CBSE 12 Geography – Syllabus, Chapter wise Notes, NCERT Solutions
We all know that the exams are approaching and all the students could be on the verge of preparation. CBSE Class 12 board exams are considered as tough exams. Most students panic because of the fear of examination. Don’t worry, this is a one-stop spot to guide you through the Boards. Here, in this article, the information about CBSE Class 12 Geography will be provided in the below categories.
- Basic Introduction
- Question Papers
- Revision Notes
Geography in the 12th is an elective subject for those students who wish to pursue further studies in the field of their academic interest in the field of cartography, regional and urban planning, GIS and remote sensing, metrology, rural development, and environmental issues.
Therefore, the syllabus for CBSE Class 12 is designed by keeping the below points in view:
1. A student grabs the subject in-depth. This also helps the students to explore, understand the subject better as well as in a position to evaluate the environmental and social dimensions.
2. A simple language, yet, proper terminology relating to Geography has been used.
CBSE Class 12 Geography
The students who are keen to study further studies in humanities, arts choose this as an elective. Today, there are so many options for the students who study Arts and Humanities too. Nowadays information is available on the internet unlike earlier were in people knew only about the prospects in Engineering and Medicine.
The 12th students will have to appear for both theory and practical. The theory carries 70 Marks and Practical’s carry 30 Marks. These books are prescribed by NCERT. You will find the following chapters in 12th Geography.
Part A: Fundamentals of Human Geography
- Unit 1: Human Geography
- Unit 2: People
- Unit 3: Human Activities
- Unit 4: Transport, Communication, and Trade
- Unit 5: Human settlements
- Map Work.
Part B: India: People and Economy
- Unit 6: People
- Unit 7: Human Settlements
- Unit 8: Resources and Development
- Unit 9: Transport, Communication, and International Trade
- Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems
- Map Work
Part C: Practical Work
- Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping
- Unit 2: Field study or Spatial Information Technology
- Unit 3: Practical Record Book and Viva Voce
CBSE Class 12 Geography Syllabus
Part A: Fundamentals of Physical Geography (90 Periods)
Unit 1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope (05 Periods)
Unit 2: People (18 Periods)
1. Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change
2. Population Composition – age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition
3. Human development – concept; selected indicators, international comparisons
Unit 3: Human Activities (28 Periods)
4. Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries
5. Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large scale; agro-based and mineral-based industries; people engaged in secondary activities – some examples from selected countries
6. Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport, and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities – some examples from selected countries
7. Quaternary activities-concept; people engaged in quaternary activities – a case study from selected countries
Unit 4: Transport, Communication, and Trade (24 Periods)
8. Land transport – roads, railways; trans-continental railways
9. Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes
10. Air transport- Intercontinental air routes
11. Oil and gas pipelines
12. Satellite communication and cyberspace- importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS
13. International trade- bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade; the role of WTO in international trade
Unit 5: Human Settlements (10 Periods)
14. Settlement types – rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of megacities; problems of human settlements in developing countries
Map work is related to the identification of features based on 1-5 units on the outline Physical/Political map of the World. (05 Periods).
Part B: India: People and Economy (90 Periods)
Unit 6: People (15 Periods)
15. Population: distribution, density, and growth; composition of the population – linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in the growth of population
16. Migration: international, national-causes and consequences
17. Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns
18. Population, environment, and development
Unit 7: Human Settlements (10 Periods)
19. Rural settlements – types and distribution
20. Urban settlements – types, distribution, and functional classification
Unit 8: Resources and Development (30 Periods)
21. Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use; geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber); agricultural development and problems
22. Water resources-availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed management
23. Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas, and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation
24. Industries – types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industries iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge-based industries; the impact of liberalization, privatization, and globalization on industrial location; industrial clusters
25. Planning in India- target group area planning (case study); the idea of sustainable development (case study)
Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade (15 Periods)
26. Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways, and airways: oil and gas pipelines;
