CBSE Class 12 Political Science 2020-21 – Syllabus, NCERT Solutions, Question Papers, Notes

CBSE Class 12 Political Science

CBSE Class 12 Political Science 2020-21: Are you preparing for CBSE Class 12 Political Science Exam? Do you have the right study materials to make? Do you have a new CBSE syllabus?

Don’t worry! Favorably we have got you covered. In this article, we are covering everything related to CBSE Class 12 Political Science Exam. Otherwise, you will lose your chance to score a better mark in the CBSE board exam.

Political Science deals with the theory and practice of government and politics at the local, state, national, and international levels. Here you will develop the understandings of institutions, practices, and relations that constitute public life and modes of inquiry that promote citizenship.

CBSE Class 12 Political Science 2020-21

Political Science plays an essential role in CBSE Class 12 Exam for Arts Stream. If you want to know about Indian Politics and World Politics, then the subject is for you. It is also essential for those who want to pursue higher degrees or Research in Political Science.

Political science occasionally called Politology. It has various subfields including,

  • Comparative politics,
  • Political economy,
  • International relations,
  • Political theory,
  • Public administration,
  • Public policy,
  • Political methodology.

CBSE Class 12 Political Science Syllabus 2020-21

In this CBSE Arts Stream Subject, you will learn about the various political situation in India and across the world. You can check the latest 12th Political Science Syllabus and Exam Pattern from below.

Part A: Contemporary World-Politics (50 Marks)




Cold War Era 


The End of bipolarity 

US Hegemony in World Politics 



Alternative centers of Power


Contemporary South Asia


International Organizations



Security in Contemporary World


Environment and Natural Resources






Part B: Politics in India since Independence





Challenges of Nation-Building 



The era of One-Party Dominance 


Politics of Planned Development 


India’s External Relations


Challenges to the Congress System



Crisis of the Democratic order


Rise of Popular Movements



Regional Aspirations


Recent Developments in Indian Politics



Here you will find some significant issues. In the first eight chapters, you will learn about the various past major events. The rest will cover an overview of the various problems from the recent period.

You will find the following chapters in  CBSE Class 12 Political Science,

Part-A Contemporary World Politics

  • Chapter 1 The Cold War Era
  • Chapter 2 The End of Bipolarity
  • Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics
  • Chapter 4 Alternative Centres of Power
  • Chapter 5 Contemporary South Asia
  • Chapter 6 International Organisations
  • Chapter 7 Security in the Contemporary World
  • Chapter 8 Environment and Natural Resources
  • Chapter 9 Globalisation

Part-B Politics in India since Independence

  • Chapter 10 Challenges of Nation Building
  • Chapter 11 Era of One-Party Dominance
  • Chapter 12 Politics of Planned Development
  • Chapter 13 India’s External Relations
  • Chapter 14 Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System
  • Chapter 15 The Crisis of Democratic Order
  • Chapter 16 Rise of Popular Movements
  • Chapter 17 Regional Aspirations
  • Chapter 18 Recent Developments in Indian Politics

Chapter 1 The Cold War Era

In this chapter, you will learn about the end of the Cold War is usually seen as the beginning of the contemporary era in world politics. Then you will come to know about the Cold War and how the dominance of two superpowers, the United States of America and the Soviet Union, was central to the Cold War, also learn about the Non- Aligned Movement (NAM) as a challenge to the dominance of the two superpowers. It also describes the attempts by the non-aligned countries to establish a New International Economic Order (NIEO). The reason behind the establishment of NIEO is to attain economic development and political independence.

It will also let you know about India’s role in NAM and asks how successful the policy of non- alignment has been in protecting India’s interests.

Chapter 2 The End of Bipolarity

Here you will know that The Berlin Wall demolition in 1989. It was followed by a dramatic and historical chain of events that led to the collapse of the “second world” and the end of the Cold War.

Germany was divided after the Second World War was again united. The eight East European countries from Soviet bloc replaced their communist government s because of the mass demonstrations. The Soviet Union stood by as the Cold War to the end by mass actions by ordinary men and women. Eventually, the Soviet Union was broken. In this chapter, you will know about the causes and the consequences of the disintegration of the ‘second world.’

You will also know the situations that happened to that part of the world after the collapse of communist regimes and the relations of India with countries in the present day.

Chapter 3 US Hegemony in World Politics

Here you will study that the end of the Cold War left the US without creating any conflict in the world. After that, the era is described as a period of US dominance or a unipolar world.

In this chapter, you will understand the nature, extent, and limits of this dominance. In the starting, it is telling the story of the rise of the new world order from the First Gulf War to the US-led invasion of Iraq. Here you will find the concept of ‘hegemony’ to understand the nature of US domination.

After completion of the study of the political, economic, and cultural aspects of US hegemony, you will analyze India’s policy options in dealing with the US. In the end, you will see the challenges to this hegemony and overcome it.

Chapter 4 Alternative Centres of Power

After the end of the bipolar structure of world politics, it was clear that America’s dominance could be limited by alternative centers of political and economic power.

In Europe, the European Union (EU) and, in Asia, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have begun as forces to develop the economy. The EU and the ASEAN have developed alternative institutions and conventions that build a more peaceful and cooperative regional order to countries to provide regional solutions to their historical enmities and weaknesses. So both country can transform their region into prosperous economies.

The growth of the economy of China has made a significant impact on world politics. In this chapter, you will know some of these emerging alternative centers of power and evaluate their possible role in the future.

Chapter 5 Contemporary South Asia

Here you will learn about the global developments in the post-Cold War era to progress in our region, South Asia.

This region suddenly becomes the focus of global attention after joining India and Pakistan in the club of nuclear powers. The main reason for the focus was the various kinds of conflict in this region. Such as,

  • There are pending border and water-sharing disputes between the states of the area.
  • Conflicts are arising out of the insurgency, ethnic strife, and resource sharing.

This makes the region very turbulent. Many people in South Asia identify that these regions can develop and prosper after cooperating. In this chapter, you will come to know the nature of conflict and cooperation among different countries of the region. You should know that the issues are rooted in or conditioned by the domestic politics of these countries.

Chapter 6 International Organisations

Here, you will learn about the role of international organizations after the downfall of the Soviet Union.

You will also know how it affects the development of the world and the new challenges faced by international, organizations including the rise of US power, also know about the reform process of the United Nations Security Council and its difficulties. You can see India’s involvement in the UN and its view of the Security Council reforms.

In the end section of the chapter, you will be asked if the UN can play any role in dealing with a world dominated by one superpower.

Chapter 7 Security in the Contemporary World

Here you will know about the terms ‘security’ or ‘national security.’ As citizens of a democracy, we need to know more about the term security.

The chapter debates following questions,

  • What exactly is it?
  • And what are India’s security concerns?

You will find the two different ways of looking at security and highlights the importance of keeping in mind different contexts or situations which determine our view of security.

Chapter 8 Environment and Natural Resources

In this chapter, you will able to examine the growing significance of environmental as well as resource issues in world politics.

You will also know about the important environmental movements against the backdrop of the rising profile of environmentalism from the 1960s onwards. It has also covered the notions of common property resources and the global commons. You can also see the stand taken by India in more recent environmental debates.

The next section comprises a brief account of the geopolitics of resource competition and the indigenous peoples’ voices.

Chapter 9 Globalisation

In this final chapter of the book Contemporary World Politics. Here you will know about the globalization.

In the starting section, you will have to analyze the concept of globalization and then examine its causes. Then you will know about the political, economic, and cultural consequences of globalization. You will also know the impact of globalization on India as well as how India is affecting globalization.In the final section, you will know the resistance to globalization and how social movements in India also form part of this resistance.

Chapter 10 Challenges of Nation Building

You already know that at midnight on 14-15 August 1947, India attained independence. The first Prime Minister of free India, Jawaharlal Nehru, had addressed a special session of the Constituent Assembly that night. The speech was the famous ‘tryst with destiny’ that you may know.

You have already read in the history book about various freedom moments. They had two goals; almost everyone agreed. These were,

  • After Independence, we shall run our country through a democratic government.
  • The government will be run for the good of all, particularly the poor and the socially disadvantaged groups.

That was not going to be easy. India is born in complicated circumstances. Perhaps no other country by then was born in a situation more complicated than that of India in 1947. Freedom had brought the partition of the country. The year 1947 was a year of unprecedented violence and trauma of displacement.

Chapter 11 Era of One-Party Dominance

You already know the problematic circumstances of the birth independent India. You are aware of the severe challenge of nation-building that confronted the country right in the beginning.

After facing various challenges, leaders in many other countries of the world decided that their country could not afford to have democracy. According to them, national unity was their priority, and that democracy will introduce differences and conflicts.

So after gaining freedom from colonialism, they have adopted non-democratic rule. It took various forms: nominal democracy but effective control by one leader, one-party rule, or direct army rule. You can see that Non-democratic regimes always started with a promise of restoring democracy very soon. But once they established themselves, it was tough to dislodge them.

The conditions in India were too tough, as we explained above. But the leaders of the newly independent India decided to take the more difficult path. Our leaders were aware of the critical role of politics in any democracy. They did not see politics as a problem; they saw it as a way of solving the problems. Every society needs to decide how it will govern and regulate itself. Democratic politics is a solution for different groups with different and conflicting aspirations.

Chapter 12 Politics of Planned Development

Here you will study that after increasing the global demand for steel, Orissa, one of the largest reserves of unused iron ore in the country, has got special attention for investment destination.

The State government has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with both international and domestic steelmakers. The government expects that it would bring in necessary capital investment and provide a lot of employment opportunities.

You will find that the iron ore resources situated mainly in the underdeveloped and predominantly tribal districts of the state. The tribal population worries that the setting up of industries would mean displacement from their home and livelihood. The environmentalists fear that mining and industry would pollute the environment. The central government feels that without setting up industry can discourage investments in the country.

Now you can identify the various interests involved in this case and the key points of conflict.

Chapter 13 India’s External Relations

You already know that India was born in a challenging international context. After the devastating war and many new countries were emerging as a result of the collapse of colonialism. The new nations were trying to solve the twin challenges of welfare and democracy.

You will find that free India’s foreign policy reflected all these concerns in the period immediately after Independence.

Excluding these factors at the global level, India had its share of concerns. The British government left behind the legacy of many international disputes. Partition created its pressures, and the task of poverty alleviation was already waiting for fulfillment.

Chapter 14 Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System

After the death of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, it had generated a lot of speculation about the usual question of succession after Nehru. Many outsiders doubted whether India’s democratic experiment would survive after Nehru.

The fear was similar to other newly independent countries; India, too, would not be able to manage a democratic succession. Besides, there were doubts about the ability of new leadership to handle the multiple crises that awaited a solution.

The 1960s were labeled as the ‘dangerous decade’ when unresolved problems like poverty, inequality, communal and regional divisions, etc. could lead to a failure of the democratic project or even the disintegration of the country.

Chapter 15 The Crisis of Democratic Order

You have already studied the changes that were taking place in Indian politics since 1967. Indira Gandhi had arisen as a gigantic leader with tremendous popularity.

The party competition became bitter and polarised in that period. Many tensions in the relationship between the government and the judiciary occurred. The Supreme Court found many initiatives of the government to violate the Constitution. The Congress party took the position that this stand of the Court was against principles of democracy and parliamentary supremacy.

The parties opposed to the Congress felt that politics was becoming too personalized and that governmental authority was being converted into personal authority. The split in the Congress had sharpened the divisions between Indira Gandhi and her opponents.

Chapter 16 Rise of Popular Movements

Here you will learn about the various environmental and social moments like Chipko moments.

Chipko movement was an environmental movement to prevent cutting down of trees. It demanded that local communities should have control over their natural resources.

