Unit 1 Education Studies
1. Indian Schools of philosophy (Contribution)
- Sankhya Yoga, Vedanta, Buddhism, Jainism (Special Mention to Vidya, Dayanand Darshan)
- Islamic traditions for educational aims and methods in acquiring a valid knowledge.
2. Contribution of Western schools of thoughts
- Idealism, Realism, Naturalism, Pragmatism, Marxism, Existentialism.
- Knowledge and wisdom.
3. Approaches to Sociology of Education
- Concept of social Institutions and their functions (family, school and society),
- Concept and Theories of Social Movements (Relative Deprivation, Resource Mobilization, Political Process Theory and New Social Movement Theory).
4. Socialization and education
- Contribution of different thinkers like Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore etc.
- National Values n the Indian Constitution: Socialism, Secularism, justice, liberty, democracy, equality, freedom (Education point of view).
Unit 2 History, Politics and Economics of Education
1. Committees and Commissions’ Contribution
- Teacher Education Secondary Education Commission (1953)
- Kothari Education Commission (1964-66)
- National Policy of Education (1986,1992)
- National Commission on Teachers (1999)
- National Curriculum Framework 2005
- National Knowledge Commission (2007)
- Yashpal Committee Report (2009)
- National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (2009)
- Justice Verma Committee Report (2012)
2. Policies and Education
- Educational Policy and National Development Linkage.
- Educational Policy Determinants.
- Process of Policy formulation.
3. Concept of Economics of Education
- Cost-Benefit Analysis versus Cost Effective Analysis.
- Economic returns to Higher Education.
- Educational Finance: Concept
- Concept of Budgeting.
4. Politics and Education
- Various Perspectives of Politics of Education Liberal, Conservative and Critical.
- Different approaches to understand politics.
- Education for Political Development and Political Socialization.
Unit 3: Learner and Learning Process
1. Growth and Development
- Growth Development: Concept
- Cognitive Processes and different stages of Cognitive Development and Personality.
- Definitions and theories according to Freud, Carl Rogers, Gordon Allport, Max Wertheimer etc.,
- Mental health and Mental hygiene.
2. Approaches to Intelligence from Unitary to Multiple
- Social intelligence and its concepts, multiple and emotional intelligence.
- Intelligence Theories by Sternberg, Gardner etc.
- Problem Solving concepts, Critical thinking, Metacognition and Creativity.
3. Principles and Theories of learning
- Behaviouristic, Cognitive and Social theories of learning.
- Factors affecting social learning.
- Concept of social cognition, understanding the social relationship and socialization goals.
4. Guidance and Counselling
- Nature, Principles and Need of Guidance and Counselling.
- Guidance Types (educational, vocational, personal, health and social & Directive etc.)
- Different Approaches to counselling: Cognitive-Behavioural (Albert Ellis – REBT) & Humanistic, Person-centred Counselling (Carl Rogers).
Unit 4: Teacher Education
1. Teacher Education
- Types of Teacher Education Programs.
- Structure of Teacher Education Curriculum.
- Curriculum Documents of NCERT and NCTE at different levels namely, Elementary, Secondary and Higher Secondary Levels.
2. Understanding Teacher Education
- Various viewpoint of Schulman, Deng and Luke & Habermas.
- Reflective Teaching: Its Concept and Strategies to promote Reflective Teaching.
- Different Models of Teacher Education.
3. Modes of In-service Teacher Education
- Agencies and Institutions at District, State and National Levels like SSA, RMSA, SCERT, NCERT, UGC etc.
- Planning in-service teacher education programme.
4. Teaching as a Profession
- Professional Ethics of Teachers.
- Factors affecting Teacher Development.
- ICT Integration and quality Enhancement to professionally increase in Teacher Education and to promote Innovation in Teacher Education.
Unit 5: Curriculum Studies
1. Concept and Principles of Curriculum Development
- Various stages in the Curriculum Development Process.
- Curriculum Planning Foundations: Philosophical Bases (National, democratic), Sociological basis (socio-cultural reconstruction), Psychological Bases (learner’s needs and interests).
- Benchmarking and Role of National level Statutory Bodies like UGC, NCTE and University in Curriculum Development.
2. Models of Curriculum Design
- Traditional and Contemporary Models (Academic / Discipline-Based Model, Competency-Based Model, Social Functions / Activities Model [social reconstruction]
- Individual Needs & Interests Model
- Outcome-Based Model
- Discussion on Intervention Model.
