# VTU Syllabus Civil Engineering 3rd Semester

**STRENGTH OF MATERIALS III Sem**

Module-1

Simple Stresses and Strain: Introduction, Definition and concept and of stress and strain. Hooke’s law, Stress-Strain diagrams for ferrous and non-ferrous materials, factor of safety, Elongation of tapering bars of circular and rectangular cross sections, Elongation due to self- weight. Saint Venant’s principle, Compound bars, Temperature stresses, Compound section subjected to temperature stresses, state of simple shear, Elastic constants and their relationship.

Module-2

Compound Stresses: Introduction, state of stress at a point, General two dimensional stress system, Principal stresses and principal planes. Mohr’s circle of stresses Thin and Thick Cylinders: Introduction, Thin cylinders subjected to internal pressure; Hoop stresses, Longitudinal stress and change in volume. Thick cylinders subjected to both internal and external pressure; Lame’s equation, radial and hoop stress distribution.

Module-3

Shear Force and Bending Moment in Beams: Introduction to types of beams, supports and loadings. Definition of bending moment and shear force, Sign conventions, relationship between load intensity, bending moment and shear force. Shear force and bending moment diagrams for statically determinate beams subjected to points load, uniformly distributed loads, uniformly varying loads, couple and their combinations.

Module-4

Bending and Shear Stresses in Beams: Introduction, pure bending theory, Assumptions, derivation of bending equation, modulus of rupture, section modulus, flexural rigidity. Expression for transverse shear stress in beams, Bending and shear stress distribution diagrams for circular, rectangular, ‘I’, and ‘T’ sections. Shear centre(only concept) Columns and Struts: Introduction, short and long columns. Euler’s theory; Assumptions, Derivation for Euler’s Buckling load for different end conditions, Limitations of Euler’s theory. Rankine-Gordon’s formula for columns.

Module-5

Torsion in Circular Shaft: Introduction, pure torsion, Assumptions, derivation of torsion equation for circular shafts, torsional rigidity and polar modulus Power transmitted by a shaft, combined bending and torsion. Theories of Failure: Introduction, maximum principal stress theory (Rankine’s theory), Maximum shearing stress theory (Tresca’s theory), Strain energy theory (Beltrami and Haigh), and maximum strain theory (St. Venant’s theory).

Course outcomes :

- To evaluate the strength of various structural elements internal forces such as compression, tension, shear, bending and torsion.
- To suggest suitable material from among the available in the field of construction and manufacturing.
- To evaluate the behavior and strength of structural elements under the action of compound stresses and thus understand failure concepts.
- To understand the basic concept of analysis and design of members subjected to torsion.
- To understand the basic concept of analysis and design of structural elements such as columns and struts.

Reference Books :

- D.H. Young, S.P. Timoshenko “ Elements of Strength of Materials” East West Press Pvt. Ltd., 5th Edition (Reprint 2014)
- R K Bansal, “A Textbook of Strength of Materials”, 4th Edition, Laxmi Publications, 2010
- S.S. Rattan “ Strength of Materials” McGraw Hill Education (India) Pvt. Ltd., 2nd Edition (Sixth reprint 2013)
- Vazirani, V N, Ratwani M M. and S K Duggal “Analysis of Structures Vol. I”, 17th Edition, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi.

**FLUIDS MECHANICS III Sem**

Module-1

Fluids & Their Properties: Concept of fluid, Systems of units. Properties of fluid; Mass density, Specific weight, Specific gravity, Specific volume, Viscosity, Cohesion, Adhesion, Surface tension& Capillarity. Fluid as a continuum, Newton’s law of viscosity (theory & problems).Capillary rise in a vertical tube and between two plane surfaces (theory & problems). vapor pressure of liquid, compressibility and bulk modulus, capillarity, surface tension, pressure inside a water droplet, pressure inside a soap bubble and liquid jet. Numerical problems.

Fluid Pressure and Its Measurements:Definition of pressure, Pressure at a point, Pascal’s law, Variation of pressure with depth. Types of pressure. Measurement of pressure using simple, differential & inclined manometers (theory & problems). Introduction to Mechanical and electronic pressure measuring devices.

