# RTU Syllabus Civil Engineering 5th Semester

**THEORY OF STRUCTURES–I **

Unit-1

Introduction to Indeterminate structures, Degrees of freedom per node, Static and Kinematic indeterminacy (i.e. for beams, frames & portal with & without sway etc.), Releases in structures, Maxwell’s reciprocal theorem and Betti’s theorem, Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures using Slope‐deflection method.

Unit-2

Analysis of structures using Moment‐distribution method applied to continuous beams and portal frames with and without inclined members.

Unit-3

Unit load method & their applications: deflection of determinate beams and frames, analysis of determinate and redundant frames up to two degree of redundancy, lack of fit in redundant frames.

Introduction to Energy Methods: Strain energy for gradually applied, suddenly applied and impact loads, Strain energy due to axial loads, bending, shear and torsion;. Castiglione’s theorems & their applications in analysis of determinate and redundant frames up to two degree of redundancy and trussed beams; Stresses due to temperature & lack of fit in redundant frames; deflection of determinate beams, frames using energy methods

Unit-4

Column Analogy method for indeterminate structures, determination of carry over factor for non‐prismatic section. Kani’s Method: Analysis of beams and frames with & without sway by Kani’s method.

Unit-5

Approximate methods for lateral loads: Analysis of multistory frames by portal method, cantilever method & factor method. Analysis of determinate space trusses by tension coefficient method.

Text Books :

1.Strength of Materials & Mechanics of Structures: Vol. I by Dr. B.C. Punmia Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.

Reference Books :

1. Advanced Structural Analysis by Dr. A.K. Jain, Nem Cahnd and Brothers, Roorkee.

2. Mechanics of Structures by Timoshenko & Young, Mc Graw Hill Book Co.

3. Mechanics of Structures Vol.-I by Junarkar & Shah, Charotar Publishing House.

4. Theory of Structures by Jangid & Negi, Tata Mc Graw Hill.

5. Structural Analysis by Ghali & Neville, E&FN,Spon.

6. Structural Analysis by Hibbler R.C., Pearsons

**ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-I **

Unit-1

General: Environment and its components, Importance of water, Role of an Environmental Engineer, Historical overview.

Water Demand: Design flow, design periods, design population, factors affecting water consumption, variation in water demand, design capacities for various water supply components.

Unit-2

Source of water and collection works: Alternative sources i.e. rain, surface and ground water, Assessment of yield and development of the source.

Quality of water: The hydrological cycle and water quality, physical, chemical and biological water quality parameters, water quality requirements, Indian Standards.

Unit-3

Transmission of water: Hydraulics of conduits, selection of pipe materials, pipe joints, pumps, pumps station.

Preliminary Treatment of Water: Historical overview of water treatment, water treatment processes (theory and application): aeration, solids separation, settling operations, coagulation, softening,

Unit-4

Advanced Treatment of Water: filtration, disinfection, other treatment processes, dissolved solids removal, treatment plant design, preparation of hydraulic profiles.

Unit-5

Distribution of water: Method of distributing water, distribution reservoirs, distribution system, distribution system components, capacity and pressure requirements, design of distribution systems, hydraulic analysis of distribution systems, pumping required for water supply system.

Plumbing of Building for water supply: Service connections, fixture units, simultaneous flow, design of plumbing system.

Text Books :

1. Water Supply by S.K. Garg, Khanna Publishing

Reference Books :

1. Environmental Engineering by Peavy, H.S., Rowe D.R. and Techobanoglous, Mc Graw Hill, Book Company.

2. Manual of Water Supply and Water Treatment, Ministry of Urban Development, Govt.of India.

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING–I

Unit-1

Soil and soil-mass constituents, water content, specific gravity, void ratio, porosity, degree of saturation, air void and air content, unit weights, density index etc. Inter-relationships of the above. Determination of index properties of soil: water content, specific gravity, particle size distribution, sieve and sedimentation analysis, consistency limits, void ratio and density index. Classification of soil for general engineering purposes: particle size, textural, H.R.B. Unified and I.S. Classification systems.

Unit-2

Clay mineralogy: Soil structure; single grained, honeycombed, flocculent, and dispersed, structure of composite soils, clay structure; basic structure, mineral structures, structures of Illite Montmorilinite and kaolinite and their characteristics.

Soil water absorbed, capillary and free water, Darcy’s law of permeability of soil and its determination in laboratory. Field pumping out tests, factors affecting permeability, permeability of stratified soil masses.

Unit-3

Stresses in soil mass: total, effective and neutral pressure, calculation of stresses, influence of water table on effective stress, quicksand phenomenon Seepage and Seepage Pressure, Laplace’s equation for seepage. Flow net and its construction. Uplift pressure, piping, principle of drainage by electro Osmosis, phreatic line, Flow net through earth dam.

Unit-4

Mohr’s circle of stress, shearing strength of soil, parameters of shear strength, Coulomb’s failure envelope, determination of shear parameters by Direct Shear Box. Triaxial and unconfined compression test apparatuses. Typical stress-stain curves for soils. Typical failure envelopes for cohesion less soils and normally consolidated clay soils.

Unit-5

Principles of soil compaction, laboratory compaction tests; Proctor’s test Modified Proctor tests, Measurement of field compaction, field methods of compaction and its control, dry and wet of optimum, factors affecting compaction, compaction equipments. Soil stabilization, Mechanical Stabilization. Stabilization with cement, lime and bitumen.

Text Books :

1. Basic and applied Civil Mechanics by Rajan & Rao, New Age International Publishers.

Reference Books :

1. Soil Mechanics & Foundation Engineering by Arora K.R, Standard Publishers and Distributers, Delhi.

2. Soil Engineering in Theory & Practice by Alam Singh, CBS Publishers and Distributers, Delhi.

**SURVEYING–II**

Unit-1

Trigonometric Leveling: Trigonometric leveling, Objects accessible and non accessible, Determination of levels object- when two instrument positions in same and different vertical planes.

Curvature, Refraction and Axis Signal corrections, Determination of difference in elevations of points by trigonometric leveling by single observation method (angle of elevation, angle of depression), reciprocal method.

Unit-2

Curve Surveying: Elements of circular (Simple, compound and reverse) curves, transition curves, degrees of curve, Linear and angular Methods of setting out circular and transition curves.

Unit-3

Triangulation: Merits and demerits of traversing, triangulation and trilateration. Grades of triangulation, Strength of figure, field procedure of triangulation. Reconnaissance and selection of triangulation stations.

Indivisibility of stations and calculation of the heights of towers. Equipment needed for base line measurement, corrections to base line. Satellite station and base line extension.

Unit-4

Errors in Surveying: Classification of errors in surveying. The probability curve, its equation and properties, theory of least squares, weight, most probable valve, probable errors, standard errors. Normal equation correlates.

Adjustment of Triangulation Figures: Adjustment of levels. Adjustment of triangulations figures, Braced quadrilateral Triangle with central, station. Approximate and method of least squares for figure adjustment, Trilateration.

Unit-5

Field Astronomy: Definitions of terminology used in Astronomy, Co‐ordinate Systems. Relationships between different Co‐ordinate systems. Astronomical Triangle, Napier’s Rule. Different methods of determination of Azimuth. Electronic distance measurement and use of Total station.

Text Books :

1. Surveying – Vol. I & II by K.R. Arora Satandard Book House,Delhi.

Reference Books :

1. Surveying Vol. 2 & 3 by B C Punmia Laxmi Publications, Delhi.

2. Advance Surveying by Sathees Kumar, R.Sathis Kumar , N. Madhu, Pearson Education

3. Plane and Geodetic Surveying Vol.I &II, BY David Clark, CBS Publishers and Distributers.

4. Surveying Vol.2 by S.K.Duggal, Tata Mc Graw Hill, Delhi.

5. Advance Surveying by A.M.Chandra, New Age Inetrnational, Delhi.

**BUILDING DESIGN**

Unit-1

Design Loads: Design loads for different types of buildings. (IS-875 part 1 & 2). Load distribution & concept of load flow to different structural components.

Structural Systems: Assumption of integrity aspect ratios & over turning resistance, strength & stiffness of buildings, symmetry and Asymmetry in building forms, Vertical and lateral load resting elements, shear walls, framed tubes and various multistory configurations.

Unit-2

Lateral loads: Wind loads & calculation of wind load on structures (IS: 875- Part 3).

Unit-3

Lateral loads: Earthquake loads & calculations of earthquake loads on buildings masonry & framed structures. (IS: 1893 – Part 1).

Unit-4

Masonry and Framed Buildings: Design of masonry buildings and framed buildings, Earthquake resistant construction of buildings, and various provisions as per IS codes; IS-4326, IS-13827, IS-13828, IS-13920, IS- 13935.

Unit-5

Mass Housing: Prefabricated construction for mass housing. Special Roofs: Introduction to folded plates, cylindrical shells, north-light shell roofs, grid and ribbed floors.

**GROUND IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES**

Unit-1

Introduction: Formation of soil, major soil types, collapsible soil, expansive soil, reclaimed soil, sanitary land fill, ground improvements; objective, potential. General principles of compaction: Mechanics, field procedure, quality control in field.

