BPUT 6th Semester B.Tech Mechanical Engineering Syllabus
PRODUCTION AND OPERATION MANAGEMENT
Objective: The course aims at acquainting all engineering graduates irrespective of their specializations the basic issues and tools of managing production and operations functions of an organization.
1. Operations Function in an Organization, Manufacturing Vrs Service Operations, System view of Operations, Strategic Role of Operations, Operations Strategies for Competitive Advantage, Operations Quality and Productivity Focus, Meeting Global Challenges of Production and Operations Imperatives. (3 Hours)
2. Designing Products, Services and Processes: New Product Design- Product Life Cycle, Product
Development Process, Process Technology : Project, Jobshop, Batch, Assembly Line, Continuous Manufacturing; Process Technology Life Cycle, Process Technology Trends, FMS, CIM, CAD, CAM; Design for Services, Services Process Technology. (4 Hours)
3. Work Study: Methods Study- Techniques of Analysis, recording, improvement and
standardization; Work Measurement : Work Measurement Principles using Stopwatch Time Study, Predetermined Motion Time Standards and Work Sampling, Standard Time Estimation. (4 Hours)
4. Location and Layout Planning : Factor Influencing Plant and Warehouse Locations, Impact ofLocation on cost and revenues. Facility Location Procedure and Models : Qualitative Models, Breakeven Analysis, location Model, centroid method.Layout Planning: Layout Types : Process Layout, Product Layout, Fixed Position Layout Planning, block diagramming, line balancing, computerized layout planning- overview.
Group Technology (4 Hours)
5. Forecasting : Principles and Method, Moving Average, weighted Moving Average, ExponentialSmoothing, Winter’s Method for Seasonal Demand, Forecasting Error.(4 Hours)
6. Manufacturing Planning and Control : The Framework and Components : Aggregate Planning,
Master Production Scheduling, Rough-cut-Capacity Planning, Material Requirements Planning, Capacity Requirements Planning. (5 Hours)
7. Sequencing and Scheduling : Single Machine Sequencing : Basics and Performance EvaluationCriteria, Methods for Minimizing Mean Flow Time, Parallel Machines : Minimization ofMakespan, Flowshop sequencing : 2 and 3 machines cases : Johnson’s Rule and JobshopScheduling : Priority dispatching Rules. (3 Hours)
8. Inventory Control : Relevant Costs, Basic EOQ Model, Model with Quantity discount, Economic Batch Quantity, Periodic and Continuous Review Systems, Safety Stock, Reorder Point and Order Quantity Calculations. ABC Analysis. (4 Hours)
9. Modern Trends in Manufacturing : Just in Time (JIT) System : Shop Floor Control By Kanbans, Total Quality Management, Total Productive Maintenance, ISO 9000, Quality Circle, Kaizen, Poka
Yoke, Supply Chain Management. (4 Hours)
1. S.N.Chary, “Production and Operations Management”, Tata McGraw Hill.
2. R. Paneerselvam, “Production and Operations Management, Prentice Hall of India.
3. Aswathappa & Bhatt – Production & Operations Management, HPH.
4. Gaither & Frazier – Operations Management, Cengage Publication
5. Russell & Taylor – Operations Management, PHI Publication
6. Chase, Aquilanno, Jacob & Agarwal – Operations Management, TMH Publication.
7. E.E. Adam and R.J. Ebert “Production and Operations Management”, Prentice Hall of India
REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING
MODULE I (12 HOURS)
1. Air Refrigeration System : Introduction, Unit of refrigeration, Coefficient of performance, Reversed Carnot Cycle, Temperature limitations, maximum COP, Bell Coleman air cycle, Simple Air Cycle System for Air-craft with problems.
2. Vapour Compression System : Analysis of theoretical vapour compression cycle, Representation of cycle on T – S and p – h diagram, Simple saturation cycle, sub-cooled cycle and super-heated cycle, Effect of suction and discharge pressure on performance, Actual vapour compression cycle. Problem illustration and solution.
3. Multi-stage compression and Multi-evaporator systems : Different arrangements of compressors and inter-cooling, Multistage compression with inter-cooling, Multi-
evaporator system, Dual compression system. Simple problems
MODULE II ( 12 HOURS)
4. Vapour Absorption System : Simple Ammonia – absorption system, Improved absorption system, Analysis of vapour absorption system (Specifically of analyzing coloumn and rectifier), Electrolux / Three fluid system, Lithium-bromide-water vapour absorption system, comparison of absorption system with vapour compression system. Simple Problems and solution.
5. Thermoelectric Refrigeration: Basics and Principle. Defining the figure of Merit. (No Problem)
6. Refrigerants ; Classification of refrigerants and its degignation- Halocarbon (compounds, Hydrocarbons, Inorganic compounds, Azeotropes, Properties of refrigerants, comparison of
common refrigerants, uses of important refrigerants, Brines. Alternative refrigerants (Organic and inorganic compounds).
MODULE III (10 HOURS)
7. Psychrometrics : Properties of air-vapour mixture, Law of water vapour-air mixture, Enthalpy of moisture, Psychrometric chart, simple heating and cooling, Humidification, De-humidification, Mixture of air streams. Review question and discussions
Requirements of comfort air conditioning: Oxygen supply, Heat removal, moisture removal, air motion, purity of air, Thermodynamics of human body, comfort and comfort chart,
effective temperature, factors governing optimum effective temperature
MODULE IV (06 HOURS)
8. Air Conditioning System: Process in air conditioning : Summer air conditioning, Winter air conditioning and year round air conditioning, Cooling load calculations. Review question and discussions.
1. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by R.C. Arora , PHI Publication
2. Refrigeration and Air conditioning by C.P. Arora, Tata McGraw Hill.
3. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning by S.C. Arora and S. Domkundwar, Dhanpat Rai & Sons.
Chapters : 3,4,5,6,7,11,16,17,19,20
4. Refrigeration and Airconditioning Data book by Manohar Prasad
1. Refrigeration and Air conditioning by P.L. