CBSE Class 12 English – Syllabus, Chapter wise Notes, NCERT Solutions

CBSE Class 12 English

CBSE Class 12 English 2020-21: Language is an excellent tool for communication. Without a language, we can communicate only with signs. A language distinguishes the differences and also celebrates the uniqueness of cultures in a country or in a region or in a community.

English has been considered to be the first global Lingua Franca. Nowadays, in the modern world, the English language has become part and parcel of every existing field. It has been an international language of communication, business, science, information technology, entertainment, and so on.

The English language makes an individual literate in today’s world. It is also an essential Subject for CBSE Class 12 Exam. With the excellent command over the language will help you to score the better mark in the board exam and shape your future career.

In this article, we are covering everything related to CBSE Class 12 English Exam.

CBSE Class 12 English 2020-21

You already know the importance of the English language in any career. It is also an essential subject for Class 12. It has the excellent future benefit over my career.

If you see it from the exam point of view, then it is also a scoring subject. With a clear concept of grammar rules, you can quickly solve various grammar questions related to preposition, the voice within a few seconds. So you will get more time for chapter-wise questions. It will help to develop time management skills and score a better mark in the exam.

You must have better command on the subject to boost your communication skills. A good communication skill is always essential to shaping the career in the right direction.

CBSE Class 12 English Books

You should choose the right books to prepare for the English Board exam. By proper preparation with the correct book, you can to score high in any exam.

While selecting the CBSE Class 12 English book, you should not go for any random book. You should be assured that it has covered the latest CBSE English Syllabus. 

CBSE Class 12 English can be divided into three parts.

CBSE Class 12 English Flamingo

You will find the following chapters in CBSE Class 12 English Flamingo Prose

You will find the following chapters inCBSE Class 12 English Flamingo Poetry

CBSE Class 12 English Vistas

You will find the following chapters in CBSE Class 12 English Vistas

CBSE Class 12 English Flamingo

You already know that English is the Lingua franca for verbal communication around the world. After completion of Flamingo, you will have depth command on the language.

Here you will learn about various literary works and comprehend sophisticated vocabulary. You will also be able to develop a thorough understanding of to create meaningful passages.

CBSE Class 12 English Flamingo Prose

This section comprises all-prose from Class 12 Flamingo book for English. Here you will learn the following chapters.

Chapter 1 – The Last Lesson

The chapter ’The last lesson’ written by Alphonse Daudet. Here, the writer has narrated about the year 1870 after the Prussian forces under Bismarck attacked and captured France.

Prussian had captured the French districts of Alsace and Lorraine. The new Prussian rulers had banned the teaching of French in the schools of these two districts and asked French teachers to leave. Now M. Hamel was banned from staying in his school, but he still gave a lesson to his students with utmost devotion and sincerity as ever.

Franz was a student of M. Hamel, who feared French class and M. Hamel’s iron rod. He came to the school that day, thinking he would be punished as he had not learnt his lesson on participles. But after reaching school, he found that Hamel dressed in his beautiful Sunday clothes and the older people of the village sitting quietly on the backbenches.

It was because of the order from Berlin. That day Franz realized the importance of the French for him, and it was his last lesson in French.

The story portrays the sadness of the situation about the feelings of the people when they are not able to learn their own language.

Here you will know about the significance of one’s language in one’s life for the very existence of a race and its safety.

Chapter 2 – Lost Spring

In the section “Lost Spring,” you will know the pitiable condition of poor children are missing the joy of childhood because of the socio-economic situation. These children deny attending the school and forced into labor early in life. Anees Jung has given the voice to eliminate child labor by educating the children and to enforce the laws against child labor by the governments strictly.

The call is to end child exploitation and let the children enjoy the days of the spring that bring joy under their feet. 

Chapter 3 – Deep Water

In this story, Douglas talks about his fear of water and how he finally defeat it with strong will power, courage, hard work, and firm determination.

After taking the courage, the fear vanished. That Shows most of our concerns are baseless. Fear creates risks where there is none.

The writer’s Experiences further confirm the proverbial truth, “Where there is a will, there is away.”

Here you will find below characters and places as given below.

  • Douglas: Narrator of the story
  • YMCA Pool: A swimming pool runs by Young Men’s Christian Association
  • Yakima: Yakima is a US city located about 60 miles southeast of Mount Rainier in Washington.

