**CHHATTISGARH SWAMI VIVEKANAND TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, BHILAI (CG)**

**Semester : B.E. IV Semester Branch : Mechanical Engineering**

**Sub : APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS**

UNIT – I

Second Law Analysis

Introduction to the second law of Thermodynamics, the Clausius inequality, entropy, principle of

increase in entropy, T-ds relation.

Availability – Second law analysis of Closed system, second law analysis of steady –flow system,

Irreversibility.

UNIT – II

Thermodynamic Relationships

Helmholz and Gibbs functions, coefficient of Volume expansion and isothermal compressibility,

Differential relations of internal energy, Maxwell’s Relation, C

p Cv

relations, T-ds equations,

Clapeylon equation, Kelving coefficient.

Equation of state:

Ideal gas equation of state, Real gas deviation with ideal gas, Vander waals equation, evaluation

of its constants, Virial expansions, limitations of the equation. The law of corresponding states.

UNIT – III

Vapour and Vapour Power Cycle

Properties and processes in ideal vapour, use of steam tables and Mollier’s diagram in

determination of steam properties, energy and entropy calculations.

Carnot and Rankine cycle as applied to steam power plants, Reheat cycle, ideal regenerative

cycle, practical regenerative cycle, characteristics of ideal working fluids, binary vapour cycle.

Steam Condensers

Various types of condenser efficiency, vacuum efficiency and measurement. Effect of air

leakage, Thermodynamic analysis.

Unit – IV

Refrigeration Cycle

Reversed Carnot cycle, simple vapour compression refrigeration cycle, Analysis with T-S

diagram.

Reciprocating Air Compressors

Classification of air compressors, Advantages, disadvantages of reciprocating compressors,

working of reciprocating compressor, equation of work (with & without clearance) volumetric

efficiency, multistage compressors, efficiency of compressor, Effect of atmospheric condition on

output of Compressors, Thermodynamic analysis of reciprocating compressor, Intercooler &

External cooler.

Unit – V

Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluids

Isentropic flow, stagnation conditions, stagnation enthalpy, temperature, pressure, density, flow

through available area, duct, converging nozzle, Convergent divergent nozzle, operation of

convergent divergent nozzle for different back pressures. Flow with friction and heat transfer,

Fanno flow, Rayleigh flow. Flow of steam through nozzle, throat area for maximum discharge,

supersaturated Flow in nozzle.

TEXT BOOKS

1. Engineering Thermodynamics – P.K. Nag – TMH Publishers

2. Thermodynamics & Thermal Engineering – J. Selwin Rajadurai – New Age International Publishers

REFERENCES BOOKS

1. Thermodynamics – C.P. Arora – TMH Pub.

2. Thermal Science & Engineering – D.S. Kumar – S.K. Kataria & Sons

3. Thermodynamics – S.C. Gupta – Pearson Education

4. Thermodynamics- An Engineering Approach – Cengal & Boles – McGraw Hill

5. Engineering Thermodynamics – K. Ramakrishna – Anuradha Agencies