Module-2

Hydrostatic forces on Surfaces : Definition, Total pressure, centre of pressure, total pressure on horizontal, vertical and inclined plane surface, total pressure on curved surfaces, water pressure on gravity dams, Lock gates. Numerical Problems.

Fundamentals of fluid flow (Kinematics):Introduction. Methods of describing fluid motion. Velocity and Total acceleration of a fluid particle. Types of fluid flow, Description of flow pattern. Basic principles of fluid flow, three-dimensional continuity equation in Cartesian coordinate system. Derivation for Rotational and irroational motion. Potential function, stream function, orthogonality of streamlines and equipotential lines. Numerical problems on Stream function and velocity potential.

Introduction to flow net.

Module-3

Fluid Dynamics: Introduction. Forces acting on fluid in motion. Euler’s equation of motion along a streamline and Bernoulli’s equation. Assumptions and limitations of Bernoulli’s equation. Modified Bernoulli’s equation. Problems on applications of Bernoulli’s equation (with and without losses). Vortex motion; forced vortex, free vortex, problems Momentum equation problems on pipe bends.

Applications: Introduction. Venturimeter, Orificemeter, Pitot tube. Numerical Problems.

Module-4

Orifice and Mouthpiece: Introduction, classification, flow through orifice, hydraulic coefficients, Numerical problems. Mouthpiece, classification, Borda’s Mouthpiece

Notches and Weirs: Introduction. Classification, discharge over rectangular, triangular, trapezoidal notches, Cippoletti notch, broad crested weirs. Numerical problems. Ventilation of weirs, submerged weirs.

Module-5

Flow through Pipes: Introduction. Major and minor losses in pipe flow. Darcy-Weisbach equation for head loss due to friction in a pipe. Pipes in series, pipes in parallel, equivalent pipe-problems. Minor losses in pipe flow, equation for head loss due to sudden expansion. Numerical problems. Hydraulic gradient line, energy gradient line. Pipe Networks, Hardy Cross method, Numerical problems. Surge Analysis in Pipes: Water hammer in pipes, equations for pressure rise due to gradual valve closure and sudden closure for rigid and elastic pipes.

Course outcomes :

- Possess a sound knowledge of fundamental properties of fluids and fluid continuum.
- Compute and solve problems on hydrostatics, including practical applications.
- Apply principles of mathematics to represent kinematic concepts related to fluid flow.
- Apply fundamental laws of fluid mechanics and the Bernoulli’s principle for practical applications.
- Compute the discharge through pipes and over notches and weirs.

Reference Books :

- Victor L Streeter, Benjamin Wylie E and Keith W Bedford, “Fluid Mechanics”, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co Ltd., New Delhi
- K Subramanya, “Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines”, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd.
- K Subramanya, “Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines-problems and solutions”, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd.
- J. F. Douglas, J. M. Gasoriek, John Swaffield, Lynne Jack, “Fluid Mechanics”, Pearson, Fifth Edition
- Mohd.Kaleem Khan, “Fluid Mechanics and Machinery”, Oxford University Press

**BASIC SURVEYING III Sem**

Module-1

Introduction: Definition of surveying, Objectives and importance of surveying. Classification of surveys. Principles of surveying. Units of measurements, Surveying measurements and errors, types of errors, precision and accuracy. Classification of maps, map scale, conventional symbols, topographic maps, map layout, Survey of India Map numbering systems.

Measurement of Horizontal Distances : Measuring tape and types. Measurement using tapes, Taping on level ground and sloping ground. Errors and corrections in tape measurements,ranging of lines, direct and indirect methods of ranging, Electronic distance measurement, basic principle. Booking of tape survey work, Field book, entries, Conventional symbols, Obstacles in tape survey, Numerical problems.

Module-2

Measurement of Directions and Angles: Compass survey: Basic definitions; meridians, bearings, magnetic and true bearings. Prismatic and surveyor’s compasses,temporary adjustments, declination. Quadrantal bearings, whole circle bearings, local attraction and related problems Theodolite Survey and Instrument Adjustment:Theodolite and types, Fundamental axes and parts of Transit theodolite, uses of theodolite, Temporary adjustments of transit theodolite, measurement of horizontal and vertical angles, step by step procedure for obtaining permanent adjustment of Transit theodolite.