Chapter 4 – The Rattrap

The story is about a disheartened old peddler who had shown generosity by a young woman. His bitter attitude towards life was changed by her generosity and kindness.

The peddler was fallen upon misfortune and selling rattraps, begging, and thievery. He is very cynical about the world around him and sees the world as merely a “rat trap.” He believes that society tempts us with riches and beautiful things, and when we accept, we are caught in the trap and are left with nothing.

Here you will learn a universal message that the essential goodness in a human being can be awakened through love, respect, kindness, and understanding. It also highlights the human predicament.

Materialistic lifestyles are the traps that most human beings are prone to fall into. Human beings do have a trend to convert themselves from dishonest ways, as does the peddler at the end of the story.

Chapter 5 – Indigo

In this story, Louis describes Gandhi’s struggle for the poor peasants of Champaran. They were the sharecroppers with the British planters.

They had a miserable life and were forced to grow indigo according to an agreement. They had to suffer a great injustice due to the landlord system in Bihar.

Gandhi waged war for about a year against their atrocities and brought justice to the poor peasants.

Chapter 6 – Poets And Pancakes

This chapter has been taken from “My Years with Boss,” written by Asokamitran. Asokamitran worked in Gemini Studios, a very famous film studio of its time. His job was to cut newspaper clippings on various topics and maintain a file of the same.

In fact, the term ‘pancakes’ refers to the brand name of make-up material, which was excessively by the artists of the Gemini Studios. 

Asokamitran talked of the office boy who is actually a grown-up man of forty years who once aspired to be a director but blames Subbu(the number 2 in the studio) for his current state of affairs.

Kothamangelam Subbu, the number two in Gemini studio, is a story in himself. He is very talented, a poet, novelist, actor, and filmmaker. He is an all-rounder and very loyal to the boss.

Asokamitran also tells about the manner in which the legal advisor ruins the career of a talented actress unwittingly. At that time of India, the educated folk took pride in showing their support for Communism, and Gemini Studios was no exception. Later on, he discovers that the poet was, in fact, the editor of the then famous magazine ‘The Encounter.’

Chapter 7 – The Interview

Written by Christopher Sylvester, “The interview” establishes the importance of the new system of interrogation named “Interview,” specifically in the arena of Journalism.

The author also stresses on the fact that the interview has become an indispensable arena in the lives of all classes of people, irrespective of their literacy status.

In the later part of the piece, the author has presented the interview of the renowned author Umberto Eco which has helped readers to take a sneak peek at his literary process.

Chapter 8 – Going Places

The theme of this story is teenage fantasizing and hero worship. The teenagers have unrealistic dreams, especially when their families are not well off, and it is quite natural.

The Socio-economic background plays a leading role in the lives of the youths for choosing a particular profession.

You should know that the act of fantasizing may lead to depressions in case it is beyond our approach. You must note that it is useless to build castles in the air.


  • Sophie: a school going teenager
  • Janie: a friend and classmate of Sophie
  • Geoff: An elder brother of Sophie
  • Derek: a younger brother of Sophie
  • Danny Casey: A young Irish football player
  • Tom Finney: A great football player
  • United: name of the football team
  • Father & mother of Sophie

CBSE Class 12 English Flamingo Poetry

This section comprises all-prose from Class 12 Flamingo book for English. Here you will learn the following chapters.

Chapter 1 My Mother at Sixty-six

Aging is the essential part of human life. A person enters his childhood, experiences full of energy, and dreams of having the luxury of life. Finally, after reaching his old age and encounters death.

The relationship between people becomes stronger in every aspect of life, and they can’t bear separation due to aging. Here, you will see that the poet relates a personal experience. She conveys a common paradox of human relationships and portrays a sensational separation of a mother and a daughter.

She has been able to capture almost all the emotions in the farewell to her beloved mother. Sometimes we do feel sincere sympathy for someone, but we fail to express it in a proper manner.

Chapter 2 An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum

In this poem, Stephen Spender deals with the theme of social injustice and class inequalities.

He is offerings the situation by talking of two different and incompatible worlds. The world of the rich and the civilized has nothing to do with the world of the poor. The gap between these two worlds shows social differences and class dissimilarities.