- Elaboration on CIPP Model Model.
3. Techniques and Material in enhancing curriculum
- Approaches to Curriculum and Instructions (Academic and Competency-Based Approaches).
- Different Models of Curriculum Evaluation: Tyler’s Model, Stakes’ Model, Scriven’s Model, Kirkpatrick’s Model.
4. Types of Curriculum change
- Factors affecting curriculum change.
- Students, teachers and educational administrators roles in curriculum change and improvement.
- Curriculum research scope.
- Types of Research in Curriculum Studies.
Unit 6: Research in Education
1. Educational Research
- Meaning, steps and characteristics of Scientific Method namely, Replicability, Precision, Falsifiability and Parsimony.
- Exploratory, Explanatory and Descriptive: Types of Scientific Method.
- Aims of research as a scientific activity which include the concept of Problem-solving, Theory Building and Prediction.
- Types of research: Fundamental, Applied and Action Research.
- Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to educational research.
- Designs methods in educational research.
- Concepts, Constructs and Variables.
- Types of Variables: Independent, Dependent, Extraneous, Intervening and Moderator.
- Hypotheses: Its Concept, Sources, Types including Research, Directional, Non-directional, Null, How to formulate a Hypothesis, Discussion on Characteristics of a good hypothesis.
- Sequential procedure for Writing a Research Proposal, characteristics of a good Sample.
- Techniques of Sampling: Probability and Non-probability Sampling.
- Tools of Research: Validity, Reliability and Standardisation of a Tool.
- Rating scale, Attitude scale, Questionnaire, Aptitude test and Achievement Test, Inventory: Types of Tools.
- Observation, Interview and Projective Techniques of Research.
3. Types of Measurement Scale
- Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio.
- Quantitative Data Analysis: Descriptive data analysis, Testing of Hypothesis, Levels of Significance, Power of a statistical test and effect size, Parametric and Non- Parametric Techniques, Conditions to be satisfied for using parametric techniques, Inferential data analysis, Interpretation of statistical techniques like Correlation, t-test, z-test, ANOVA, chi-square.
- Qualitative Data Analysis: Data Reduction and Classification, Analytical Induction and Constant Comparison, Concept of Triangulation.
4. Qualitative Research Designs:
- Grounded Theory Designs: Its Types, designs, characteristics and Steps in conducting a GT research including Strengths and Weakness of Grounded Theory.
- Narrative Research Designs: Meaning, characteristics of Narrative Research.
- Meaning, Characteristics, Components of a Case Study design, Types and Steps of conducting a Case Study research including Strengths and weaknesses.
- Meaning, Characteristics, Underlying assumptions, Steps of conducting ethnographic research, Writing ethnographic account.
- Mixed Method Designs: Types and characteristics of MM designs, steps in conducting a MM design including the Strengths and weakness of Mixed Methods.
Unit 7: Pedagogy, Andragogy and Assessment
1. Pedagogy, Pedagogical Analysis
- Concept and Stages of Pedagogy, Pedagogical Analysis.
- Critical Pedagogy: Its Concept, Need and its usefulness in Teacher Education.
- Organizing Teaching which includes the topics of Memory Level (Herbartian Model), Understanding Level (Morrison teaching Model) and Reflective Level (Bigge and Hunt teaching Model).
- Meaning and elaboration of Andragogy in Education: Theory of Andragogy (Malcolm Knowles), The Dynamic Model of Learner Autonomy.
- Assessment Meaning, nature and perspectives.
- Types of Assessment namely, Placement, diagnostic, summative and formative.
- Relations between the laid objectives and outcomes.
- Assessment of Cognitive domains (Anderson and Krathwohl), Affective (Krathwohl) and psychomotor domains (R.H. Dave) of learning.
3. Assessment in Pedagogy of Education
- Feedback Devices: Concept with types.
- Guidance as a Feedback Devices includes Assessment of Portfolios, Reflective Journal, Field Engagement using Rubrics, Competency-Based Evaluation, Assessment of Teacher Prepared ICT Resources.
4. Assessment in Andragogy of Education
- Introduction to Interaction Analysis: Flanders’ Interaction analysis and Galloway’s system of interaction analysis.
- Criterion for teacher evaluation and Meaning and steps of Peer evaluation.
