CBSE Class 12 Chemistry

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry – Syllabus, Chapter wise Notes, NCERT Solutions

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry: You should have the right study materials to prepare for CBSE 12th Chemistry Exam. Otherwise, you will lose your chance to score a better mark in the CBSE board exam.

Don’t worry! In this article, we are covering everything related to CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Exam. Here you will get brief information on, Class 12

  • Basic Introduction,
  • Syllabus,
  • Books
  • Question Papers
  • Solutions
  • Worksheet
  • Revision Notes
  • Formulas

Basic Introduction

Chemistry is the study of matter, its properties, how and why substances combine or separate to form other substances, and how substances interact with energy.

It has five main sub-branches. These are,

  • Analytical chemistry: It deals with qualitative and quantitative observation to identify and measure the physical and chemical properties of substances.
  • Physical chemistry: It is the combination of chemistry with physics. It deals with the study of matter and energy interaction.
  • Organic chemistry: Here, you have to study compounds that contain the element carbon and their unique properties.
  • Inorganic chemistry: Here, you have to study materials such as metals and gases that do not have carbon as part of their makeup.
  • Biochemistry: In this branch, you have to study the chemical processes that occur within living organisms.

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry

Chemistry plays an important role in CBSE Class 12 Exam. It has a broader prospect if you have taken Science Stream in 12th. In this standard, you have to choose Maths or Biology as the main subject, have Chemistry and Physics subjects in common.

Apart from that, with a thorough concept on the subject can help you to crack various exams like,

  • NEET
  • IIT JEE
  • BITSAT
  • AIIMS
  • JIPMER etc.

The CBSE experts have considered various points while creating the Chemistry book for class 10.

The few points we are as given below.

  • The book contains simple language with well-explained chapters.
  • Proper examples for every theorems and Law.
  • You will find multiple ways to solve a Chemistry problem. So that students can know about the concept behind to solve a problem in the correct way.
  • Every chapter are further divided into sections to help you to build depth concept.
  • All answers to the exercises and solutions or hints are given where required.

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Books

You should have the right Class 12 Chemistry book to prepare for the Exam. You should note that the book should cover the latest Chemistry CBSE Syllabus.

For that, you must have an NCERT Class 12 Chemistry book. Along with that, you can follow the books as given below as a reference,

  • Golden Chemistry Class XII by N K Sharma
  • Comprehensive Chemistry Activities Class 12th by Dr N. K. Verma
  • Conceptual Chemistry For Class XII S K Jain And Shailesh K Jain
  • Moderns ABC Plus Of Chemistry by Dr S. P. Jauhar

You will find the following chapters in 12th CBSE Chemistry,

  • Chapter 1: The Solid State
  • Chapter 2: Solutions
  • Chapter 3: Electrochemistry
  • Chapter 4: Chemical Kinetics
  • Chapter 5: Surface Chemistry
  • Chapter 6: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Chapter 7: The p-Block Elements
  • Chapter 8: The d & f Block Elements
  • Chapter 9: Coordination Compounds
  • Chapter 10: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Chapter 11: Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers
  • Chapter 12: Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids
  • Chapter 13: Amines
  • Chapter 14: Biomolecules
  • Chapter 15: Polymers
  • Chapter 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life

Chapter 1: The Solid State

In this chapter, you will learn about crystalline and amorphous solids, as well as imperfections in solids.

You will also come to know about the unit cell in detail and then builds up to explain the solid-state. This chapter comprised of 11 subtopics.

You will find that there are three states of matter. They are – solid, liquid and gas.

  • Some of the properties of solids are:
  • Solids have a definite shape, volume and mass
  • Solids are rigid and cannot be compressed
  • Particles have fixed positions

Solids are further classified into two types: Amorphous and crystalline. 

  • Crystalline solids have a definite geometric shape, has long-range order
  • Amorphous are of indefinite shape and have short-range order.

The Subtopics you will learn in the Chemistry Chapter

  • General Characteristics of Solid State
  • Amorphous and Crystalline Solids
  • Classification of Crystalline Solids
    • Molecular Solids
    • Ionic Solids
    • Metallic Solids
    • Covalent or Network Solids
  • Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells
    • Primitive and Centred Unit Cells
  • Number of Atoms in a Unit Cell
    • Primitive Cubic Unit Cell
    • Body-Centred Cubic Unit Cell
    • Face-Centred Cubic Unit Cell
  • Close-Packed Structures
    • The formula of a Compound and Number of Voids Filled
  • Packing Efficiency
    • Packing Efficiency in HCP and CCP Structures
    • The efficiency of Packing in Body-Centred Cubic Structures
    • Packing Efficiency in Simple Cubic Lattice
  • Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimensions
  • Imperfections in Solids
    • Types of Point Defects
    • Electrical Properties
    • Conduction of Electricity in Metals
    • Conduction of Electricity in Semiconductors
    • Magnetic Properties

Chapter 2 Solutions

Here you will learn about the various types of solutions and their properties. You will find Raoult’s Law, the concentration of solutions, vapour pressure of liquid solutions, abnormal molar masses, and colligative properties here.

This chapter contains five marks in the Board exam.

The Subtopics you will learn in the Chemistry Chapter

The Subtopics you will learn in Chemistry Chapter 2

  • Types of Solutions
  • Expressing Concentration of Solutions
  • Solubility
    • The solubility of a Solid in a Liquid
    • The solubility of a Gas in a Liquid
  • Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions
    • Vapour Pressure of Liquid-Liquid Solutions
    • Raoult’s Law as a special case of Henry’s Law
    • Vapour Pressure of Solutions of Solids in Liquids
  • Ideal and Non-ideal Solutions
    • Ideal Solutions
    • Non-ideal Solutions
  • Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass
    • Relative Lowering of Vapour Pressure
    • Elevation of Boiling Point
    • Depression of Freezing Point
    • Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
  • Abnormal Molar Masses

Chapter 3 Electrochemistry

Here you will learn about the electrochemical cell. You also learn about the galvanic cell and the electrolytic cell.

In the chapter, you will find the detailed explanation about the standard potential of the cell, Gibbs energy of cell reaction, and the relation with the equilibrium constant.

The students will also learn the Kohlrausch Law and its applications.

The Subtopics you will learn in Chemistry Chapter 3

  • Electrochemical Cells
  • Galvanic Cells
    • Measurement of Electrode Potential
  • Nernst Equation
    • Equilibrium Constant from Nernst Equation
    • Electrochemical Cell and Gibbs Energy of Reaction
  • The conductance of Electrolytic Solutions
    • Measurement of the Conductivity of Ionic Solutions
    • Variation of Conductivity and Molar Conductivity with Concentration
  • Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis
    • Products of Electrolysis
  • Batteries
    • Primary Batteries
    • Secondary Batteries
  • Fuel Cells
  • Corrosion

Chapter 4 Chemical Kinetics

Here you will learn about the rate of a reaction of chemical. The topics comprise the factors affecting the rate of a reaction, the integrated rate equation, Pseudo First Order reactions, and the collision theory of chemical reactions.

It has great importance from engineering and medical sciences point of view too.

The Subtopics you will learn in Chemistry Chapter 4

  • The rate of a Chemical Reaction
  • Factors Influencing the Rate of a Reaction
    • Dependence of Rate on Concentration
    • Rate Expression and Rate Constant
    • Order of a Reaction
    • Molecularity of a Reaction
  • Integrated Rate Equations
    • Zero Order Reactions
    • First-Order Reactions
    • Half-Life of a Reaction
  • Pseudo First Order Reaction
  • Temperature Dependence of the Rate of a Reaction
    • Effect of Catalyst – Collision Theory of Chemical Reactions.

Chapter 5 Surface Chemistry

In this chapter, you will learn about emulsions, adsorption, adsorption isotherms, factors controlling adsorption of gases and liquids, and catalysts and their role in the industry.

You will also learn the colloids and their applications.

The Subtopics you will learn in Chemistry Chapter 5

  • Adsorption
    • The distinction between Adsorption and Absorption
    • Mechanism of Adsorption
    • Types of Adsorption
    • Adsorption Isotherms
    • Adsorption from Solution Phase
    • Applications of Adsorption
  • Catalysis
    • Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis
    • Adsorption Theory of Heterogeneous Catalysis
    • Shape-Selective Catalysis by Zeolites
    • Enzyme Catalysis
    • Catalysts in Industry
  • Colloids
  • Classification of Colloids
    • Classification Based on the Physical State of Dispersed Phase and Dispersion Medium
    • Classification Based on the Nature of Interaction between Dispersed Phase and Dispersion Medium
    • Classification Based on the Type of Particles of the Dispersed Phase, Multimolecular, Macromolecular, and Associated Colloids
    • Preparation of Colloids
    • Purification of Colloidal Solutions
    • Properties of Colloidal Solutions
  • Emulsions
  • Colloids around Us.

Chapter 6 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

The chapter comes under the inorganic chemistry portion of the syllabus. In the chapter, you will learn about the occurrence of metals, the concentration of ores, cleaning and extraction, of crude metal from ores, thermodynamic and electrochemical principles of metallurgy, and the refining process.

The Subtopics you will learn in Chemistry Chapter 6

  • Occurrence of Metals
  • Concentration of Ores
  • Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore
  • Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy
  • Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Refining
  • Uses of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc, and Iron.

Chapter 7 p Block Elements

In chapter 7, you will learn about the Group 15 elements, Oxides of Nitrogen, Allotropes of Phosphorus, Group 16 elements, simple oxides, allotropes of sulfur, chlorine, and other elements.

The Subtopics you will learn in Chemistry Chapter 7

  • Group 15 Elements
  • Dinitrogen
  • Ammonia
  • Oxides of Nitrogen
  • Nitric Acid
  • Phosphorus — Allotropic Forms
  • Phosphine
  • Phosphorus Halides
  • Oxoacids of Phosphorus
  • Group 16 Elements
  • Dioxygen
  • Simple Oxides
  • Ozone
  • Sulphur — Allotropic Forms
  • Sulphur Dioxide
  • Oxoacids of Sulphur
  • Sulphuric Acid
  • Group 17 Elements
  • Chlorine
  • Hydrogen Chloride
  • Oxoacids of Halogens
  • Interhalogen Compounds
  • Group 18 Elements

Chapter 8 d and f Block Elements

In chapter 8, you will come to know about the properties of transition elements, coloured ions and complex compounds, variation in sizes of elements, ionization enthalpies, magnetic properties, and oxidation states.

Here you will learn d block elements and their properties and variations.

The Subtopics you will learn in Chemistry Chapter 8

  • Position in the Periodic Table
  • Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements
  • General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block)
  • Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements
  • The Lanthanoids
  • The Actinoids
  • Some Applications of d- and f-Block Elements

Chapter 9 Coordination Compounds

In this chapter, you will learn about a compound containing coordinate bonds, typically between a central metal atom and a number of other atoms or groups. A compound containing coordinate bonds, typically between a central metal atom and a number of other atoms or groups.

You will also learn about Werner’s theory of Coordination compounds, Bonding in Coordination compounds, Nomenclature, Isomerism and others.

The Subtopics you will learn in Chemistry Chapter 9

  • Werner’s Theory of Coordination Compounds
  • Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds
  • Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds
  • Isomerism in Coordination Compounds
  • Bonding in Coordination Compounds
  • Bonding in Metal Carbonyls
  • Stability of Coordination Compounds
  • Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds.

Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Here you will study the concepts of IUPAC nomenclature of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.

Haloalkanes and haloarenes are the hydrocarbons in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced with halogen atoms.

The primary difference between them is that haloalkanes are derived from open-chain hydrocarbons (alkanes), whereas haloarenes are derived from aromatic hydrocarbons.

You will also learn the applications of organometallic reactions, preparation of haloalkanes and haloarenes, and stereochemistry.

You will also learn to design the reaction mechanism.

The Subtopics you will learn in Chemistry Chapter 10

  • Classification
  • Nomenclature
  • Nature of C-X Bond
  • Methods of Preparation
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Polyhalogen Compounds

Chapter 11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Here you will learn about the structure and properties of alcohols, phenols and ethers.

The starting section you will find the IUPAC nomenclature of alcohols, phenols and ethers. Further, you have to study the preparation of alcohols, phenols, and ethers.

The Subtopics you will learn in Chemistry Chapter 11

  • Classification
  • Nomenclature 
  • Structures of Functional groups
  • Alcohols and phenols
  • Some Commercially Important alcohols
  • Ethers

Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Here you will learn about the aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids.

Aldehydes are organic compound containing the group —CHO, formed by the oxidation of alcohols. Typical aldehydes include methanal (formaldehyde) and ethanal (acetaldehyde).

Ketones are organic compound containing a carbonyl group =C=O bonded to two hydrocarbon groups, made by oxidizing secondary alcohols. The simplest such compound is acetone

In the starting section, you will find the IUPAC names and further preparation methods, the key reactions, characteristic tests, and other properties.

Carboxylic Acids are organic acid containing a carboxyl group. The simplest examples are methanoic (or formic) acid and ethanoic (or acetic) acid.

The Subtopics you will learn in Chemistry Chapter 12

  • Nomenclature and Structure of Carbonyl Group
  • Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Nomenclature and Structure of Carboxyl Group
  • Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Uses of Carboxylic Acids.

Chapter 13 Amines

Here you will learn about Amines. Amines are an organic compound derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by organic groups.

Here you will also learn about preparation methods, the physical properties, the chemical reactions, the methods to prepare diazonium salts, the importance of diazonium salts in the synthesis of Aromatic Compounds.

The Subtopics you will learn in Chemistry Chapter 13

  • Structure of Amines
  • Classification
  • Nomenclature
  • Preparation of Amines
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Methods of preparation of Diazonium Salts
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical reactions
  • Importance of Diazonium salts in Synthesis of aromatic Compounds

Chapter 14 Biomolecules

Here you will learn about biomolecules like glucose, fructose, starch, glycogen, etc. Biomolecules are organic molecule and especially a macromolecule (such as a protein or nucleic acid) in living organisms.

You will also learn about the properties of carbohydrates and proteins. They also learn about the reactions of some biomolecules.

The Subtopics you will learn in Chemistry Chapter 14

  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Enzymes
  • Vitamins
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Hormones

Chapter 15 Polymers

The Polymers are the substance which has a molecular structure built up chiefly or completely from a large number of similar units bonded together, e.g. many synthetic organic materials used as plastics and resins.

In this chapter, you will find the science of polymers, the various types of polymers, whether addition or condensation, linear or cross-linked, their reactions, and their properties.

Here you will also come to know about some well-known polymers and their applications.

The Subtopics you will learn in Chemistry Chapter 15

  • Classification of Polymers
  • Types of Polymerisation Reactions
  • Molecular Mass of Polymers
  • Biodegradable Polymers
  • Polymers of Commercial Importance

Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life

Here you can learn the use of chemistry in daily life. Here you will find the importance of chemistry in everyday life, mainly drug action, drug classification and uses, and the target interaction, along with chemicals in food and cleansing agents.

Drugs and their classifications:

  • Drug Target Interaction: Enzymes as drug targets, Receptors as drug targets.
  • Therapeutic Action of different classes of drugs: Antacids, Antihistamines, Neurologically Active Drugs, Antimicrobials, Antifertility Drugs.
  • Chemicals in food: Artificial Sweetening Agents, Food Preservatives.
  • Cleansing Agents: Soaps, Synthetic Detergents.

The Subtopics you will learn in Chemistry Chapter 16

  • Drugs and their Classification
  • Drug-Target Interaction
  • Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs
  • Chemicals in Food
  • Cleansing Agents

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus

Here you will get the detailed CBSE Class 12 Syllabus for Chemistry along with section-wise marks distribution.