Chapter 3 Keeping Quiet

The theme of the poem is basically an anti-war. Here the poet has explained the violence, cruelty to animals, and plight of manual workers.

The poet has also provided a straightforward solution to many of our social, political, and religious problems. The answer is self-introspection.

If it is implemented, it will be the first significant step towards uniting people. The second step is that everyone should be aware of and examine what is wrong and who is the wrongdoer.

This will cleanse every heart and ennoble all people.

Chapter 4 A Thing of Beauty

The poem is based on a Greek legend in Endymion. Endymion was a handsome young shepherd and poet who lived on Mount Latmos. He had a vision of Cynthia, the moon goddess.

The beauty comes in different forms– a tale, a poem, a play, a lovely object of nature, or the heavenly bodies. It soothes our spirits and gives us good health, sound sleep, and mental peace. It removes sadness from our lives and gives an everlasting joy.

Chapter 5 A Roadside Stand

A roadside stand is a poem written by the highly-acclaimed poet, Robert Frost, who is regarded for his realistic depiction of rural life using which he touched several difficult social themes of the time.

In this poem, the poet highlights the plight of the deprived villagers who are aching for some money to lead a prosperous life. The poet is also very critical of the way the city folks treat these villagers who are selling their locally produced goods and whizzing past them without a sense of empathy.

Chapter 6 Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers

Adrienne Rich was grown up in a wealthy family. Rich thought that she was dominated by her father’s strong personality.

He guided her as a young poet. He expected her to write her poems his way. When Rich was growing up, she observed that men dominated women, and they were supposed to become dutiful wives in their adult lives.

Here you will find the picture of marriage Rich drew in this poem. At the heart of the poem is an image of a husband who controls and frightens his wife. She wrote a lot of poems based on everyday experience.

Her common featured topic was the tension of the women due to being dominated by their husbands. In ‘Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers’ Rich is the weakness of Aunt Jennifer’s situation and authority of Jennifer’s husband in their marriage.

CBSE Class 12 English Vistas

Vistas is a supplementary reader in English (Core course) for Class XII, based on NCERT Pattern. The primary purpose of this book is to make extensive reading an enjoyable experience, lead you to appreciate some of the best examples of writing, and understand the social milieu they live in.

You will be aware of literary works and comprehend sophisticated vocabulary. You will also be able to develop a thorough understanding of to create meaningful passages.

Chapter 1 – The Third Level

The Third Level chapter is based on a psychological story. It refers to the subway at the grand railway station to Galesburg. This subway was an interconnection between the narrator’s harsh reality and fantasy.

The third level was a way of escape for Charley; life in the modern world is full of insecurities worries and stress. It takes Charley to a different world which his friend also calls “a walking dream wish fulfillment”.

Here you will find about Charley’s escapist tendency. The third level was started because of Sam’s letter written on July 18, 1984.

Chapter 2 – The Tiger King

The story ‘The Tiger King’ is explaining the pride and stubbornness of those who were in power. The writer has talked about the days of autocratic and eccentric kings.

These kings were just the puppet of the British rulers. They used to fear the British. Many times they these rulers were not interested in serving the people and working for the welfare of the public.

They disobeyed all laws and modified them to suit their selfish interests and desire. The Maharaja of Pratibandapuram tried to contradict his written fate. The chief astrologer had predicted that the cause of his death would be a tiger.

So he started doing the campaign of tiger-hunting, and it was very successful. All his strategies and wise plans worked until he killed 99 tigers. But the hundredth tiger eluded him till his death. The irony of fate brings quite an unexpected end of the Maharaja.

The last tiger he thought to be dead survived. The hundredth tiger, which caused his death, was not a ferocious beast of blood and flesh. It was a wooden tiger. One of the slivers of wood pierced his right hand and caused infection and a suppurating sore. It ultimately led to his death.

Chapter 3 – Journey to the end of the Earth

The writer visited Antarctica, the coldest, the driest, and windiest continent in the world, aboard the Russian research vessel, Akademik Shokalskiy.

The journey, beginning at Chennai, passed through many areas, geographical, legal, ecological, and temporal. The writer’s first reaction to the continent was of relief, followed by wonder at its vastness, seclusion, and geological history.

Before human evolution, Antarctica was part of a vast tropical landmass called the Gondwana land, which flourished 500 million years ago. Biological (flora and fauna), geological (changing continents), and geographical (climatic) changes occurred, and Antarctica separated and moved away evolving into what it is today.

A visit to Antarctica gave the writer a deeper understanding of fold mountains, the earth’s history, ecology, and environment. The writer felt unsettled in two weeks’ time not only because she came from a much hotter place, but also because all features of human civilization were absent from an already desolate landscape.

The long summers, the silence is broken occasionally by cracking ice sheets, and avalanches, the blue whales and icebergs, all contribute to an ecological implication that the future for humans isn’t right.

Chapter 4 – The Enemy

The story highlights how a Japanese doctor saves the life of an American prisoner of war and rises above narrow national prejudices.

He risks his honor, career, position, and life by sheltering a war prisoner of the enemy camp and saving his life. The author has beautifully portrayed the conflict in the doctor’s mind as a private individual and as a citizen with a sense of national loyalty.

‘The Enemy’ gives the message that humanism transcends all human-made prejudices and barriers. Dr. Sadao upholds the ethics of the medical profession in creating an enemy. The story is a great lesson of peace, love, sympathy, fellow feeling, and humanism.

Chapter 5 – Should Wizard hit Mommy

Little children love to hear stories from their parents at bedtime. Many a time, parents make up stories out of their own head.

Little children take them as literally true. But as the child grows up, he becomes enthusiastic about learning new things. He starts to ask many questions. He wants to know everything happening around him. He wants to see the reason behind things.

Some parents think this questioning of the child as an insult, and they try to discourage it. They want the child to accept as accurate whatever they tell him.

A father tells his child a story out of his head. The child interrupts him a number of times. She raises questions whenever she feels that the story is wrong. The father feels caught in an ugly middle position.

He does not know whether he should accept the child’s version or stick to his own. Thus the story raises a moral issue and leaves it to the reader to resolve it.

Chapter 6 – On the face of It

Here you will learn about the sad world of the physically impaired. It is not the actual pain or inconvenience caused by a physical impairment that trouble a disabled man but the attitude of the people around him.

Two physically impaired people, Mr. Lamb with a tin leg and Derry with a burnt face strike a bond of friendship. Derry is described as a young boy shy, withdrawn, and defiant. People tell him inspiring stories to console him, and no one will ever kiss him except his mother that too on the other side of his face. Mentions about a woman telling that only a mother can love such a look.

Mr. Lamb revives the almost dead feelings of Derry towards life. He motivates him to think positively about life, changes his mindset about people and things. How a man locked himself as he was the scared-a picture, fell off the wall, and got killed.

It is ironic that when he searches a new foothold to live happily, he finds Mr. Lamb dead.

In this way, the play depicts the heart-rendering life of physically disabled people with their loneliness, aloofness, and alienation. But at the same time, it is almost an accurate account of the people who don’t let a person live happily.

Chapter 7 – Evans Tries an O-level

The theme of the story ‘Evans Tries an O Level’ is a talented escape planned by a convict on the pretense of taking a language exam in prison. The convict, even after being caught, still has the last laugh and makes his escape.

The story also brings to light the fact that one should not underestimate one’s opponent. The police officers were thorough in their preparations, but they underestimated Evans and his power to give them the slip.

Chapter 8 – Memories of Childhood

The chapter contains two extracts from two different autobiographical episodes from the lives of two women – Zitkala Sa and Bama. Both are victims of social discrimination. Zitkala Sa is the victim of racial discrimination, whereas Bama is the victim of caste discriminations.

In both the extracts, the writers look back on their childhood and reflect on their relationship with the mainstream culture, which illtreated them when they were a child. But both the accounts are not simple narratives of oppression. Instead they reveal how oppression was resisted by both the narrators in their own ways.

Zitkala-Sa and Bama were very young but not so young that they would not understand the evil scheme of the mainstream culture. The injustice of their society did not escape their notice also. Their bitter childhood experience sowed the seeds of rebellion in them earlier on.