The movement began in some villages of Uttarakhand in early 1973 when the forest department refused permission to the villagers to fell ash trees for making agricultural tools. Some other famous moments are,

Movements of Dalit Panthers

  • Dalit Panthers was a militant organization of the Dalit youth, which was formed in Maharashtra in 1972.
  • Their activities were mostly centered around fighting against increased atrocities on Dalits in various parts of the state. The broader ideological agenda of the panthers was to destroy the caste system and to build an organization of all oppressed sections.
  • In the post-emergency period, Dalit Panthers got involved in electoral compromises, it also underwent many splits, which led to its decline.

Narmada Bachao Andolan

  • This movement was against displacement caused by huge development projects.
  • Sardar Sarovar Project It was an ambitious developmental project launched in the Narmada valley of Central India in the early eighties.
  • Numerous big and small dams were to be constructed on the Narmada and its tributaries
    which were concerned with three states-Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, and Maharashtra.
  • Narmada Bachao Andolan was a movement to save the Narmada. It was around 1988-89 that the issues crystallized under the banner of the NBA-a loose collective of all voluntary organizations.

You will also learn moments, as given below.

  • Growth of Bhartiya Kisan Union (BKU]
  • Anti-Arrack Movement
  • Movement For Right to Information

You will learn below lessons From Popular Movements

  • Popular movements help us to understand the nature of democratic politics better.
  • Popular movements ensured the effective representation of diverse groups and their demands.
  • Popular movements suggested new forms of active participation and thus broadened the idea of participation in Indian democracy.

Chapter 17 Regional Aspirations

Here you will find various regional aspirations. You can see the 1980s as a period of rising regional aspirations for autonomy, often outside the framework of the Indian Union.

You will study that these movements frequently involved armed assertions by the people, their repression by the government, and a collapse of the political and electoral processes.

The accords were reached after a process of dialogue that aimed to settle contentious issues within the constitutional framework. Yet the journey to the accord was always tumultuous and often violent.

Chapter 18 Recent Developments in Indian Politics

Here you will learn about the latest development in the Politics of India. After the assassination of Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi became the Prime Minister, and he led the Congress to a massive victory in the Lok Sabha elections held in 1984.

The decade of the eighties witnessed five developments that left a long-lasting impact on our politics. These were:

  • The defeat of the Congress party in the elections held in 1989.
  • Rise of the ‘Mandal Issue’ in national politics.
  • The economic policy (also known as new economic policy) followed by various governments.
  • A number of events culminated in the demolition of the disputed structure at Ayodhya (known as Babri Masjid) in December 1992.
  • The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in May 1991 led to a change in leadership of the Congress party.

Other subtopics you will learn here are,

  • Decline of Congress
  • Alliance Politics
  • Political Rise of Other Backward Classes
  • ‘Mandal’ Implemented
  • Political Fallouts
  • Communalism, Secularism, Democracy
  • The emergence of a New Consensus
  • Lok Sabha Elections 2004
  • Growing Consensus

CBSE Class 12 Political Science Books 2020-21 

You should have the right Class 12 Political Science book to prepare for the Exam. You should note that the book should cover the latest Political Science CBSE Syllabus. For that, NCERT Class 12 Political Science Books are the best option. It has followed the Latest CBSE syllabus.

CBSE Class 12 Political Science has two books, i.e.,

  • Part-A Contemporary World Politics
  • Part-B Politics in India since Independence

Contemporary World Politics is part of the NCERT’s effort to help students understand politics. Other books for students of Political Science in Classes deal with various facets of politics i.e. the Indian Constitution, politics in India, and political theory. Contemporary World Politics enlarges the scope of politics to the world stage. In Politics in India since Independence, you will know about Indian Politics from the time of Independence to the present era. That doesn’t mean that it has covered all the main events from the past six decades.

MBD Super Refresher Political Science Class – XII 
By V. K. Puri
MBD NCERT Solutions राजनीति विज्ञान For Class-XII By MBD Group Publishers

Political Science For Class XII
By Dr. J. C. Johari

सरस्वती राजनीति विज्ञान कक्षा १२ के लिए
By Dr. Narendra Kaushik

NCERT भारतीय समाज कक्षा 12
By Panel of Experts

CBSE Class 12 Political Science Solutions 2020-21 

Class 12 Political Science solutions are the essential study materials you should have after the textbook to prepare the 12th Exam correctly.