You can take a look at the units included in CBSE Mathematics Syllabus along with the marks distribution:

Unit

Title

Marks

I

Solid State

23

II

Solutions

III

Electrochemistry

IV

Chemical Kinetics

V

Surface Chemistry

VI

Isolation of Elements

19

VII

p-Block Elements

VIII

d- and f-Block Elements

IX

Coordination Compounds

X

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

28

XI

Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers

XII

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

XIII

Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen

XIV

Biomolecules

XV

Polymers

XVI

Chemistry in Everyday Life

Total

70

 

 CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Solutions

After the textbook, you should have Class 12 Chemistry solutions to prepare correctly 12th Exam. You will easily find the exercise wise explanation of all the problems. You will also find various Miscellaneous Exercise questions from every exercise.

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry NCERT Solutions

You must have NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Solutions. You can find exercise-wise Chemistry Solutions to provide students depth concept on every chapter.

You should know that NCERT solutions have followed the latest CBSE syllabus.

Without getting worried about the contents of the solutions, you can refer to them as soon as possible to start your chemistry preparation. Experts have created solutions such a way that any student can easily understand without having depth concept in the section.

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Question Paper

Before appearing in the Exam, you should have an idea about the exam question pattern and marking scheme.

To get the idea about Exam, you should solve the class 12 exam question papers after completion of your 12th Chemistry chapters and exercises.

You will also come to know about the type of questions asked in the Exam and also identify the repetitive questions.

By solving more question papers on CBSE Class 12, the exam pattern will be crystal clear for you.

You can also boost your problem-solving skills and understanding by solving the multiple question papers.

It will also help you to improve your time management skills during the Exam.

You should have the following materials to find the complete question papers related to CBSE Class 12th Exam,

  • Sample Question Papers
  • Previous Year Question Papers
  • Question Bank

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Sample Question Papers

The  Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) publish the chemistry sample papers and marking schemes every year to provide a clear idea about the Exam to students.

By solving Chemistry sample papers, you will have a preview of the board question paper. It will also enhance your problem-solving speed and understanding of the subject.

You will become more aware of the current pattern of the question papers after solving sample papers.

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Previous year Papers

Class 12 Chemistry previous exam papers are also one of the good study materials to prepare for the Exam.

Before the board exam, you must solve the Chemistry previous year papers. You will know the changes in the previous exams throughout the time.

It helps you to find the repetitive sections and questions in class 12 Chemistry. It will also help you to build concept on various types of questions.

You should solve the previous year papers in the certain time as the real Exam and know preparation status.

It will also help you to find your conceptual weaknesses. You can easily cover those before the board exam.

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Question Bank

Class 12 Chemistry question bank are one of the best exam preparation materials for CBSE board exam.

Chemistry experts have created the materials by analysing the chapter wise exercise and the previous exams. You will find multiple questions for every single topic.

By practising more questions, you can build the depth concept in class 12 Chemistry.

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Worksheets

You can speed up your preparation by building a solid concept in Board Exam after solving CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Worksheet.

Here you will find chemistry chapter-wise various important questions based on previous exams.

We have covered all the Class 12 Chemistry important questions and answers in the worksheets included in the latest CBSE NCERT Syllabus.

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Revision Notes

You should have Class 12 Chemistry Revision Notes. These are best to do proper revision before the board exam. It will help you to revise all chapters in the easier way.

The experts have created the notes by analysing previous years of question papers and chemistry chapters. 

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Formulas

By using class 12 Chemistry Formulas, you will easily revise the various formulas and theorems from Textbook.

Because there are multiple formulas and theorems in class 12 Chemistry, there is a chance to forget those.

Chemistry Formulas PDF will help you to memorize and revise when needed.

Make sure that you should have Class 12 Chemistry handy. You can utilize them and score a better grade in the Exam.

We have covered a detailed guide on CBSE Class 12 Chemistry. Feel Free to ask any questions in the comment section below.

 

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