Unit 8: Technology in/ for Education
1. Educational Technology
- Concepts of Information Technology and Instructional Technology.
- Applications of Educational Technology: In formal, non-formal, informal and inclusive education systems.
- Overview of Behaviourist, Cognitive and Constructivist Theories and usefulness to Instructional Design (Skinner, Piaget, Ausubel, Bruner, Vygotsky).
- Relationship between Learning Theories and Instructional Strategies.
2. Systems Approach Instructional Design
- Models of Development of Instructional Design according to ADDIE, ASSURE, Dick and Carey Model Mason’s.
- Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction.
- Five E’s of Constructivism.
- Nine Elements of Constructivist Instructional Design.
- Application of Computers in Education: Concept, Process and Approaches to e-learning.
3. Emerging Trends in e-learning
- Social learning.
- Open Education Resources: Concept and Applications.
- E-Inclusion: Concept of E-Inclusion, Application of Assistive technology in E-learning,
- Quality and Measuring quality of E-Learning: Information, System, Service, User Satisfaction and Net Benefits (D&M IS Success Model, 2003).
- Ethical Issues for E-Learner and E Teacher: Teaching, Learning and Research.
4. Use of ICT in Evaluation
- Administration and Research: E-portfolios.
- ICT for Research: Concept and Development (Including Online and Offline assessment tools).
Unit 9: Educational Management, Administration and Leadership
1. Educational Management and Administration
- Meaning, Principles and its Functions.
- POSDCORB, SWOT analysis, Taylorism, CPM, PERT, Management as a system.
- Administration as a process and as a bureaucracy.
- Human relations approach to Administration,
- Organisational compliance, Organisational development, Organisational climate.
2. Leadership in Educational Administration
- Meaning and its Nature.
- Various Approaches to leadership (Some important points include Trait, Transformational, Transactional, Value-based, Cultural, Psychodynamic, Charismatic, Models of Leadership).
- Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid, Fiedler’s Contingency Model, Tri-dimensional Model, Hersey and Blanchard’s Model etc.
3. Concept of Quality and Quality in Education
- Indian & International Perspective about Quality in Education.
- Discussion on Evolution of Quality including Inspection, Quality Control, Quality Assurance, Total Quality Management, Six Sigma.
- Viewpoints of Quality Gurus: Walter Shewart, Edward Deming, C.K Pralhad etc.
4. Change Management
- Meaning and desperate Need for Planned change.
- Three- Step-Model of Change: Unfreezing, Moving, Refreezing
- The Japanese Models of Change. (Important)
- Cost of Quality: Appraisal Costs, Failure costs and Preventable costs, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Cost-Effective Analysis, Indian and International Quality
- Assurance Agencies: Objectives, Functions, Roles and Initiatives NAAC, Performance Indicators, Quality Council of India, International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education.
Unit 10: Inclusive Education
1. Inclusive Education
- Concept, Principles, Scope and Target Groups.
- Evolution of the Philosophy of Inclusive Education. Acts and Provisions.
- National Policy of Education: Started in 1986.
- Programme of Action of Action: Started in 1992.
- Persons with Disabilities Act: Started in1995.
- National Policy of Disabilities: Started in 2006.
- National Curriculum Framework: Started in 2005.
- Rehabilitation Council of India Act: Started in 1992.
- Inclusive Education under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
- Features and Provisions of UNCRPD (United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities).
2. Concept of Impairment
- Classification of Disabilities based on different Models like ICF Model, Readiness of School and Models of Inclusion.
- Characteristics and Educational Needs of Diverse Learners.
- Causes and prevention of Disabilities.
- Identification of Diverse Learners for Inclusion, Educational Evaluation Methods, Techniques and Tools.
3. Planning and Management of Inclusive Classrooms
- Providing Infrastructure, Human Resource and Instructional Practices.
- Curriculum Adaptations for Diverse Learners.
- Adaptive Technology for Diverse Learners: Its Product including Aids and Appliances and Process like Individualized Education Plan, Remedial Teaching
- Parent-Professional Partnership: Role of Parents, Peers, Professionals, Teachers and the role of School.
4. Barriers and Facilitators in Inclusive Education
- Attitude, Social and Educational, Current Status.
- Various Ethical Issues of inclusive education in India.
- Research Trends of Inclusive Education in India.