Module-3

Traversing: Traverse Survey and Computations: Latitudes and departures, rectangular coordinates, Traverse adjustments, Bowditch rule and transit rule, Numerical Problems

Tacheometry: basic principle, types of tacheometry, distance equation for horizontal and inclined line of sight in fixed hair method, problems.

Module-4

Leveling: Basic terms and definitions, Methods of leveling, Dumpy level, auto level, digital and laser levels. Curvature and refraction corrections. Booking and reduction of levels.

Differential leveling, profile leveling, fly leveling, check leveling, reciprocal leveling, trigonometric leveling (heights and distances-single plane and double plane methods.

Module-5

Areas and Volumes: Measurement of area – by dividing the area into geometrical figures, area from offsets, mid ordinate

rule, trapezoidal and Simpson’s one third rule, area from co-ordinates, introduction to planimeter, digital planimeter. Measurement of volumes-trapezoidal and prismoidal formula. Contouring Contours, Methods of contouring, Interpolation of contours, contour gradient, characteristics of contours and uses.

Course outcomes :

- Posses a sound knowledge of fundamental principles Geodetics[L1][PO1]
- Measurement of vertical and horizontal plane, linear and angular dimensions to arrive at solutions to basic surveying problems.[L2][L3][PO3]
- Capture geodetic data to process and perform analysis for survey problems [L4][PO2]
- Analyse the obtained spatial data and compute areas and volumes. Represent 3D data on plane figures as contours [L4] [PO2]

Reference Books :

- S.K. Duggal, “Surveying Vol.1”, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi. 2009.
- K.R. Arora, “Surveying Vol. 1” Standard Book House, New Delhi. 2010
- R Subramanian, Surveying and Leveling, Second edition, Oxford University Press, New Delhi
- Bannister, S. Raymond , R. Baker, “Surveying”, Pearson, 7th ed., New Delhi

**ENGINEERING GEOLOGY III Sem**

Module-1

Introduction: Application of Earth Science in Civil Engineering Practices, Understanding the earth, internal structure and composition.

Mineralogy: Mineral properties, composition and their use in the manufacture of construction materials – Quartz Group (Glass); Feldspar Group (Ceramic wares and Flooring tiles); Kaolin (Paper, paint and textile); Asbestos (AC sheets); Carbonate Group ( Cement) ; Gypsum (POP, gypsum sheets, cement); Mica Group (Electrical industries); Ore minerals – Iron ores (Steel); Chromite (Alloy); Bauxite (aluminum); Chalcopyrite (copper)

Module-2

Petrology : Formation, Classification and Engineering Properties. Rock as construction material, concrete aggregate, railway ballast, roofing, flooring, cladding and foundation. Deformation of rocks, Development of Joints, Folds, Faults and Unconformities. Their impact in the selection of sites for Dams, Reservoirs, Tunnels, Highways and Bridges, Rock Quality Determination (RQD), Rock Structure Rating (RSR),: Igneous Rocks – Granite, Gabbro, Dolerite, Basalt; Sedimentary rocks – Sandstone, Shale, Limestone, Laterite; Metamorphic rocks – Gneiss, Quartzite, Slate, Charnockite: Decorative stones – Porphyries, Marble and Quartzite.

Module-3

Geomorphology and Seismology:

Landforms – Classification, Rock weathering, types and its effects on Civil Engineering Projects. Study of Geo-morphological aspects in the selection of sites for Dams, Reservoirs, Tunnels, Highways and Bridges. Watershed management, Floods and their control, River valley, Drainage pattern – parameters and development; Coastlines and their engineering considerations.

Earthquake – Causes and Effects,, Seismic waves, Engineering problems related to Earthquakes, Earthquake intensity, Richter Scale, Seismograph, Seismic zones- World and India, Tsunami – causes and effects. Early warning system. Reservoir Induced Seismicity; Landslides – causes and their control.

