RTU Syllabus Computer Science Engineering 3rd Semester
ELECTRONIC DEVICES & CIRCUIT
Mobility and conductivity, charge densities in a semiconductor, Fermi Dirac distribution, carrier concentrations and fermi levels in semiconductor, Generation and recombination of charges, diffusion and continuity equation, Mass action Law, Hall effect. Junction diodes, Diode as a ckt. element, load line concept, clipping and clamping circuits, Voltage multipliers.
Transistor characteristics, Current components, Current gains: alpha and beta. Operating point. Hybrid model, h-parameter equivalent circuits. CE, CB and CC configuration. DC and AC analysis of CE,CC and CB amplifiers. Ebers-Moll model. Biasing & stabilization techniques. Thermal runaway, Thermal stability.
SMALL SIGNAL AMPLIFIERS AT LOW FREQUENCY : Analysis of BJT and FET, RC coupled amplifiers. Frequency response, midband gain, gains at low and high frequency. Miller’s Theorem. Cascading Transistor amplifiers, Emitter follower. JFET, MOSFET, Equivalent circuits and biasing of JFET’s & MOSFET’s. Low frequency CS and CD JFET amplifiers. FET as a voltage variable resistor. Source follower.
FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS : Classification, Feedback concept, Transfer gain with feedback, General characteristics of negative feedback amplifiers. Analysis of voltage- series, voltage-shunt, current- series and current-shunt feedback amplifier. Stability criterion.
OSCILLATORS : Classification. Criterion for oscillation. Tuned collector, Hartley, Colpitts, RC Phase shift, Wien bridge and crystal oscillators, Astable, monostable and bistable multivibrators. Schmitt trigger.
Reference Books :
1. Electronic devices & circuits theory By R.L. Boylestad, Louis Nashelsky ,Pearson education
2. Integrated Electronics By Millman Halkias, T.M.H
3. Electronic devices & circuits By David Bell, Oxford Publications
4. Grob’s Basic Electronics By Schultz, T.M.H.
DATA STRUCTURES & ALGORITHMS
Definition & characteristics of algorithms, structures. Difficulties in estimating exact execution time of algorithms. Concept of complexity of program.
Asymptotic notations: Big-Oh, theta, Omega- Definitions and examples, Determination of time and space complexity of simple algorithms without recursion. Representing a function in asymptotic notations viz 5n2-6n=θ(n2)
Arrays: Array as storage element, Row major & column major form of arrays, computation of address of elements of n dimensional array.
Arrays as storage elements for representing polynomial of one or more degrees for addition & multiplication, sparse matrices for transposing & multiplication, stack, queue, dequeue, circular queue for insertion and deletion with condition for over and underflow, transposition of sparse matrices with algorithms of varying complexity (Includes algorithms for operations as mentioned).
Evaluation of Expression: Concept of precedence and associativity in expressions, difficulties in dealing with infix expressions, Resolving precedence of operators and association of operands, postfix & prefix expressions, conversion of expression from one form to other form using stack (with & without parenthesis), Evaluation of expression in infix, postfix & prefix forms using stack. Recursion.
Linear linked lists: singly, doubly and circularly connected linear linked lists- insertion, deletion at/ from beginning and any point in ordered or unordered lists. Comparison of arrays and linked lists as data structures.
Linked implementation of stack, queue and dequeue. Algorithms for of insertion, deletion and traversal of stack, queue, dequeue implemented using linked structures. Polynomial representation using linked lists for addition, Concepts of Head Node in linked lists.Searching: Sequential and binary search
Non-Linear Structures: Trees definition, characteristics concept of child, sibling, parent child relationship etc, binary tree: different types of binary trees based on distribution of nodes, binary tree (threaded and unthreaded) as data structure,insertion, deletion and traversal of binary trees, constructing binary tree from traversal results. Threaded binary Tree. Time complexity of insertion, deletion and traversal in threaded and ordinary binary trees. AVL tree: Concept of balanced trees, balance factor in AVL trees, insertion into and deletion from AVL tree, balancing AVL tree after insertion and deletion. Application of trees for representation of sets.
Graphs: Definition, Relation between tree & graph, directed and undirected graph, representation of graphs using adjacency matrix and list. Depth first and breadth first traversal of graphs, finding connected components and spanning tree. Single source single destination shortest path algorithms.
Sorting: Insertion, quick, heap, topological and bubble sorting algorithms for different characteristics of input data. Comparison of sorting algorithms in term of time complexity.
Reference Books :
1. Introduction to data structures with applications By Jean-Paul Tremblay, P.
G. Sorenson, TMH
2. Data Structures in C/C++, Horowitz, Sawhney, Galgotia
3. Data Structures in C/C++, Tanenbaum, Pearson
4. Data Structures in C++, Weiss, Parson
NUMBER SYSTEMS, BASIC LOGIC GATES & BOOLEAN ALGEBRA : Binary Arithmetic & Radix representation of different numbers. Sign & magnitude representation, Fixed point representation, complement notation, various codes & arithmetic in different codes & their inter conversion. Features of logic algebra, postulates of Boolean algebra. Theorems of Boolean algebra. Boolean function. Derived logic gates: Exclusive-OR, NAND, NOR gates, their block diagrams and truth tables.
