# VTU Syllabus Civil Engineering 4th Semester

**Analysis of Determinate Structures Sem-IV**

Module -1

Introduction and Analysis of Plane Trusses Structural forms, Conditions of equilibrium, Compatibility conditions, Degree of freedom, Linear and non linear analysis, Static and kinematic indeterminacies of structural systems, Types of trusses, Assumptions in analysis, Analysis of determinate trusses by method of joints and method of sections.

Module -2

Deflection of Beams Definition of slope, Deflection and curvature, Sign conventions, Derivation of moment-curvature equation.

Double integration method and Macaulay’s method: Slope and deflection for standard loading cases and for determinate prismatic beams subjected to point loads, UDL, UVL and couple. Moment area method: Derivation, Mohr’s theorems, Sign conventions, Application of moment area method for determinate prismatic beams, Beams of varying section, Use of moment diagram by parts. Conjugate beam method: Real beam and conjugate beam, conjugate beam theorems, Application of conjugate beam method of determinate beams of variable cross sections.

Module -3

Energy Principles and Energy Theorems Principle of virtual displacements, Principle of virtual forces, Strain energy and complimentary energy, Strain energy due to axial force, bending, shear and torsion, Deflection of determinate beams and trusses using total strain energy, Deflection at the point of application of single load, Castigliano’s theorems and its application to estimate the deflections of trusses, bent frames, Special applications-Dummy unit load method.

Module -4

Arches and Cable Structures Three hinged parabolic arches with supports at the same and different levels. Determination of normal thrust, radial shear and bending moment. Analysis of cables under point loads and UDL. Length of cables for supports at same and at different levels- Stiffening trusses for suspension cables.

Module -5

Influence Lines and Moving Loads Concepts of influence lines-ILD for reactions, SF and BM for determinate beams-ILD for axial forces in determinate trusses- Reactions, BM and SF in determinate beams using rolling loads concepts.

Text Books :

- Reddy C S, Basic Structural Analysis, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
- Muthu K U. etal, Basic Structural Analysis, 2nd edition, IK International Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi,2015.
- Bhavikatti, Structual Analysis, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 2002.

Reference Books :

- Hibbeler R C, Structural Analysis, Prentice Hall, 9th edition, 2014
- Devadoss Menon, Structural Analysis, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, 2008.
- Prakash Rao D S, Structural Analysis, University Press Pvt. Ltd, 2007.

**Applied Hydraulics Sem-IV**

Module-1

Dimensional and Model analysis Dimensional analysis Dimensional analysis and similitude: Dimensional

homogeneity, Non Dimensional parameter, Rayleigh methods and Buckingham π theorem, dimensional analysis, choice of variables, examples on various applications.

Model analysis: Model analysis, similitude, types of similarities, force ratios, similarity laws, model classification, Reynolds model, Froude’s model, Euler’s Model, Webber’s model, Mach model, scale effects, Distorted models. Numerical problems on Reynold’s, and Froude’s Model.

Buoyancy and Flotation Buoyancy, Force and Centre of Buoyancy, Metacentre and Metacentric height, Stability of submerged and floating bodies, Determination of Metacentric height, Experimental and theoretical method, Numerical problems.

Module-2

Open Channel Flow Hydraulics Uniform Flow : Introduction, Classification of flow through channels, Chezy’s and Manning’s equation for flow through open channel, Most economical channel sections, Uniform flow through Open channels, Numerical Problems. Specific Energy and Specific energy curve, Critical flow and corresponding critical parameters, Metering flumes, Numerical Problems

Module-3

Non-Uniform Flow Hydraulic Jump, Expressions for conjugate depths and Energy loss, Numerical Problems. Gradually varied flow, Equation, Back water curve and afflux, Description of water curves or profiles, Mild, steep, critical,horizontal and adverse slope profiles, Numerical problems, Control sections.

Module-4

Hydraulic Machines : Introduction, Impulse-Momentum equation. Direct impact of a jet on a stationary and moving curved vanes, Introduction to concept of velocity triangles, impact of jet on a series of curved vanes- Problems.

Turbines – Impulse Turbines Introduction to turbines, General lay out of a hydro-electric plant, Heads and Efficiencies, classification of turbines. Pelton wheel-components, working principle and velocity triangles. Maximum power, efficiency, working proportions – Numerical problems.

Module-5

Reaction Turbines and Pumps Radial flow reaction turbines: (i) Francis turbine- Descriptions, working proportions and design, Numerical problems. (ii) Kaplan turbine- Descriptions, working proportions and design, Numerical problems. Draft tube theory and unit quantities. (No problems) Centrifugal pumps: Components and Working of centrifugal pumps, Types of centrifugal pumps, Work done by the impeller, Heads and Efficiencies, Minimum starting speed of centrifugal pump, Numerical problems, Multi-stage pumps.

Text Books :

- P N Modi and S M Seth, “Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics, including Hydraulic Machines”, 20th edition, 2015, Standard Book House
- R.K. Bansal, “A Text book of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines”, Laxmi Publications, New Delhi
- S K SOM and G Biswas, “Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machines”, Tata McGraw Hill,New Delhi

Reference Books :

- K Subramanya, “Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines”, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd.
- Mohd. Kaleem Khan, “Fluid Mechanics and Machinery”, Oxford University Press
- C.S.P. Ojha, R. Berndtsson, and P.N. Chandramouli,
*“Fluid Mechanics and Machinery”*, Oxford University Publication – 2010 - J.B. Evett, and C. Liu,
*“Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics*”, McGraw-Hill Book Company.-2009.

**Concrete Technology Sem-IV**

Module-1

Concrete Ingredients

Cement – Cement manufacturing process, steps to reduce carbon footprint, chemical composition and their importance, hydration of cement, types of cement. Testing of cement.

Fine aggregate: Functions, requirement, Alternatives to River sand, M-sand introduction and manufacturing.

Coarse aggregate: Importance of size, shape and texture. Grading and blending of aggregate. Testing on aggregate, requirement.

Recycled aggregates

Water-qualities of water.

Chemical admixtures-plasticizers, accelerators, retarders and air entraining agents. Mineral admixtures – Pozzolanic and cementitious materials, Fly ash, GGBS, silica fumes, Metakaolin and rice husk ash.

Module-2

Fresh Concrete Workability-factors affecting workability. Measurement of workability–slump, Compaction factor and Vee-Bee Consistometer tests, flow tests. Segregation and bleeding. Process of manufacturing of concrete- Batching, Mixing, Transporting, Placing and Compaction. Curing – Methods of curing – Water curing, membrane curing, steam curing, accelerated curing, self- curing.

Good and Bad practices of making and using fresh concrete and Effect of heat of hydration during mass concreting at project sites.

Module-3

Hardened Concrete Factors influencing strength, W/C ratio, gel/space ratio, Maturity concept, Testing of hardened concrete, Creep –factors affecting creep. Shrinkage of concrete – plastic shrinking and drying shrinkage, Factors affecting shrinkage. Definition and significance of durability. Internal and external factors influencing durability, Mechanisms- Sulphate attack – chloride attack, carbonation, freezing and thawing. Corrosion, Durability requirements as per IS-456, Insitu testing of concrete- Penetration and pull out test, rebound hammer test, ultrasonic pulse velocity, core extraction – Principal, applications and limitations.

Module-4

Concrete Mix Proportioning Concept of Mix Design with and without admixtures, variables in proportioning and Exposure conditions, Selection criteria of ingredients used for mix design, Procedure of mix proportioning. Numerical Examples of Mix Proportioning using IS-10262.

Module-5

Special Concretes RMC- manufacture and requirement as per QCI-RMCPCS, properties, advantages and disadvantages. Self-Compacting concrete- concept, materials, tests, properties, application and typical mix Fiber reinforced concrete – Fibers types, properties, application of FRC. Light weight concrete-material properties and types. Typical light weight concrete mix and applications.

Text Books :

- Neville A.M. “Properties of Concrete”-4th Ed., Longman.
- M.S. Shetty, Concrete Technology – Theory and Practice Published by S. Chand and Company, New Delhi.
- Kumar Mehta. P and Paulo J.M. Monteiro “Concrete-Microstructure, Property and Materials”, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill Education
- A.R. Santha Kumar, “Concrete Technology”, Oxford University Press, New Delhi (New Edition)

Reference Books:

- M L Gambir, “Concrete Technology”, McGraw Hill Education, 2014.
- N. V. Nayak, A. K. Jain Handbook on Advanced Concrete Technology
- Job Thomas, “Concrete Technology”, CENGAGE Learning, 2015
- Criteria for RMC Production Control, Basic Level Certification for Production Control of Ready Mixed Concrete-BMTPC
- Specification and Guidelines for Self-Compacting Concrete, EFNARC, Association House

**Basic Geotechnical Engineering Sem-IV**

Module-1

Introduction:Introduction, origin and formation of soil, Phase Diagram, phase relationships, definitions and their inter relationships. Determination of Index properties-Specific gravity, water content, in-situ density and particle size analysis (sieve and sedimentation analysis) Atterberg’s Limits, consistency indices, relative density, activity of clay, Plasticity chart, unified and BIS soil classification.

Module-2

Soil Structure and Clay Mineralogy Single grained, honey combed, flocculent and dispersed structures, Valence bonds, Soil-Water system, Electrical diffuse double layer, adsorbed water, base-exchange capacity, Isomorphous substitution. Common clay minerals in soil and their structures- Kaolinite, Illite and Montmorillonite and their application in Engineering Compaction of Soils: Definition, Principle of compaction, Standard and Modified proctor’s compaction tests, factors affecting compaction, effect of compaction on soil properties, Field compaction control – compactive effort & method of compaction, lift thickness and number of passes, Proctor’s needle, Compacting equipments and their suitability.

Module-3

Flow through Soils: Darcy’s law- assumption and validity, coefficient of permeability and its determination (laboratory and field), factors affecting permeability, permeability of stratified soils, Seepage velocity, superficial velocity and coefficient of percolation, Capillary Phenomena Seepage Analysis: Laplace equation, assumptions, limitations and its derivation. Flow nets- characteristics and applications. Flow nets for sheet piles and below the dam section. Unconfined flow, phreatic line (Casagrande’s method –with and without toe filter), flow through dams, design of dam filters. Effective Stress Analysis: Geostatic stresses, Effective stress concept-total stress, effective stress and Neutral stress and impact of the effective stress in construction of structures, quick sand phenomena.

Module-4

Consolidation of Soil Definition, Mass-spring analogy, Terzaghi’s one dimensional consolidation theory – assumption and limitations. Derivation of Governing differential Equation Pre-consolidation pressure and its determination by Casagrande’s method. Over consolidation ratio, normally consolidated, under consolidated and over consolidated soils. Consolidation characteristics of soil (Cc, av, mv and Cv. Laboratory one dimensional consolidation test, characteristics of e-log(σ’) curve, Determination of consolidation characteristics of soils- compression index and coefficient of consolidation (square root of time fitting method, logarithmic time fitting method). Primary and secondary consolidation.

Module-5

Shear Strength of Soil: Concept of shear strength, Mohr–Coulomb Failure Criterion, Modified Mohr–Coulomb Criterion

Concept of pore pressure, Total and effective shear strength parameters, factors affecting shear strength of soils. Thixotrophy and sensitivity, Measurement of shear strength parameters – Direct shear test, unconfined compression test, triaxial compression test and field Vane shear test, Test under different drainage conditions. Total and effective stress paths.

Text Books :

- Gopal Ranjan and Rao A.S.R., Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics- (2000), New Age International (P) Ltd., Newe Delhi.
- Punmia B C, Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering- (2012) , Laxmi Pulications.
- Murthy V.N.S., Principles of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering- (1996), 4th Edition, UBS Publishers and Distributors
- Braja, M. Das, Geotechnical Engineering; (2002), Fifth Edition, Thomson Business Information India (P) Ltd., India

Reference Books :

- T.W. Lambe and R.V. Whitman, Soil Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, 1969.
- Donold P Coduto, Geotechnical Engineering- Phi Learning Private Limited, New Delhi
- Shashi K. Gulathi & Manoj Datta, Geotechnical Engineering-. (2009), “Tata Mc Graw Hill.
- Narasimha Rao A. V. & Venkatrahmaiah C, Numerical Problems, Examples and objective questions in Geotechnical Engineering
- Muni Budhu ,Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engg.- (2010), 3rd Edition, John Wiely & Sons

**Advanced Surveying Sem-IV**

Module-1

Curve Surveying Curves – Necessity – Types, Simple curves, Elements, Designation of curves, Setting out simple curves by linear methods (numerical problems on offsets from long chord & chord produced method), Setting out curves by Rankines deflection angle method (numerical problems). Compound curves, Elements, Design of compound curves, Setting out of compound curves (numerical problems). Reverse curve between two parallel straights (numerical problems on Equal radius and unequal radius). Transition curves Characteristics , numerical problems on Length of Transition curve, 7.5 Vertical curves –Types – (theory).