Module-4

Hydrogeology: Hydrological cycle, Occurrence of Groundwater in different terrains -Weathered, Hard and Stratified rocks; Determination of Quality aspects – SAR, RSC and TH of Groundwater. Groundwater Pollution, Groundwater Exploration- Electrical Resistivity and Seismic methods, Resistivity curves, Water Bearing Formations, Aquifer types and parameters-Porosity, Specific yield and retention, Permeability, Transmissibility and Storage Coefficient. Springs and Artesian Wells, Artificial Recharging of Groundwater, Sea water intrusion and remedies.

Module-5

Geodesy: Study of Topographic maps and Contour maps; Remote Sensing – Concept, Application and its Limitations; Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) – Concept and their use resource mapping. LANDSAT Imagery-Definition and its use. Impact of Mining, Quarrying and Reservoirs on Environment. Natural Disasters and their mitigation.

Course outcomes :

- Students will able to apply the knowledge of geology and its role in Civil Engineering.
- Students will effectively utilize earth’s materials such as mineral, rocks and water in civil engineering practices.
- Analyze the natural disasters and their mitigation.
- Assess various structural features and geological tools in ground water exploration, Natural resource estimation and solving civil engineering problems.
- Apply and asses use of building materials in construction and asses their properties.

Reference Books :

- K V G K Gokhale, “Principles of Engineering Geology”, BS Publications, Hyderabad.
- M Anji Reddy, “Text book of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System”, BS Publications, Hyderabad
- Ground water Assessment, development and Management by K.R. Karanth, Tata Mc Graw Hills
- D. Venkata Reddy, “Engineering Geology”, New Age International Publications, New Delhi.
- K. Todd, “Groundwater Hydrology”, Tata Mac Grow Hill, New Delhi.
- K. S. Valdiya, “ Environmental Geology” Tata Mc Grew Hills.

**BUILDING MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION III Sem**

Module-1

Building Materials Stone as building material; Requirement of good building stones, Dressing of stones, Deterioration and Preservation of stone work. Bricks; Classification, Manufacturing of clay bricks, Requirement of good bricks. Field and laboratory tests on bricks; compressive strength, water absorption, efflorescence, dimension and warpage.

Cement Concrete blocks, Stabilized Mud Blocks, Sizes, requirement of good blocks. Mortar: types and requirements. Timber as construction material Fine aggregate: Natural and manufactured: Sieve analysis, zoning, specify gravity, bulking, moisture content, deleterious materials. Coarse aggregate: Natural and manufactured: Importance of size, shape and texture. Grading of aggregates, Sieve analysis, specific gravity, Flakiness and elongation index, crushing, impact and abrasion tests.

Module-2

Foundation: Preliminary investigation of soil, safe bearing capacity of soil, Function and requirements of good foundation , types of foundation , introduction to spread, combined , strap, mat and pile foundation

Masonry: Definition and terms used in masonry. Brick masonry, characteristics and requirements of good brick masonry, Bonds in brick work, Header, Stretcher, English, Flemish bond, Stone masonry, Requirements of good stone masonry, Classification, characteristics of different stone masonry, Joints in stone masonry. Types of walls; load bearing, partition walls, cavitywalls.

Module-3

Lintels and Arches: Definition, function and classification of lintels, Balconies, chejja and canopy. Arches; Elements and Stability of an Arch.

Floors and roofs: Floors; Requirement of good floor, Components of ground floor, Selection of flooring material, Laying

of Concrete, Mosaic, Marble, Granite, Tile flooring, Cladding of tiles.

Roof;-Requirement of good roof, Types of roof, Elements of a pitched roof, Trussed roof, King post Truss, Queen Post Truss, Steel Truss, Different roofing materials, R.C.C.Roof.

Module-4

Doors, Windows and Ventilators: Location of doors and windows, technical terms, Materials for doors and windows, Paneled door,

Flush door, Collapsible door, Rolling shutter, PVC Door, Paneled and glazed Window, Bay Window, French window. Ventilators.

Sizes as per IS recommendations

Stairs: Definitions, technical terms and types of

stairs, Requirements of good stairs. Geometrical design of RCC doglegged and open-well stairs. Formwork: Introduction to form work,

scaffolding, shoring, under pinning.