Unit-2

Ground Improvement in Granular soil: In-place densification by (a) Vibro floatation (b) Compaction piles in sand(c) Vibro compaction piles (d)Dynamic compaction (e) Blasting.

Unit-3

Ground improvement in cohesive soil: Preloading with or without vertical drains. Compressibility vertical and radial consolidation, Rate of consolidation, Preloading methods. Types of drains, Design of vertical drains, Construction techniques. Stone column: Function, Design principles, load carrying capacity, construction techniques, settlement of stone column foundation.

Unit-4

Ground Improvement by Grouting & Soil Reinforcement: Grouting in soil: Types of grout, desirable characteristics, Grouting pressure, Grouting methods.

Soil Reinforcement – Mechanism, Types of reinforcing elements, Reinforcement- Soil interaction, Reinforced soil application beneath roads, foundation and retaining walls.

Unit-5

Soil Stabilization:Lime Stabilization – Base Exchange mechanism, Pozzolonic reaction, lime- soil interaction, lime columns, Design of foundation on lime column.

Cement stabilization-Mechanism, amount, Age and curing.

Fly ash-Lime stabilization

Soil bitumen stabilization

Text Books :

1. Ground Improvement Techniques by Purushottam Raj, Tata Mc Graw Hills, Delhi.

Reference Books :

1. Text book of Geostatic Engineering by Gulhati & Dutta, Tata Mc Graw Hills, Delhi.

2. Principles of Foundation Engg by B.M. Das, Thomson, Books/Cole.

3. Foundation Design Manual By N.V Nayak, Dhanpat Rai and Sons.

4. Soil Engineering in Theory and Practice Vol. III by Alam Singh CBS Publishers

**ADVANCED CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY**

Unit-1

Concrete Production: Difference in mix proportioning for vibrator compacted concrete, pumpable and roller compacted concrete. Considerations in a plant operations in ready mixed concrete (RMC). Different types of mixers, transportation systems and pumps in RMC Rheology of Concrete: Flow ability, Segregation, Bleeding and Viscosity etc. ‐ Factors affecting, related standards including slump flow test, v funnel test, U box test, J Ring test, Stability test, L Box test, rheometer test etc.

Unit-2

Mineral and Chemical admixtures in Concrete: Chemical: Applications of accelerators, importance of chloride free admixtures, Typical dosages and applications, Case studies of use in tunnels. Application of Retarders, particularly in RMC applications.

High range water reducing admixtures: Naphthalene and melamine based, PCE based. Principle of working. Application procedure, Shelf life, Outline of different commercial types available in Indian market (more than 10).

Mineral : Flyash : Basic properties, IS 3812 specifications for use in cement and concrete. Properties of typical flyashes available in the country.Graded flyash, Pozzocrete and its applications.

Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS): Basic properties, Indian standards, Applications.

Ultra fine powders: Micro Silica, Metakaolin, Limestone, Calcium carbonate powders etc: Basic properties, role in cement concrete and applications.

Unit-3

Strength of Concrete: Strength‐ porosity relationship, factors affecting compressive strength, behaviour of concrete under uniaxial, biaxial and triaxial stress states, Split Tensile strength and modulus of rupture ‐test methods and empirical formulae for their estimation as per ACI manual of concrete practice and Indian standards.

Elasticity, Creep and Shrinkage of Concrete: Elastic behaviour, Method of determination of Elastic modulus, factors affecting modulus of elasticity, early volume change in concrete due to plastic shrinkage, autogeneous shrinkage and drying shrinkage‐ factors affecting them, typical values and their methods of determination.

Creep of concrete‐ specific creep, typical values, creep recovery, factors affecting creep and its determination with ASTM procedure.

Unit-4

Microstructure of Concrete: Interfacial transition zone, hydration kinetics, hydrated cement paste (hcp), ettringite, calcium hydroxide, presence of micro‐cracks in concrete mass ‐ their characteristics and significance on performance of concrete, Penetrability of Concrete: Permeability, sorptivity and diffusion in concrete‐ test methods and significance.

Durability of Concrete: Physical and chemical processes, recently employed methods of tests for ensuring longer and durable concrete structures like Resistivity, RCPT, etc‐ case studies involving decision based on rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT), DIN permeability, etc.

Unit-5

Special Aggregates: Light weight, heavy weight‐ their characteristics and uses in concrete. Specific purpose concretes and cement based composites: Self Compacting Concrete : Mix proportioning, EFNARC guidelines. Fiber cements and fiber reinforced cement based composites, mass concrete and polymer concrete etc.‐ materials, production and application areas.