Module-2

Geodetic Surveying and Theory of Errors Geodetic Surveying: Principle and Classification of triangulation system, Selection of base line and stations, Orders of triangulation, Triangulation figures, Reduction to Centre, Selection and marking of stations Theory of Errors: Introduction, types of errors, definitions, laws of accidental errors, laws of weights, theory of least squares, rules for giving weights and distribution of errors to the field observations, determination of the most probable values of quantities.

Module-3

Introduction to Field Astronomy: Earth, celestial sphere, earth and celestial coordinate systems, spherical triangle, astronomical triangle, Napier’s rule.

Module -4

Aerial Photogrammetry Introduction, Uses, Aerial photographs, Definitions, Scale of vertical and tilted photograph (simple problems), Ground Co-ordinates (simple problems), Relief Displacements (Derivation), Ground control, Procedure of aerial survey, overlaps and mosaics Stereoscopes, Derivation Parallax(Derivation) .

Module -5

Modern Surveying Instruments Introduction, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electromagnetic distance measurement, Total station, Lidar scanners for topographical survey. Remote Sensing: Introduction, Principles of energy interaction in atmosphere and earth surface features, Image interpretation techniques, visual interpretation. Digital image processing, Global Positioning system Geographical Information System: Definition of GIS, Key Components of GIS, Functions of GIS, Spatial data, spatial information system Geospatial analysis, Integration of Remote sensing and GIS and Applications in Civil Engineering(transportation, town planning).

Text Books :

- B.C. Punmia, “Surveying Vol.2”, Laxmi Publications pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
- Kanetkar T P and S V Kulkarni , Surveying and Levelling Part 2, Pune Vidyarthi Griha Prakashan,
- K.R. Arora, “Surveying Vol. 1” Standard Book House, New Delhi.
- Sateesh Gopi, Global Positioning System, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi

Reference Books :

- S.K. Duggal, “Surveying Vol.I & II”, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi.
- R Subramanian, Surveying and Leveling, Second edition, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
- David Clerk, Plane and Geodetic Surveying Vol1 and Vol2, CBS publishers
- B Bhatia, Remote Sensing and GIS , Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
- T.M Lillesand,. R.W Kiefer,. and J.W Chipman, Remote sensing and Image interpretation John Wiley and Sons India

**Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines Laboratory Sem IV**

Experiments :

1. Verification of Bernoulli’s equation

2. Determination of Cd for Venturimeter and Orifice meter

3. Determination of hydraulic coefficients of small vertical orifice

4. Calibration of Rectangular and Triangular notch

5. Calibration of Ogee and Broad crested weir

6. Determination of Cd for Venturiflume

7. Experimental determination of force exerted by a jet on flat and curved plates (Hemispherical Vane).

8. Experimental determination of operating characteristics of Pelton turbine

9. Determination of efficiency of Francis turbine

10. Determination of efficiency of Kaplan turbine

11. Determination of efficiency of centrifugal pump.

12. Determination of Major and Minor Losses in Pipes

13. Demonstration Experiments:

a. Reynold’s experiment to understand laminar and turbulent flow

b. Flow Visualization

c. Calibration of Sutro-weir

Text Books :

- Sarbjit Singh ,
*Experiments in Fluid Mechanics*– PHI Pvt. Ltd.- New Delhi - 2. Kaleem Khan, “Fluid Mechanics and Machinery”, Oxford University Press

Reference Books :

- Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics’ – Dr. P.N. Modi & Dr S.M. Seth, Standard Book House- New Delhi. 2009 Edition

**Engineering Geology Laboratory Sem IV**

Experiments :

1. Identification of minerals as mentioned in theory, their properties, uses and manufacturing of construction materials.

2. Identification of rocks as mentioned in theory, their engineering properties and uses in construction and decorative purposes

3. Dip and Strike problems: Determination of dip and strike direction in Civil Engineering projects (Railway lines, tunnels, dams, reservoirs) –graphical or any other method.

4. Bore hole problems: Determination of subsurface behavior of rocks, their attitude related to foundation, tunnels, reservoirs and mining. Triangular and Square land, assuming ground is horizontal.

5. Calculation of Vertical, True thickness and width of the outcrops.

6. Interpretation of Electrical resistivity curves to find out subsurface information such as thickness of soil, weathered zone, depth of hard rock and saturated zone

7. Interpretation of Toposheets and geological maps related to Civil Engineering projects.

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