Logic diagrams from Boolean expressions and vica-versa. Converting logic diagrams to universal logic. Positive, negative and mixed logic. Logic gate conversion.
DIGITAL LOGIC GATE CHARACTERISTICS: TTL logic gate characteristics. Theory & operation of TTL NAND gate circuitry. Open collector TTL. Three state output logic. TTL subfamilies. MOS & CMOS logic families. Realization of logic gates in RTL, DTL, ECL, C-MOS & MOSFET. Interfacing logic families to one another.
MINIMIZATION TECHNIQUES: Minterm, Maxterm, Karnaugh Map, K map upto 4 variables. Simplification of logic functions with K-map, conversion of truth tables in POS and SOP form. Incomplete specified functions. Variable mapping. Quinn-Mc Klusky minimization techniques.
COMBINATIONAL SYSTEMS: Combinational logic circuit design, half and full adder, subtractor. Binary serial and parallel adders. BCD adder. Binary multiplier. Decoder: Binary to Gray decoder, BCD to decimal, BCD to 7-segment decoder.
Multiplexer, demultiplexer, encoder. Octal to binary, BCD to excess-3 encoder. Diode switching matrix. Design of logic circuits by multiplexers, encoders, decoders and demultiplexers.
SEQUENTIAL SYSTEMS: Latches, flip-flops, R-S, D, J-K, Master Slave flip flops. Conversions of flip-flops. Counters : Asynchronous (ripple), synchronous andsynchronous decade counter, Modulus counter, skipping state counter, counter design. Ring counter. Counter applications. Registers: buffer register, shift register.
Reference Books :
1. Digital integrated electronics, By Herbert Taub, Donald L. Schilling, TMH
2. Digital Logic and Computer Design By M. Morris Mano, Pearson
3. Modern Digital Electronics By R.P. Jain, TMH
4. Fundamentals of Digital circuits By A. Anand kumar, PHI
5. Digital circuit design By S. Salivahanan, Sarivazhagan, Vikas publications
Linux And Shell Programming
Introduction: Logging in, changing password (passwd command only), man, xman, info commands to access on line help. Simple commands like ls, cp, mv, grep, head, tail, sort, uniq, diff, echo, date, which, whereis, whatis, who, finger w (option and variations included).
Directory commands, access permissions, changing access permissions for files and directories, hard & symbolic links. Environment and path setting.
vi editor: Creating and editing files, features of vi, insertion deletion, searching, substitution operations, yank, put, delete commands, reading & writing files, exrc file for setting parameters, advance editing techniques. vim(improved vi). Programming utilities: Compiling & linking C, C++ programs, make utility, debugging C programs using gdb, system call.
Introduction to X-window system: x-window as client/ server system, concept of window manager, remote computing & local displays, xinitrc file, customize X work environment and applications, customizing the fvwm window manager.
Shell : Meaning and purpose of shell, Introduction to types of shell. The command line, standard input and standard output, redirection, pipes, filters special characters for searching files and pathnames.
Bourne Again SHell: shell script-writing and executing, command separation & grouping, redirection, directory stack manipulation, processes, parameters & variables, keyword variables.
Shell Programming: Control structures, the Here document, expanding NULL or USET variables, Builtins, functions, history, aliases, job control, filename substitution. source code management- RCS and CVS. awk utility.
Reference Books :
1. Practical Guide to Linux, Sobell, Pearson.
2. A Practical Guide to Linux Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming, Sobell, Pearson.
3. A Practical Guide to Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Sobell, 5e, Pearson
4. Harley Hahn: Guide to Unix & Linux, TMH
OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING
Introduction: Review of structures in C, accessing members of structures using structure variables, pointer to structures, passing structures to functions, structures as user defined data types.
Introduction to programming paradigms- (Process oriented and Object oriented). Concept of object, class, objects as variables of class data type, difference in structures and class in terms of access to members, private and public Basics of C++: Structure of C++ programs, introduction to defining member functions within and outside a class, keyword using, declaring class, creating objects, constructors & destructor functions, Initializing member values with and without use of constructors, simple programs to access & manipulate data members, cin and cout functions. Dangers of returning reference to a private data member, constant objects and members function, composition of classes, friend functions and classes, using this pointer, creating and destroying objects dynamically using new and delete operators. Static class members, container classes and iterators, proxy classes. members of a class, data & function members. Characteristics of OOP- Data hiding, Encapsulation, data security.
Operator overloading: Fundamentals, Restrictions, operator functions as class members v/s as friend functions. Overloading stream function, binary operators and unary operators. Converting between types.
Inheritance: Base classes and derived classes, protected members, relationship between base class and derived classes, constructors and destructors in derived classes, public, private and protected inheritance, relationship among objects in an inheritance hierarchy, abstract classes, virtual functions and dynamic binding, virtual destructors.
Multiple inheritance, virtual base classes, pointers to classes and class members, multiple class members. Templates, exception handling.
Reference Books :
1. Mastering C++ By K.R.Venugopal, TMH
2. Object Oriented Programming in C++ By Robert Lafore, Pearson
3. Object Oriented Design & Modelling, Rambaugh, Pearson
Advanced Engineering Mathematics
Introduction: Engineering application of optimization, Statement and classification of optimization problem, single variable and multivariable optimization with and without constraints.
Linear Programming: Formulation of Linear Programming problem, Graphical Approach, General Linear Programming problem, Simplex Method. Duality in Linear Programming and Transportation Problems.
Elements of Number Theory: Divisibility and Euclid Algorithm, Primes and the Sieve of Eratosthenes, testing for primes, Prime Number Theorem, Euler’s, Fermat’s Little theorems, Congruences, Computing Inverse in Congruences, Legendre and Jacobi Symbols, Chinese Remainder Theorem, Algebraic Structures in Computing (Definitions, properties and Elementary Operations Only): Groups, subgroup, order of group, cyclic group, ring, field, division algorithm, polynomial over a field. Galois Field
LAPLACE TRANSFORM: Laplace transform with its simple properties. Inverse Laplace transform, convolution theorem (without proof), solution of ordinary differential equation with constant coefficient, solution of partial differential equation having constant coefficient with special reference to diffusion, Heat conduction and wave equation. Boundary value problems
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS: Difference operators forward, backward, central, shift and average operators and relation between them. Newton’s and Gauss forward and backward interpolation formula for equal interval, Stirling’s formula for central difference. Lagrange’s Interpolation formula and Inverse Interpolation.
Numerical differentiation by Newton’s, Gauss and Sterling’s formula. Numerical Integration by Simpson’s one third and there eight rule. Numerical Integration of ordinary differential equation of first order by Picard’s method, Euler’s and modified Euler’s method, Milne’s method and Runga-Kutta fourth order method. Solution of difference equation.
Reference Books :
1. Elementary Number Theory with applications: Thomas Koshy, 2nd Ed., Elsevier.
2. Operation Research By Kanti Swaroop, P. K. Gupta & Manmohan, Sultan chand & sons
3. Integral Transform By Dr. R.K. Gupta, A.R. Vashishtha, Krishna Prakashan Mandir Meerut
ELECTRONIC DEVICES LAB
1. Plot V-I characteristic of P-N junction diode & calculate cut-in voltage, reverse Saturation current and static & dynamic resistances.
2. Plot V-I characteristic of zener diode and study of zener diode as voltage regulator. Observe the effect of load changes and determine load limits of the voltage regulator.
3. Plot frequency response curve for single stage amplifier and to determine gain bandwidth product.
4. Plot drain current – drain voltage and drain current – gate bias characteristics of field. effect transistor and measure of Idss & Vp
5. Application of Diode as clipper & clamper
6. Plot gain- frequency characteristic of two stages RC coupled amplifier & calculate its bandwidth and compare it with theoretical value.
7. Plot gain- frequency characteristic of emitter follower & find out its input and output resistances.
8. Plot input and output characteristics of BJT in CB, CC and CE configurations. Find their h-parameters.
9. Plot gain-frequency characteristics of BJT amplifier with and without negative feedback in the emitter circuit and determine bandwidths, gain bandwidth products and gains at 1kHz with and without negative feedback.
10. Plot and study the characteristics of small signal amplifier using FET.
11. Study Wein bridge oscillator and observe the effect of variation in R & C on oscillator frequency
12. Study transistor phase shift oscillator and observe the effect of variation in R & C on oscillator frequency and compare with theoretical value.
13. To plot the characteristics of UJT and UJT as relaxation.
14. To plot the characteristics of MOSFET and CMOS.
Data Structure Lab
1. Write a simple C program on a 32 bit compiler to understand the concept of array storage, size of a word. The program shall be written illustrating the concept of row major and column major storage. Find the address of element and verify it with the theoretical value. Program may be written for arrays upto 4-dimensions.
2. Simulate a stack, queue, circular queue and dequeue using a one dimensional array as storage element. The program should implement the basic addition, deletion and traversal operations.
3. Represent a 2-variable polynomial using array. Use this representation to implement addition of polynomials.
4. Represent a sparse matrix using array. Implement addition and transposition operations using the representation.
5. Implement singly, doubly and circularly connected linked lists illustrating operations like addition at different locations, deletion from specified locations and traversal.
6. Repeat exercises 2, 3 & 4 with linked structures.
7. Implementation of binary tree with operations like addition, deletion, traversal.
8. Depth first and breadth first traversal of graphs represented using adjacency matrix and list.
9. Implementation of binary search in arrays and on linked Binary Search Tree.
10. Implementation of insertion, quick, heap, topological and bubble sorting algorithms.
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