SECTION-B INORGANIC CHEMISTRY UNIT 11: CLASSIFICATON OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elementsatomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity. UNIT 12: GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF ISOLATION OF METALS Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; steps involved in the extraction of metals – concentration, reduction (chemical. and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals. UNIT 13: HYDROGEN Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide; Classification of hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial; Hydrogen as a fuel. UNIT 14: S – BLOCK ELEMENTS (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS) Group – 1 and 2 Elements General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships. Preparation and properties of some important compounds – sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca. UNIT 15: P – BLOCK ELEMENTS Group – 13 to Group 18 Elements General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group. Groupwise study of the p – block elements Group – 13 Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; Structure, properties and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums. Group – 14 Tendency for catenation; Structure, properties and uses of allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites and silicones. Group – 15 Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorus. Group – 16 Preparation, properties, structures and uses of dioxygen and ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur. Group – 17 Preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens. Group -18 Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon. UNIT 16: d – and f – BLOCK ELEMENTS Transition Elements General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first row transition elements – physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4. Inner Transition Elements Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction. Actinoids – Electronic configuration and oxidation states. UNIT 17: CO-ORDINATION COMPOUNDS Introduction to co-ordination compounds, Werner’s theory; ligands, co-ordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerism; Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems). UNIT 18: ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Environmental pollution – Atmospheric, water and soil. Atmospheric pollution – Tropospheric and stratospheric Tropospheric pollutants – Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Green house effect and Global warming; Acid rain; Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention. Stratospheric pollution- Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer – its mechanism and effects. Water Pollution – Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention. Soil pollution – Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides,. herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention. Strategies to control environmental pollution.