UNIT 19: Purification and Characterization of Organic Compounds Purification – Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography – principles and their applications. Qualitative analysis – Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens. Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) – Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus. Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis. UNIT 20: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules – hybridization (s and p); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: – C = C – , – C ? C – and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism – structural and stereoisomerism. Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC) Covalent bond fission – Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles. Electronic displacement in a covalent bond – Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation. Common types of organic reactions – Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement. UNIT 21: Hydrocarbons Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions. Alkanes – Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes. Alkenes – Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis, oxidation, and polymerization. Alkynes – Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization. Aromatic hydrocarbons – Nomenclature, benzene – structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene. UNIT 22: Organic Compounds Containing Halogens General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions. Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform, freons and DDT. UNIT 23: Organic compounds containing Oxygen General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses. ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS AND ETHERS Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration. Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer – Tiemann reaction. Ethers: Structure. Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group; Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as – Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of ? – hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS Acidic strength and factors affecting it. UNIT 24: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses. Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character. Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry. UNIT 25: Polymers General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization – addition and condensation, copolymerization; Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite. UNIT 26: Bio Molecules General introduction and importance of biomolecules. CARBOHYDRATES – Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose, maltose) and polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen). PROTEINS – Elementary Idea of ? – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes. VITAMINS – Classification and functions. NUCLEIC ACIDS – Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids. UNIT 27: Chemistry in everyday life Chemicals in medicines – Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins – their meaning and common examples. Chemicals in food – Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents – common examples. Cleansing agents – Soaps and detergents, cleansing action. UNIT 28: Principles related to practical Chemistry Detection of extra elements (N,S, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds. • Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following: Inorganic compounds: Mohr’s salt, potash alum. Organic compounds: Acetanilide, p-nitroacetanilide, aniline yellow, iodoform. • Chemistry involved in the titrimetric excercises – Acids bases and the use of indicators, oxalic-acid vs KMnO4, Mohr’s salt vs KMnO4. • Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis: Cations – Pb2+ , Cu2+, AI3+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH4+. Anions- CO32-, S2-, SO42-, NO2-, NO3-, CI-, Br, I. (Insoluble salts excluded). • Chemical principles involved in the following experiments: 1. Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4 2. Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base. . 3. Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols. 4. Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature.