EE-5001 Utilisation of Electrical Energy
Nature of light, units, sensitivity of the eye, luminous efficiency, glare. Production of Light; Incandescent lamps, arc lamps gas discharge lamps- fluorescent lamps-polar curves, effect of voltage variation on efficiency and life of lamps, Distribution and control of light, lighting calculations, solid angle, inverse square and cosine laws, methods of calculations, factory lighting, flood lighting and street lighting, Direct diffused and mixed reflection & transmission factor, refractors, light fittings.
HEATING, WELDING AND ELECTROLYSIS
Electrical heating-advantages, methods and applications, resistance heating, design of heating elements, efficiency and losses control. Induction heating: core type furnaces, core less furnaces and high frequency eddy current heating, dielectric heating: principle and special applications, arc furnaces: direct arc furnaces, Indirect arc furnaces, electrodes, design of heating elements, power supply and control. Different methods of electrical welding, resistance welding, arc welding, energy storage welding, laser welding, electrobeam welding, and electrical equipment for them. Arc furnaces transformer and welding transformers. Review of electrolytic principles., laws of electrolysis, electroplating, anodisisng- electrocleaning, extraction of refinery metals, power supply for electrolytic process, current and energy efficiency.
Special features of Traction motors, Different system of electric traction and their Advantages and disadvantages, diesel electric locomotives. Mechanics of train movement: simplified speed time curves for different services, average and schedule speed, tractive effort, specific energy consumption, factors affecting specific energy consumption, acceleration and braking retardation, adhesive weight and coefficient of adhesion.
DC motors, single phases and three phases motors, starting and control of traction motors, braking of traction motors: plugging, rheostatic and regenerative braking, Modern 25 KV a.c. single phase traction systems: advantages, equipment and layout of 25 KV, line and current selection, single phase power frequency A.C. traction.
W.E.F. July 2017 Academic Session 2017-18
Individual and collective drives- electrical braking, plugging, rheostatic and regenerative braking load equalization use of fly wheel criteria for selection of motors for various industrial drives, calculation of electrical loads for refrigeration and air-conditioning, intermittent loading and temperature rise curve.
Tailor, E.O., Utilization of Elect. Energy.
H. Pratap, Art and Science of Utilization of Electrical Energy.
Gupta, J.B., Utilization of Elect. Energy
Garg, G.C., Utilization of Elect. Power and Elect. Traction.
N V Suryanarayan, Utilization of Elect. Power including Electric Drives and Elect. Traction, New Age International.
Hancok N N, Electric Power Utilisation, Wheeler Pub.
EE-5002 Electrical Machine –II
D.C. Machine-I Basic construction of DC machines; types of DC machines and method of excitation; lap and wave windings; Emf equation; armature reaction and methods of limiting armature reaction; Commutation process and methods for improving commutation; Basic performance of DC generators and their performance characteristics; Metadyne and Amplidyne; permanent magnet DC motors; Brush less dc motors,
D.C. Machine-II Basic operation of DC motors; Torque equation; Operating characteristics of DC motors, Starting of DC motors- 2point, 3 point and 4 point starters; speed control of DC motors; losses and efficiency of DC machines; testing of DC machines, direct testing, Swinburne’s test and Hopkinson’s test. Application of DC machines
Synchronous Machine-I Construction; types of prime movers; excitation system including brushless excitation; polyphase distributive winding, integral slot and fractional slot windings; emf equation, generation of harmonics and their elimination; armature reaction; synchronous reactance and impedance, equivalent circuit of alternator, relation between generated voltage and terminal voltage, voltage regulation of alternators using synchronous impedance, mmf, zpf and new A.S.A method.
Synchronous Machine-II Salient pole machines; two reaction theory equivalent circuit model and phasor diagram; determination of Xd and Xq by slip test; SCR and its significance; regulation of salient pole alternator, power angle equation and characteristics; synchronizing of alternator with infinite busbar,; parallel operation and load sharing; synchronizing current, synchronizing power and synchronising torque coefficient; synchroscopes and phase sequence indicator; effect of varying excitation and mechanical torque,.
Synchronous machine-III Synchronous motor operation, starting and stopping of synchronous motor, pull in torque, motor under load power and torque, reluctance torque, effect of excitation, effect of armature reaction, power factor adjustment, V curves, inverted V curves, synchronous motors as power factor correcting device, super synchronous and sub synchronous motors, hunting and damper winding efficiency and losses. Analysis of short circuit oscillogram, determination of various transient, sub transient and steady reactances and time constants, expression of transient and sub transient reactances in terms of self and mutual inductances of various winding, short circuit current, equivalent circuit. Single phase synchronous motors- hysteresis motor, reluctance motor. Repulsion motor, stepper motor, switched reluctance
List of Experiments (expandable)
Experiments can cover any of the above topics, following is a suggestive list:
i. To plot magnetisation characteristic of a separately excited DC generator
ii. To perform load test on DC generators.
iii. To perform load test on DC series and shunt motor
iv. To perform Swinburn’s test on a DC machine and find out its efficiency under full load condition.
v. To conduct Hopkinson’s test on a pair of DC shunt machine.
vi. To perform OCC and SCC test on an alternator and determine its regulation.
vii. To determine regulation of alternator using mmf and zpf methods.
viii. To synchronise alternator with infinite bus bar.
ix. To plot V and inverted V curves for a synchronous motor
x. To find Xd and Xq of salient pole synchronous machine by slip test.
xi. To Determine negative sequence and zero sequence reactance of an alternator.
xii. To determine subtransient direct axis and quadrature axis synchronous reactances of salient pole machine.
1. M.G. Say,Performance & design of AC machines, CBS publishers & distributors, Delhi, 3rd edition
2. A.E. Clayton & N.N. Nancock, The Performance & design of DC machines CBS publications & distributors, Delhi, 3rd edition
3. P.S. Bhimbra, Electrical Machinery, Khanna Pub.
4. P.S. Bhimbra, Generalized theory of Electrical Machines, Khanna publishers, Delhi,
5. Ashfaq Husain, Electric Machines, Dhanpat Rai, New Delhi 5. I.J. Nagrath & D.P. Kothari, Electric Machines, Tata McGraw Hill , New Delhi,
6. Syed A. Nasar,Electric Machines & Power Systems, Volume I , Tata McGraw Hill, NewDelhi
7. A. E. Fitzerald, C. Kingsley & S.D. Umans , Electric Machinery Tata McGraw Hill ,New Delhi ,5th edition
EE-5003 Switchgear and Protection
Fault Analysis Fault Analysis per unit, representation and its advantages, faults in power systems (Symmetrical & Unsymmetrical), Single line and equivalent impendence diagram representation of power system components. Symmetrical components and its application to power systems, fault analysis, Sequence networks and their interconnection for different types of faults, Effect of fault impedance, Current limiting reactors, its location and application, Short circuit calculation.
Protective Relays Requirement of relays, Primary & backup protection, Desirable qualities of relays, Concept of Pickup, reset & drop-off, Drop off/ Pickup ratio, inverse time & definite time charters tics, Attracted armature, Balanced Beam, Induction disc, Induction cup, Moving coil & moving Iron, Rectifier , Thermal, Bimetal directional relay, Frequency, DC, all or nothing relays. Pilot & negative sequence, Over current, Over Voltage, Directional, Differential and Distance relays, R-X diagram, Impedance mho & reactance relay.Introduction of static analog & digital relays, Classification of static relays.
Circuit Breakers Elementary principle of arc quenching, recovery & re-striking voltage, arc quenching devices, description and operation of Bulk oil, Minimum oil, Air break, Air blast, SF6, Vacuum circuit breakers and DC circuit breakers, their comparative merits, LT Switch gear, HRC fuses, current limiting reactor.& their design features, influence of reactors in CB ratings Testing of circuit breaker, Description of a simple testing station, direct & indirect testing.
System Protection Protection of Generators – Earth Fault, percentage, differential, Loss of excitation, Prime mover failure, Over current, Turn to turn fault, Negative phase sequence, heating, Reverse power protection schemes Protection of Transformers Internal & external fault protection, Differential, Earth fault, Over Current, Over heating, Protection schemes, Protection of transmission lines, Over current, Distance and carrier current protection schemes.
Surge Protection & insulation co-ordination Switching surges, Phenomena of Lightning, over voltage due to lightning, Protection against lightning, Lightning arrestors, selection of lightning arrestors, Surge absorbers and diverters, Rod gap, Horn gap expulsion type & valve type lightning arrestors, solid resistance and reactance earthing, Arc suppression coil, Earthing transformers, Earthwires, Earthing of appliances, insulation co-ordination, Definitions determination of line insulation, insulation level of substation equipment, co-ordination amongst items of substation equipment.
List of Experiments:
1. Determination of drop out factor of an instantaneous over current relay.
2. Determination of operating characteristic of IDMT relay.
3. Determination of operating characteristic of differential relay.
4. Study and operation of gas actuated protective relay.
5. Study and operation of static over current relay.
6. Determination of transmission line parameters using MATLAB.
7. Analysis of power system faults (Symmetrical & Asymmetrical) using MATLAB.
8. Study of SF6 circuit breaker 9. Protectional simulation study of generator, Transformer, Feeder & Motor protection.
B. Ravindran and M Chander, “Power System protection and Switchgear”, New Age International.
Fundamentals of Power System protection Y.G.Paithankar & S.R. Bhide; E.E.E.
CL Wadhwa, Electrical Power systems, New age International.
Haddi Saadet, “Power System Analysis, TMH
A.R. Bergen, Vijay Vittal, “Power System Analysis, Pearson Education, Asia.
Switchgear & protection Sunil S. Rao. Khanna Publication.
Ravindra P. Singh, Switchgear & Power System Protection, PHI Learning.
Badrirka, Power System protection and switchgear, TMH.
EE-5004 Electronic Instrumentation
Introduction to CRO, Different parts of CRO, Its Block diagram, Electrostatic focusing, Electrostatic deflection, post deflection acceleration, Screen for CRTs, Graticule, Vertical & Horizontal deflection system, Time base circuit, Oscilloscope probes and transducers, Attenuators, Application of CROs, Lissajous patterns, Special purpose CROs- Multi input, Dual trace, Dual beam, Sampling, Storage (Analog & Digital) Oscilloscopes.
A.C. Bridge Measurement Sources and detectors, Use of Bridges for measurement of inductance, Capacitance & Q factor Maxwells bridge, Maxwells inductance capacitance bridge, Hays bridge, Andersons bridge, Owen’s Bridge, De-sauty’s Bridge, Schering Bridge, High Voltage Schering bridge, Measurement of relative permittivity, Heaviside cambell’s bridge, Weins bridge, Universal bridge, Sources of errors in Bridge circuit, Wagner’s Earthing device, Q meter and its applications and measurement methods.
Transducers Transducers definition and classification, mechanical devices as primary detectors, Characteristic & choice of Transducers, Resistive inductive and capacitive transducers, strain gauge and gauge factor, Thermistor, Thermo couples, LVDT, RVDT, Synchros, Piezo-Electric transducers, Magnet elastic and magnetostrictive Hall effect transducers, Opto-electronic transducers such as photo voltaic, Photo conductive, photo diode and photo conductive cells, Photo transistors, Photo optic transducers. Introduction to analog & Digital data acquisition systems-Instrumentation systems used, Interfacing transducers to electronic control & measuring systems Multiplexing – D/A multiplexing A-D Multiplexing, Special encoders. Digital control description
Signal Generators Fixed & variable frequency AF oscillators, Sine wave generators, Standard signal generator, AF Sine and Square wave generator Function generator, Square and pulse generator, Random noise generator, Sweep generator, TV Sweep generator, Marker generator, Sweep- Marker generator, Wobblyscope, Video pattern generator Vectroscope, Beat frequency oscillator Wave analyser Basic wave analyzer, Frequency selective wave analyzer, Heterodyne wave analyzer, Harmonic distortion, analyzer, spectrum analyzer digital Fourier analyzer.
Digital Instruments Advantages of Digital instruments over analog instruments, resolution and sensitivity of Digital meters., Digital Voltmeter – Ramp type, Dual slope integration type, Integrating type, Successive approximation type, Continuous balance DVM or Servo balancing potentiometer type VM. , compression of Electronic & Digital Volt meter, Digital Multimeter, Digital frequency meter, Time period measurement, High frequency measurement, Electronic counter, Digital tachometer, Digital PH meter, Digital phase meter, Digital capacitance meter. Digital display system and indicators like CRT, LED, LCD, Nixies, Electro luminescent, Incandescent, Electrophoretic image display, Liquid vapour display dot-matrix display, Analog recorders, X-Y recorders. Instruments used in computer-controlled instrumentation RS 232C and IEEE 488, GPIB electric interface.
List of Experiments:-
1. Measurement of inductance of a coil using Anderson Bridge.
2. Measurement of capacitance of a capacitor using schering bridge.
3. LVDT and capacitance transducers characteristics and calibration.
4. Resistance strain gauge- Strain Measurement and calibration.
5. Measurement of R,L,C & Q using LCR-Q meter.
6. Study & measurement of frequency using Lissajous patterns.
7. Measurement of pressure using pressure sensor.
8. Study of Piezo-electric Transducer and Measurement of impact using Piezo-electric Transducer
9. Measurement of Displacement using LVDT.
10. Measurement of speed of a Motor using photoelectric transducer.
11. Study & Measurement using ph meter.
12. Temperature measurement & Control using thermo couple & using thermistor.
1. Albert. D. Helfrick, W.D. Cooper, Modern Electronic Instrumentation and measurement techniques, PHI.
2. Kalsi H.S., Electronic Instrumentation, TMH.
3. A.K. Sawhney, Electrical and Electronic measurements and Instrumentation, Dhanpat Rai and Co.
4. E.W. Golding, Electrical Measurement and Measuring Instruments Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, Ltd. London 1940
5. C.S. Rangan, G.R. Sarma, V.S.V. Mani, Instrumentation Devices and Systems Tata McGrawHill Publishing
6. Company Ltd.
7. B.C. Nakra, K.K. Choudhry, Instrumentation, Measurement and Analysis Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing CompanyLtd.
8. Morris A.S., Principles of Measurement & Instrumentation, PHI
9. Murthy BVS, “Transducers and Instrumentation”, PHI.
10. Doeblin D.O., Measurement Systems- Applications and Desig Albert D. Helfrick, William D.Cooper, Modern
Elective –I EE-5005 (1) Energy Conservation and Management
General energy problem: Energy use patterns and scope for conservation.
Energy audit: Energy monitoring, Energy accounting and analysis, Auditing and targeting. Energy conservation policy, Energy management & audit, Energy audit, Types of energy audit, energy management (audit), qualities and function of energy managers, language of an energy manager, Questionnaire, Check list for top management, Loss of energy in material flow, energy performance, Maximizing system efficiency, Optimizing, input energy requirements, Energy auditing instruments, Material load energy balance diagram.
Thermodynamics of Energy Conservation. Basic principle. Irreversibility and second law efficiency analysis of systems. Primary energy sources, optimum use of prime-movers, energy efficient house keeping, energy recovery in thermal systems, waste heat recovery techniques, thermal insulation. Thermal energy audit in heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Maintenance and Energy audit – friction, lubrication and tribo-logical innovations. Predictive and preventive maintenance.
Load curve analysis & load management DSM, Energy storage for power systems (Mechanical, Thermal, Electrical & Magnetic) Restructuring of electric tariff from energy conservation consideration, Economic analysis depreciation method, time value of money, Evaluation method of projects, replacement analysis, special problems inflation risk analysis. Pay back period, Energy economics, Cost Benefit Risk analysis, Pay back period.
Energy efficient electric drives, Energy efficient motors V.S.D. power factor improvement in power system. Energy Conservation in transportation system especially in electric vehicle. Energy flow networks, Simulation & modeling, formulation & Objective & constraints, alternative option, Matrix chart.
Energy conservation task before industry, Energy conservation equipments, CoGeneration, Energy conservation process, Industry Sugar, Textiles, Cement Industry etc Electrical Energy Conservation in building, heating and lighting. domestic gadgets
Energy Management – W.R. Murphy & G. Mckey Butler worths.
Energy Management Head Book- W.C. Turner, John Wiley
Energy Management Principles- Craig B. Smith, Pergamon Press
Energy Conservation- Paul O Callagan- Pergamon Press
Design & Management of energy conservation. Callaghan,
Elect, Energy Utilization & Conservation. Dr. Tripathi S.C.,
Elective –I EE-5005 (2) Electrical and Electronics Materials
The primary objective of the course is to introduce concepts about the properties, characteristics, applications and limitations of Electrical & Electronics engineering materials.
Course contents :
Unit I :
Crystal structure of materials, crystal systems, unit cells and space lattices and defects, Classes of Engineering Materials – Metals & alloys, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys, low alloy steels, aluminium alloys, copper alloys, stainless steels, cast iron, ceramics, organic polymers and composite material. Classification of solids from electrical engineering point of view. Conducting material – properties of conductors, characteristics of good conductor material, commonly used conducting materials, conductor materials for overhead lines, types of conductors, conductor for underground cables, conductor materials used in electrical machines, resistor materials, types of resistors, materials for bus bar.
Unit II :
Dielectric Materials: Dielectric strength, factors affecting dielectric strength, dielectric loss, dissipation factor, factors affecting dielectric loss, permittivity & polarization, charging and discharging of dielectric, conduction through dielectric. Application of dielectric, different types of capacitors and materials used for them. Insulating materials, their– thermal and chemical, mechanical & electrical property. Insulating materials like ceramic, mica, glass, rubber, resins, wax varnishes, Class of insulator. Transformer oils & their testing. Piezoelectricity & Ferro electricity.
