit-1

Ingredients of concrete: Cement: hydration of cement and its basic compounds, structure of hydrated cement, C-S-H gel, heat of hydration, gel- space ratio and its significance. Aggregates: types, physical properties and standard methods for their determination.

Concrete : Grade of concrete, proportioning of ingredients, water content and its quality for concrete, water/cement ratio and its role, Properties of fresh concrete including workability, air content, Flow ability, Segregation, Bleeding and Viscosity etc. ‐ Factors affecting, methods of determination.

Unit-2

Properties of hardened concrete such as strengths, permeability, creep, shrinkage, factors influencing, Standard tests on fresh and hardened concrete as per IS code. Aggregate- cement interface, maturity concept.

NDT: Introduction and their importance. Application & use of Rebound Hammer, Ultra-sonic pulse velocity meter, Rebar & Cover meter, half cell potential meter, corrosion resistivity meter, core sampling.

Unit-3

Concrete Handling in Field: Batching, mixing, placing and transportation of concrete, equipments for material handling, various methods their suitability and precautions. Compaction of concrete: methods & equipments. Curing of concrete: various methods their suitability. Durability of concrete.

Unit-4

Concrete mix deign (ACI, IS method), quality control for concrete. Admixture in concrete: Chemical and mineral admixtures, their types and uses: water reducers, accelerator, retarders, water-proofing plasticizers, super plasticizers, air-entraining agents. Use of fly ash and silica fume in concrete, their properties and effect.

Unit-5

Form work: Requirements, their types and codal guidelines for the design. Typical formworks and shuttering/centering for Columns, beams, slabs, walls, arches and staircase. Slip and moving formwork.

Special types of concrete: Introduction to high strength concrete, high performance concrete, sulphate resisting concrete, under water concreting, self compacting concrete, pumpable concrete: their salient properties and application.

Text Books :

1. Concrete Technology by Neville & Brooks, Pearson Education.

Reference Books :

1. Concrete: Microstructure, Properties & Materials by Mehta P.K, Tata Mc Graw Hill.

2. Concrete Technology by M.S.Shetty, S.Chand & Co.

3. Concrete materials by Popovics, Standard Publishers.

4. Chemistry of Cement and Concrete by Peter C.Hewlett, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann.

**HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINES**

Unit-1

Dimensional Analysis & Models: Dynamical Similarity and Dimensional Homogeneity Model experiment, geometric, Kinematic and Dynamic similarity. Reynold’s, froudes, Weber’s, Euler and Mach numbers. Distorted river models and undistorted models, proper choice of scale ratios. Scale effect.

Principle of dimensional analysis Rayleigh method, Buckingham theorem, applications of dimensional analysis to pipe Friction problems, resistance to motion of partially and fully submerged bodies and other simple problems. Ship model experiments.

Unit-2

Laminar Flow: Relation between shear & pressure gradient. Flow between plates & pipes. Equations for velocity distribution, pressure difference.

Turbulent Flow in pipes: Theories of Turbulence, Nikuradse’s Experiments. Hydro dynamically smooth & rough boundaries. Laminar, Sub layer, Equations of velocity distribution and friction coefficient. Stanton Diagram, Moody’s diagram.

Unit-3

Flow through channels: Uniform, Non-Uniform and variable flow. Resistance equations of Chezy, Mannring and Bazin. Section factor for uniform flow. Most Efficient rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal sections.

Equations of gradually varied flow in Prismatic channels. Limitation of its applicability and assumption made in its derivation. Specific energy of flow. Critical depth in prismatic channels. Alternate depths. Rapid, critical and sub critical Flow Mild, steep and Critical Slopes. Classification of surface curves in prismatic channels and elementary computation

Unit-4

Rapidly varied flow: Hydraulic jump or standing wave in rectangular channels. Conjugate or sequent depths Losses in jump, location of jump. Broad crested weirs for channel flow: Measurement, velocity distribution in open channels, parshall flume.

Impact of free Jets: Impact of a jet on a flat or a curved vane, moving and stationary vane, flow over radial vanes.

Unit-5

Centrifugal pumps and turbines: Volute and whirlpool chambers, Loses of head due to variation of discharge Manometric and Hydraulic efficiencies, Description of single and multistage pumps. Specific speed, characteristic curves. Model Test. Reaction and Impulse turbines, specific speed, Mixed flow turbines. Pelton wheel turbine, Francis turbine, propeller turbine and Kaplan turbine Efficiency, Characteristics of turbines. Basic principles of governing of turbines, Draft-tube, Selection of turbines, model tests.

Text Books :

1.Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics by Dr. K.R, Arora, Standard Publishers & Distributers, Delhi.