Module-5

Plastering and Pointing : purpose, materials and methods of plastering and pointing, defects in plastering-Stucco plastering, lathe plastering Damp proofing- causes, effects and methods. Paints- Purpose, types, ingredients and defects,Preparation and applications of paints to new and old plastered surfaces, wooden and steel surfaces.

Course outcomes :

- Select suitable materials for buildings and adopt suitable construction techniques.
- Adopt suitable repair and maintenance work to enhance durability of buildings.

Reference Books :

- S.K.Duggal, “Building Materials”, (Fourth Edition)New Age International (P) Limited, 2016
- National Building Code(NBC) of India
- P C Vergese, “Buliding Materials”, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd
- Building Materials and Components, CBRI, 1990, India
- Jagadish.K.S, “Alternative Building Materials Technology”, New Age International, 2007.

**MATERIALS TESTING LABORATORY III Sem**

**Experiments :**

1. Tension test on mild steel and HYSD bars.

2. Compression test on mild steel, cast iron and wood.

3. Torsion test on mild steel circular sections.

4. Bending Test on Wood Under two point loading

5. Shear Test on Mild steel- single and double shear

6. Impact test on Mild Steel (Charpy & Izod)

7. Hardness tests on ferrous and non-ferrous metals Brinell’s, Rockwell and Vicker’s

8. Tests on Bricks and Tiles

9. Tests on Fine aggregates – Moisture content, Specific gravity, Bulk density, Sieve analysis and Bulking

10. Tests on Coarse aggregates – Absorption, Moisture content, specific gravity, Bulk density and Sieve analysis

11. Demonstration of Strain gauges and Strain indicators

Course outcomes :

- Reproduce the basic knowledge of mathematics and engineering in finding the strength in tension, compression, shear and torsion.
- Identify, formulate and solve engineering problems of structural elements subjected to flexure.
- Evaluate the impact of engineering solutions on the society and also will be aware of contemporary issues regarding failure of structures due to unsuitable materials.

Reference Books :

- Davis, Troxell and Hawk, “Testing of Engineering Materials”, International Student Edition – McGraw Hill Book Co. New Delhi.
- M L Gambhir and Neha Jamwal, “Building and construction materials- Testing and quality control”, McGraw Hill education(India)
- Fenner, “ Mechanical Testing of Materials”, George Newnes Ltd. London.
- Holes K A, “Experimental Strength of Materials”, English Universities Press Ltd. London.
- Suryanarayana A K, “Testing of Metallic Materials”, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi
- Kukreja C B, Kishore K. and Ravi Chawla “Material Testing Laboratory Manual”, Standard Publishers & Distributors 1996.
- Relevant IS Codes

**BASIC SURVEYING PRACTICE III Sem**

**Experiments :**

1. (a) Measurements of distances using tape along with horizontal planes and slopes, direct ranging. b) Setting out perpendiculars. Use of cross staff, optical square.

2. Obstacles in chaining and ranging – Chaining but not ranging, ranging but not chaining, both ranging and chaining.

3. Measurements of bearings / directions using prismatic compass, setting of geometrical figures using prismatic compass.

4. Measurement of bearings of sides of a closed traverse and adjustment of closing error by Bowditch method.

5. Determination of distance between two inaccessible points using compass and accessories

6. Determination of reduced levels of points using dumpy level/auto level (simple leveling)

7. Determination of reduced levels of points using dumpy level/auto level (differential leveling and inverted leveling)

8. To determine the difference in elevation between two points using Reciprocal leveling and to determine the collimation error.

9. To conduct profile leveling, cross sectioning and block leveling. Plotting profile and cross sectioning in excel. Block contour on graph paper to scale

10. Measurement of horizontal angle by repetition and reiteration methods and Measurement of vertical angles using theodolite.

Course outcomes :

- Apply the basic principles of engineering surveying and for linear and angular measurements.
- comprehend effectively field procedures required for a professional surveyor.
- Use techniques, skills and conventional surveying instruments necessary for engineering practice.[L3,L4][PO5]

Reference Books :

- S.K. Duggal, “Surveying Vol.1”, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. New Delhi.2009
- K.R. Arora, “Surveying Vol. 1” Standard Book House, New Delhi.2010

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