Unit III :
Concept of energy band diagram for materials – conductors, semiconductors and insulators Applications of semi conductor materials: type of semi conductors, working and applications of semiconductors, Temperature sensitive elements, photoconductive cells, photo voltaic cells; Varistor, Hall effect generator, LCD, Light dependent resistors, LEDs, piezo – electric materials, semiconductor laser and its characteristics, photo conductors – photo diodes, avalanche photo diode, photo transistors.
Unit IV :
Classification of magnetic materials: Dia-magnetism, Para magnetism, Ferromagnetism, magnetization curve, hysteresis loop, Magnetostriction, Factors affecting permeability and hysteresis, Anti – ferromagnetism, Ferromagnetism, Magnetic resonance, B-H curve for different magnetic materials, loss of magnetism, impurities in ferromagnetic materials, soft and hard magnetic materials, ferrites
Superconductivity & it’s application. Materials of MHD generator, Thermoelectric generators, Thermionic conductors, Physical properties &Electrical properties of SF6, Specification of SF6 gas for GIS application, Advantages and Applications of SF6, Nanomaterials, Ultra Light materials and metallic foams.
Course outcome :
Student after successful completion of course is expected to possess an understanding of basic of Electrical & Electronics engineering materials.
1. A.J. Dekker; Electrical Engineering Materials; PHI.
2. William F Smith, JavadHashemi, Ravi Prakash ‘Material science and engineering’, McGraw Hill.
3. James F. Shackelford, Madanapalli K. Muralidhara ‘Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers’, Pearson
4. Ian P. Jones ‘ Materials Science for Electrical and Electronics Engineers’ Oxford university press
5. C. S. Indulkar and S. Thruvengadem; Electrical Engineering Materials; S. Chand.
6. TTTI Madras; Electrical Engineering Materials; TMH.
7. John Allison; Electrical Engineering Material s & Devices; TMH.
8. Kasap; Electronic Materials and devices; TMH
9. V. Raghvan; Material Science & Engineering; PHI.
10. S.P. Seth & P.V. Gupta; Electrical Engineering Materials; Dhanpat Rai.
Elective –I EE-5005 (3) Communication Engineering
Fourier series, Fourier Transform and its properties, Probability, random variables & their moments, their significance, convolution, auto correlation, cross Correlation & power spectral density, Gaussian & Rayleigh probability density Function, mean, variance & standard deviation, central limit theorem, voltage & Power decibel scales. Signal Processing : Types of signal, deterministic & random, periodic & non Periodic, analog & discrete, energy & power signals, Representation of sinusoid in different forms & their conversion
Need of modulation in a communication system, block schematic of a typical Communication system. AM modulation system, modulation index, generation & detection of AM wave, side bands & power content in an AM wave, DSB-SC, SSB, their methods of generation & detection, vestigial side Band modulation, AM transmitter block diagram, comparison of various AM system, modulation & demodulation circuits. Relationship between phase & freq. modulation, FM wave & its spectrum, phasor diagram of a narrow band FM signal, wide band FM, methods of generation & detection of FM, discriminators, pre-emphasis & deemphasis, Stereophonic FM broadcasting, FM transmitters.
TRF receiver & its limitations, necessity of heterodyning, super heterodyning Receivers, IF amplifiers, selection of intermediate frequency. RF amplifiers, detectors, AGC, AVC, FM receivers, AFC.
Nyquist sampling theorem, TDM, pulse modulations & PCM, quantization error, necessity of non linear quantizer, A-law, µ -law, FSK & PSK, QPSK, QAM. Source of noise, no ise figure, noise bandwidth, effective noise temperature, performance of AM, FM & digital system in presence of noise.
Satellite system block diagram, satellite freq. bands, satellite multiple access Format like TDMA, FDMA, transponders, earth station & satellite eclipses, Link calculation
1. Taub & shilling, Communication System, TMH
2. Singh & Sapre, Communication System, TMH
3. B.P. Lathi, Modern Digital and ana communication system,
4. Simon Haykins, Communication System. John Willy
5. Wayne Tomasi, Electronic Communication system.
6. Schaum outline Series, Analog and digital communication
7. Martin S. Roden, Analog & Digital Communication System., Discovery Press.
8. Frank R. Dungan, Electronic Communication System, Thomson/Vikas
9. John G. Prokis,Masoud Salehi, Gerhard Bauch, Contemporary communication sytems using MATLAB, Cengage learning 2004.