CBSE Class 12 English Grammar

Grammar is the way we arrange words to make proper sentences. The NCERT CBSE Class 12 English syllabus for Writing Skills carries 30 marks and comprises the following:

  • Advertisements and notices, designing or drafting posters, writing formal and informal invitations, and replies. One question out of the two Short Answer Questions – 4 Marks
  • Letters based on verbal/visual input – One question out of the two Long Answer Questions to be answered in 120-150 words – 6 Marks
  • Letter types include
    • Business or official letters (for making inquiries, registering complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and sending replies),
    • Letters to the editor (giving suggestions or opinion on issues of public interest), and
    • Application for a job
  • Two compositions based on visual and verbal Input may be descriptive or argumentative in nature, such as an article/a debate/ a speech or a report- Two Very Long Answer Questions containing internal choice, to be answered in 150-200 words. (10×2=20 Marks)

You should have knowledge of various grammar rules to score better marks easily and also helpful to gain command over the language.

In the grammar section, you have to read and know the following topics.

  • Pronouns
  • Adjectives
  • Adverbs
  • Verbs
  • Conjunctions
  • Prepositions
  • Sentence, Clause, Phrase
  • Tenses
  • Reported Speech
  • Punctuation
  • Synonyms
  • Antonyms
  • Modals

CBSE Class 12 English Syllabus

You should have the latest CBSE 12th English Syllabus to prepare for the exam properly. Here you will get the detailed CBSE Class 12 Syllabus for English along with section-wise marks distribution.

You can create a study plan based on the syllabus and cover all topics before the exam.

Here you can check CBSE Class 12 English Syllabus along with the marks distribution:

 CBSE 12th Syllabus For English 

Section – A


 20 marks

Section – B

 Writing Skills with Grammar

 30 marks

Section – C

 Literature Textbook and Extended Reading Text

 30 marks

Total  –  80 marks

  • Full Marks for the English exam: 80 marks.
  • Internal Assessment: 20 marks.

CBSE Class 12 English Solutions

You must have CBSE Class 12 English solutions to prepare the 12th Exam correctly. You will get the complete brief explanation for every single chapter wise exercise. You will also find various Miscellaneous Exercise questions from every exercise.

CBSE Class 12 English NCERT Solutions

You can understand chapters better by referring NCERT Class 12 English Solutions. They have covered all questions from all exercises based on the latest NCERT pattern.

NCERT experts have created the 12th English solutions such a way that any student can easily understand without having depth concept in the section.

CBSE Class 12 English Question Paper

CBSE Class 12 English Exam Question Papers let you know about the exam and type of questions coming in the exam.

You will understand the exam pattern more accurately way after solving more question papers of CBSE Class 12 English. You will also know the time management and analysis of your preparation level.

You should have the following materials to find the complete question papers related to CBSE Class 12th English Exam,

CBSE Class 12 English Sample Question Papers

Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) releases sample question papers and marking schemes for all subjects of CBSE Class 12 every year. By solving these sample papers, you will have a preview of the board question paper.

Analyzing the CBSE sample papers, you can know about the pattern of the question paper and the format of questions to be asked in the board exam. 

CBSE Class 12 English Previous year Papers

After solving the previous year’s English Papers, you will get an idea about various important topics which are generally asked in the board exam. It will also help you to build concepts on various types of questions.

You can analyze your preparation level and identify conceptual weaknesses. You can easily cover those before the board exam.

CBSE Class 12 English Question Bank

The experts have designed the CBSE Class 12 English question bank is by experts by analyzing the chapter wise exercise and the previous exams.

You will find multiple questions for every single topic. By solving many questions, you can develop the depth concept in every single section of Class 12 English.

CBSE Class 12 English Worksheets

You can enhance your concept and also improve your chance to score better in Board Exam after solving CBSE Class 12 English Worksheet.

Here you will find chapter-wise various important questions.

We have covered all the Class 12 English important questions and answers in the worksheets included in the latest CBSE NCERT Syllabus.

 We have covered all the Class 12 English important questions and answers in the worksheets included in the latest CBSE NCERT Syllabus.

CBSE Class 12 English Revision Notes

The CBSE 12th English revision notes are a special piece of study material that you can use properly. The notes are prepared by some of the Experts. All the CBSE Class 12 English revision notes are prepared by analyzing previous years of question papers and syllabus in mind. 

We have covered a detailed guide on CBSE Class 12 English. Feel Free to ask any questions in the comment section below.

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