27. Geographical information and communication networks.
28. International trade- changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; seaports and their hinterland and airports
Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems (15 Periods)
29. Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal
30. Urbanization, rural-urban migration; problems of slums
31. Land degradation
Map work on locating and labeling of features based on the above units on an outline map of India. (50 Periods)
Part C: Practical Work (40 Periods)
Unit 1: Processing of Data and Thematic Mapping (25 Periods)
1. Type and Sources of data: Primary, Secondary and other sources
2. Tabulating and processing of data; calculation of averages, measures of central tendency
3. Representation of data- construction of diagrams: bars, circles, and flowchart; thematic maps; construction of dot; choropleth and isopleths maps
4. Data analysis and generation of diagrams, graphs and other visual diagrams using computers
Unit 2: Field Study or Spatial Information Technology (15 Periods)
5. Field visit and study: map orientation, observation, and preparation of sketch; survey on any one of the local concerns; pollution, groundwater changes, land use and land-use changes, poverty, energy issues, soil degradation, impact of floods and drought, catchment area of school, Market survey and Household survey (any one topic of local concern may be taken up for the study; observation and questionnaire survey may be adopted for the data collection; collected data may be tabulated and analyzed with diagrams and maps). Students can be given different topics to get more insight into various problems of society.
Spatial Information Technology
Introduction to GIS; hardware requirements and software modules; data formats; raster and vector data, data input, editing, and topology building; data analysis; overlay and buffer.
Class 12 CBSE Geography Books
Below given are the books prescribed for 12th CBSE geography subject.
1. Fundamentals of Human Geography, Class XII, Published by NCERT
2. India – People and Economy, Class XII, Published by NCERT
3. Practical Work in Geography, Class XII, Published by NCERT
CBSE Class 12 Geography Solutions
CBSE 12th Geography solutions can be found in the various textbook guides. There will be an explanation for each question chapter-wise. You will also be provided with sample questions that you may have to answer.
CBSE Class 12 Geography NCERT Solutions
CBSE 12th NCERT solutions are the best books to follow as they are specifically designed for CBSE classes. These NCERT Class 12 Geography books contain chapter-wise questions and answers. CBSE recommends NCERT books and most of the questions do come from NCERT textbooks. NCERT solutions are up to date based on the textbooks, with the latest modifications as per the CBSE 12th Geography syllabus.
CBSE Class 12 Geography Question Paper
You should have the following materials to find the complete question papers related to CBSE 12th Exam
- Sample Question Papers
- Previous Year Question Papers
- Question Bank
CBSE Class 12 Geography Sample Question Papers
CBSE releases sample question papers every year for the students so that their preparation could become much better as well to get used to the format of the question paper.
After finishing the entire CBSE Class 12 syllabus, it is a good thing to solve the question papers in a timely manner. This will help the students to improve their speed of answering too.
CBSE Class 12 Geography Previous year Papers
Solving the question papers that are released by the CBSE during the same year as well as solving the previous year question papers helps to a great extent. It will help to develop the speed and understand the question and respond quickly. This will help where you stand, your strengths and where you need to focus for further preparation.
CBSE 12th Geography Question Bank
The question bank for CBSE 12th will have all the questions and answers and also multiple-choice questions. Every chapter gets covered in the question bank. The question bank questions help students in getting accustomed to the type of questions asked from each chapter.
CBSE 12th Geography Worksheets
Worksheets are the best way of teaching strategies used in most classrooms. The solving of worksheets helps in developing the lingual and analytical skills of a student. There are so many solved worksheets on the internet for CBSE 12th Geography. They are designed to help the students to understand various topics, practice skills as well as improve their subject knowledge.
CBSE 12th Geography Revision Notes
The CBSE 12th Geography revision notes are prepared by all the expert teachers from the latest NCERT books. These pdf documents contain all the notes in Part A, B and C. This will help the student prepare better during the time of examination. They don’t need to flip through pages of a physical book if they go online and search in pdf documents. It eases the process.
We have covered a detailed guide on CBSE 12th Geography. Feel Free to ask any questions in the comment section below.