High performance concrete‐ performance characteristics in fresh and hardened states, production precautions ‐ case studies of use of HPC in India: Delhi Metro construction, Mumbai – Worli Sea link project, atomic power projects, Hydro electric power projects etc.

Nano Technology in Cement and Concrete: Use of nano silica, CNTs and other nano materials.

Text Books :

1. Properties of Concrete by A.M. Neville, Longman Publishers.

Reference Books :

1. Concrete Technology by M.S. Shetty, Dahnpat Rai & Sons.

2. Concrete Technology by Nevillee & Brooks, Pearson Education.

3. Concrete Microstructure P.K. Metha, Tata Mc Graw Hill.

4. Concrete Technology- A. S. Santhakumar, Oxford University Press

**SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT **

Unit-1

General: Problems associated with Solid Waste Disposal. Generation of Solid Waste: Goals and objectives of solid waste management, Classification of Solid Waste. Solid Waste Generation, Factors Influencing Generation of Solid Waste, Characteristics of Solid Waste, Analysis of Solid Waste.

Unit-2

Onsite Handling, Storage and Processing: Public Health and Aesthetics, Onsite Handling, Onsite, Storage, Dust bins, Community Containers, Container Locations, On-site Processing Methods.

Unit-3

Solid Waste Collections, Transfer and Transport: Collection Systems, Equipment and Labor requirement, Collection Routes, Options for Transfer and Transport Systems.

Unit-4

Processing and Disposal Methods: Processing Techniques and Methods of Disposal, Sanitary land filling, Composting and Incineration, Bioremediation.

Unit-5

Recovery of Resources, Conversion, Products and Energy: Material Recovery, Energy Generation and Recovery Operation, Reuse in other industry. Industrial Solid Waste: Nature, Treatment and Disposal Methods.

Reference Books :

1. Solid Waste Engineering Principles and Management Issues by G.Technobanogious H.Theisen

2. Solid Waste Management by C.L.Mantell, Mc Graw Hill Book Co.

3. Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries by Bhide& Sunrashen PHI.

**ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DESIGN & Lab**

Experiments :

1. To determine the pH of the given sample of water.

2. To determine the turbidity of the given sample of water

3. To determine Total Solids of the given water sample.

4. To determine the Total Dissolved Solids of the given water sample.

5. To find out conductivity of the given water sample.

6. To determine hardness of the given water sample.

7. To find out chloride of the given water sample.

8. To determine alkalinity of the given water sample.

9. To find out acidity of the given water sample.

10. To determine hardness of the given water sample.

11. To determine the optimum dose of alum by Jar test.

12. To study various water supply Fittings.

**GEOTECHNICAL ENGG.-I LABORATORY**

Experiments :

1. Grain size distribution by Sieve Analysis

2. Determination of water content by Pycnometer.

3. Determination of specific Gravity by Pycnometer.

4. Determination of liquid limit by Casagrande’s apparatus.

5. Determination of liquid limit by cone penetrometer.

6. Determination of plastic limit

7. Determination of shrinkage limit

8. Determination of field density by core-cutter

9. Determination of field density by sand replacement method

10. Determination of compaction properties by standard Proctor Test Apparatus

11. Determination of C-Ø values by Direct Shear Test Apparatus

12. Determination of Unconfined Compressive Strength by unconfined compression Test Apparatus

**SURVEY LAB-II**

Experiments :

1. To measure the horizontal and vertical angles by Theodolite.

2. To determine the Height of an object by trigonometric leveling (Instruments in same vertical plane).

3. To determine the Height of an object by trigonometric leveling (Instruments in different vertical planes).

4. To shift the R.L. of known point by double leveling.

5. To measure and adjust the angles of a braced quadrilateral.

6. To prepare a contour map by indirect contouring.

7. To prepare the map of given area by plane tabling.

8. To determine the Azimuth of a given line by ex‐meridian observations of Sun.

9. Survey Camp (including exercise on triangulation, topographic, or project survey) with maximum duration of 10 days.

**STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING LAB **

Experiments :

1. Study of friction, screw jacks, winch crabs etc.

2. Deflection of a truss

3. Clark‐Maxwell reciprocal theorem with truss

4. Funicular polygon for flexible cable

5. Analysis of redundant frame

6. Deflection of curved members

7. Buckling of columns

8. Clark‐Maxwell reciprocal theorem with simply supported beam

9. ILD for deflection in a steel beam using unit load method

10. ILD for support reaction using Muller‐Breslau Principle

11. Unsymmetrical bending.

12. Two hinged and three hinged arches.

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