Here you will find the complete chapter-wise exercise solution for Political Science. By covering all questions, you can easily score a better grade in the 12th board exam. To develop your understanding deeper, you can also solve miscellaneous Exercise questions from every exercise.

CBSE Class 12 Political Science NCERT Solutions 2020-21 

To score better marks in the subject, you should solve Political Science chapter-wise questions first. For that, NCERT Class 12 Political Science Solutions are the best.

Here you will find exercise-wise Political Science Solutions to provide students with depth concepts on every chapter. The good thing is, the NCERT solutions have followed the latest CBSE syllabus.

You can refer to the contents of the solutions without any second thoughts. The experts have used simple language to provide you the depth concept on every solution.

CBSE Class 12 Political Science Question Paper 2020-21 

Question papers are essential exam materials to prepare any exam. You will get an idea about the real exam after solving the multiple questions from previous exams.

It will provide you an idea about the exam question pattern and marking scheme. After solving multiple questions from Sample Papers, Previous Year Papers, and Question Bank, you will easily identify important topics and your current preparation status.

You will also identify repetitive questions. You can also boost your problem-solving skills and understanding by solving the multiple question papers.

It will also help you to improve your time management skills during the Exam. You should have the following materials to find the complete question papers related to CBSE Class 12th Exam,

  • Sample Question Papers
  • Previous Year Question Papers
  • Question Bank

CBSE Class 12 Political Science Sample Question Papers

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) releases the Political Science sample papers and marking schemes. By using that, you can get a clear idea about the Exam.

By solving Political Science sample papers, you will have a preview of the board question paper. It will also enhance your problem-solving speed and understanding of the subject. You will become more aware of the current pattern of the question papers after solving sample papers.

CBSE Class 12 Political Science Previous year Papers

Class 12 Political Science previous exam papers are also one of the good study materials to prepare for the Exam. Before the board exam, you must solve the Political Science previous year papers. You will know the changes in the previous exams throughout the time.

It helps you to find the repetitive sections and questions in class 12 Political Science. It will also help you to build concepts on various types of questions.

You should solve the Class 12 previous year’s papers in a certain time as the real Exam and know preparation status. It will also help you to find your conceptual weaknesses. You can easily cover those before the board exam.

CBSE Class 12 Political Science Question Bank 2020-21 

You can prepare the CBSE board exam in the correct way by using the Class 12 Political Science question bank.

The experts have created the materials by analyzing the chapter wise exercise and Political Science previous exam questions. You will find multiple questions for every single topic.

By practicing more questions, you can build the depth concept in class 12 Political Science.

CBSE Class 12 Political Science Worksheets 2020-21 

Worksheets are another important exam preparation material. You can boost your exam preparation after solving CBSE Class 12 Political Science Worksheet.

Here you will find Political Science chapter-wise various important questions based on previous exams.

We have covered all the Class 12 Political Science important questions and answers in the worksheets included in the latest CBSE NCERT Syllabus.

By practicing NCERT CBSE Class 12 Political Science Worksheet, students can improve their problem-solving skills.

  • It helps to develop the subject knowledge in a simple, fun, and interactive way.
  • No need for tuition or attend extra classes if students practice worksheets daily.
  • Working on CBSE worksheets are time-saving.
  • It helps students to promote hands-on learning.
  • CBSE Class 12 Political Science Workbook Helps to improve subject-knowledge.
  • CBSE Class 12 Political Science Worksheets encourages classroom activities

CBSE Class 12 Political Science Revision Notes 2020-21 

Political Science Revision notes are important materials while revising the complete syllabus. You should have Class 12 Political Science Revision Notes. These are best to do proper revision before the board exam. It will help you to revise all chapters in an easier way.

The experts have created the notes by analyzing previous years of question papers and Political Science chapters and with the help of this article on CBSE Class 12 Political Science, it will work wonders.

We have covered a detailed guide on CBSE Class 12 Political Science 2020-21. Feel Free to ask any questions in the comment section below.

Leave a Comment