Reference Books :

1. Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics by John F.Douglas & Lynne B. Jack, Prentice Hall Inc.

2.Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics by Dr. R.K. Bansal, Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.

3. Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics by Modi & Seth, Standard Publishers & Distributers, Delhi.

4. Fluid Mechanics & Machinery by C.S.P.Ojha, R.Berndtsson and P.N.Chandramauli, Oxford Publishers, Delhi.

**SURVEYING–I**

Unit-1

Introduction: Importance of surveying to engineers, Plane and geodetic surveying, methods of location of points, principle of surveying from whole to part, conventional signs.

Measurement of Distances: Different types of chains, tapes and their uses. Sources of error and precautions, corrections to tape measurements. Field problems in distance measurement. Advance techniques of distance measurements.

Unit-2

Measurement of Angles & Direction: Different types of direction measuring instruments and their uses. Reference meridians, Bearing and azimuths, magnetic declination and its variation. Use and adjustment of surveyors and prismatic compass.

Vernier and micro-optic theodolite, temporary and permanent adjustment of vernier theodolite. Measurement of horizontal and vertical angle by different methods. Application of theodolite in field problems.

Unit-3

Traversing: Different methods of traversing; chain traverse, chain & compass traverse, transit-tape traverse. Methods of computations and adjustment of traverse; transit rule, Bowditch rule, graphical method, axis method. Gales traverse table.

Unit-4

Leveling: Definitions of various terms in leveling. Different types of leveling, sources of errors in leveling curvature and refraction corrections. Temporary and permanent adjustment of dumpy and tilting levels. Computation and adjustment of levels. Profile leveling; L-Section and cross- sections.

Plane Table Surveying: Elements of plane table survey working operations, methods of plane table survey; intersection, traversing and resection, two point and three point problems.

Unit-5

Contouring: Characteristics of contours, contour interval, contour gradient, Methods of locating contours, uses of contour maps.

Text Books :

1. Surveying Volume I by Dr. B.C. Punamia Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.

Reference Books :

1. Plane Surveying by Dr. A.M. Chandra, New Age International.

2. Surveying Volume –I & II by Dr. K.R. Arora Standard Book House Delhi

3. Surveying & Leveling by Subramanian Oxford University Press.

4. Surveying Vol.1 by S.K.Duggal Tata Mc Graw Hill,Delhi.

**BUILDING PLANNING**

Unit-1

Introduction: Types of buildings, Classification of buildings by occupancy, Multi storey building, criteria for location and site selection, site plan and its detail.

Sun Consideration : Different methods of drawing sun chart, sun shading devices, design of louvers, energy conservation in buildings, passive solar cooling and heating of buildings.

Unit-2

Climatic and comfort Consideration: Elements of climate, global climate, climatic zones of India, comfort conditions, biclimatic chart, climate modulating devices.

Orientation: Meaning, factors affecting orientation, orientation criteria for tropical climate.

Building Bye Laws and NBC Regulations: Objective of by-laws, Regulation regarding; means of access, lines of building frontages, covered area, floor area ratio, open spaces around buildings, height & sizes of rooms, plinth regulation and sanitation provisions.

Unit-3

Principles of Planning: Different factors affecting planning viz-aspect, prospect, furniture requirement, roominess, grouping, circulation, elegance, privacy etc.

Vastu Shastra In Modern Building planning: Factors considered in Vastu, site selection, orientation, planning and design of residential buildings, office buildings.

Unit-4

Functional design and Accommodation requirements of (A) Residential Buildings: Anthrometry, activities and their spatial requirements; Area planning, living area, sleeping area, service area; Bubble diagram showing sequence of arrangement of area, plan, elevation, sectional elevation.

(B) Non Residential Buildings: viz-school buildings, rest house, primary health centers, post office, bank, College library, cinema theatres etc.

Unit-5

Services in Buildings (A) Lighting and ventilation, doors and windows, lifts. (B) Acoustics, sound insulation and noise control. (C) Fire fighting provisions.

Reference Books :

1. Manual of Tropical Housing and Buildings by Koenigs Berger Orient and Longman.

2. Building Drawing by M.G.Shah, C.M. Kala, S.Y.Patki , Tata Mc Graw Hills.

3. SP.41 (S&T)- Handbook on functional Requirements of Buildings Part-I

4. National Building Code, BIS.

5. Architecture Drafting and Design by Donald E. Helper, & Paul I Wallach.

6. Time Saver Standards for Housing and Residential Development by DE Chiara, Tata Mc Graw Hill, Delhi.

**QUANTITY SURVEYING & VALUATION **

Unit-1

Introduction: Purpose and importance of estimates, principles of estimating. Methods of taking out quantities of items of work. Mode of measurement, measurement sheet and abstract sheet; bill of quantities. Types of estimate, plinth area rate, cubical content rate, preliminary, original, revised and supplementary estimates for different projects.

