# Pune University BE IT Artificial Intelligence Question Papers

B.E. (Information Technology) ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (2008 Pattern) (Elective – I) (Sem. – I)

Time :3 Hours]                                                                           [Max. Marks :100

Instructions to the candidates:

1)            Answers to the two sections should be written in separate books.

2)            Neat diagrams must be drawn wherever necessary.

3)            Pigures to the right indicate full marks.

5)            Use of logarithmic tables slide rule, Mollier charts, electronic pocket calculator and steam tables is allowed.

6)            Assume suitable data, if necessary.

SECTION – I

QIA a) Explain intelligence and artificial intelligence system. Also explain with examples how does conventional computing differs from intelligent computing?                    [8]

b) For each of the following agents develop a PEAS description of the task environment :                                                                                                                              [8]

i)              Robot soccer player.

ii)           Internet book-shopping agent.

OR

Q2) a) In your own words, define how an agent and a program differ. What types of interface agents could be used in an Internet environment? [8]

b) What is swarm intelligence? What problems do swarm intelligent systems solve?        [8]

Q3) a) What is heuristic search? Explain with example. Also write heuristics function for following problems.                                                                                                             [6]

i)              Travelling Salesman Problem.

ii)           Tic-tac toe.

b)        Explain generate and test algorithms by giving its advantages and disadvantages.     [6]

c)         Discuss the performance of A* algorithm when the heuristic function either under-estimates or over estimates the value of states.                                             [6]

OR

Q4) a) What is uninformed (or blind) search and how does it differ from informed (or heuristic) search?                                                                                                                  [6]

b)        What is ply in game-tree search? Given the game tree shown below what is the value at the root node and which nodes are pruned from the search?

[6]

c)        Solve the following cryptarithmatic problem. N I N A + S I N G

AGAIN

Q5) a) Write the difference between predicate logic and proportional logic. How can you represent the resolution in predicate logic.                                                                      [8]

b)        Represent each of the following sentences in first-order logic. [8]

i)             A whale is a mammal.

ii)           Jane loves John.

iii)        John knows Jane’s father.

iv)         If it’s raining, then the ground is wet.

v)            If the switch is on and the light is off then the light-bulb is broken.

vi)         All computers have a processor.

Also describe the advantages of predicate logic over propositional logic.

OR

Q6) a) Write brief notes on frames and scripts. Give examples for each. [8]

b)        Identify application areas where reasoning under uncertainty condition is necessary? Explain various methods to represent uncertainty.                                      [8]

SECTION – II

Q7) a) Describe the STRIPS language for representing states, goals, and operators within a planning system.                                                               [6]

b)        What is block world problem? Give suitable example.                       [6]

c)        Explain is the basic principal of goal stack planning?                         [6]

OR

Q8) a) What is perception? What are the problems in perceptions?                           [6]

b)        How computer vision is used for manipulation and navigation?      [6]

c)        Explain perception as applied to image processing.                            [6]

Q9) a) Give two examples of each of the following and briefly describe each

model.                                                                                                                  [8]

i)              Supervised Learning.

ii)           Unsupervised Learning.

b) Contrast expert systems and neural networks in terms of knowledge representation, knowledge acquisition and explanation. Give one domain in which the expert system approach would be more promising and one domain in which the neural network approach would be more promising.

[8]

OR

QIO) a) Explain learning by induction with suitable examples.                                  [8]

b)        What do you mean by knowledge engineering? Discuss various stages of knowledge acquisition.                                                                                                          [8]

QII) a) Write short note on :                                                                                               [8]

i)             Distributed AI

ii)           Genetic algorithms.

b)        Explain the structure of prolog program. Also explain how conversion from English to Prolog facts and Rules is performed?                                                             [8]

OR

Q12) a) What is cut? You are given the following PROLOG program. [8]

vehicle(X):- heavy(X). light(X):- car(X). heavy(X):- bus(X). heavy(X):- truck(X).

car(zen). car(swift). bus(tata). bus (ashok) truck(mahindra),

What will be the output of the query? -Vehicle(X) in each of the cases if the following rule is added in the beginning of the above program.

i)             vehicle(X):- light (X).

ii)           vehicle(X):- light (X),!.

iii)        vehicle(X):- !, light (X).

iv)         vehicle(X):- light (X),fail.

v)           vehicle(X):- light (X),fail,!.

vi)         vehicle(X):- light (X),!,fail.

b)        What is List in Prolog? How to manipulate list? Give suitable examples.[8]