Unit-2

Rate Analysis: Task for average artisan, various factors involved in the rate of an item, material and labor requirement for various trades; preparation for rates of important items of work. Current schedule of rates. (C.S.R.)

Unit-3

Estimates: Preparing detailed estimates of various types of buildings, R.C.C. works, earth work calculations for roads and estimating of culverts, Services for building such as water supply, drainage and electrification.

Unit-4

Cost of Works: Factors affecting cost of work, overhead charges, Contingencies and work charge establishment, various percentages for different services in building.

Unit-5

Valuation: Purposes, depreciation, sinking fund, scrap value, year’s purchase, gross and net income, dual rate interest, methods of valuation, rent fixation of buildings.

Text Books :

1. Estimating & costing by B.N.Dutta, UBS Publishers & Distributers.

Reference Books :

1. Estimating Costing Specification & Valuation in Civil Engg. M .Chakroborty, Bhakti Vedanta, Book Trust, delhi.

2. Quantity Surveying and Valuation by S.C. Rangawala , Charotar Publishing House.

**CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY LAB**

Experiments :

1. To determine the fineness of Cement by sieving through a 90 micron I.S. Sieve.

2. To determine the flexural strength of Concrete.

3. To determine Soundness of cement by Le-chatelier apparatus.

4. To determine the specific gravity of fine aggregate (sand) by Pycnometer.

5. To determine the bulking of fine aggregate and to draw curve between water content and bulking.

6. To determine the fineness modulus of coarse aggregates and fine aggregates by sieve analysis.

7. To determine the workability of given concrete mix by slump test.

8. To determine the workability o given fresh concrete mix by compaction factor test.

9. To determine the optimum dose of super plastsizers by by Flow table test.

10. To design concrete mix of M-20 grade without admixture in accordance with I S recommendations.

11. To design concrete mix of M-40 grade with admixture in accordance with I S recommendations.

12. To determine the Elstic Modulus of Concrete.

13. To determine the Permeability of Conerte.

14. NDT

**HYDRAULICS LAB**

Experiments :

1. To determine the minor losses.

2. To determine the friction factor.

3. To determine Cd of Broad crested wier.

4. To verify the momentum equation.

5. To determine the discharge of venturimeter.

6. To determine Manning’s & Chezy’s coefficient of roughness for the bed of a given flume.

7. To plot characteristics curve of hydraulic jump.

8. To plot characteristics curve of Pelton Wheel.

9. To plot characteristics curve of Centrifugal Pump.

**SURVEYING LAB I**

Experiments :

1. Ranging and Fixing of Survey Station.

2. Plotting Building Block by offset with the help of cross staff.

3. To determine the magnetic bearing of a line

a. Using surveyor’s compass

b. Using prismatic compass

4. Measurement and adjustment of included angles of traverse using prismatic compass.

5. To determine the reduced levels using Tilting Level/Automatic Level.

6. To determine the reduce levels in closed circuit using Dumpy Level.

7. To carry out profile leveling and plot longitudinal and cross sections for road.

8. To carryout temporary adjustment of Theodolite & Measurement of horizontal angle.

a. By method of repetition.

b. By method of Reiteration.

9. To determine the tachometric constant.

10. To determine the horizontal and vertical distance by tachometric survey.

11. To study the various minor instruments.

**BUILDING DRAWING- II**

Experiments :

1. To plan and draw working drawing of a Residential building with following detail.

(a) Site plan

(b) Foundation plan

(c) Plan

(d) Two sectional elevations

(e) Front elevation

(f) Furniture plan

(g) Water supply and sanitary plan

(h) Electric fitting plan

2. To design and draw a Primary Health Center

3. To design and draw a Primary School

4. To design and draw a Rest House

5. To design and draw a Post Office

6. To design and draw a Bank

7. To design and draw a College Library

8. To design and draw a Cinema Theatre

**MATERIAL TESTING LAB**

1. Tensile Strength Test – Mild Steel and HYSD bar

2. Compressive Strength Test – Mild Steel and Cast Iron

3. Compressive Strength Test – Cement Cubes and Concrete Cubes

4. Compressive Strength Test – Bricks

5. Compressive Strength Test – Wooden Blocks

6. Hardness Test – Rockwell Hardness and Brinell Hardness

7. Impact Test – Izod and Charpy

8. Modulus of Rupture of Wooden Beam

9. Fatigue Test

10. Spring Test

11. Torsion Test

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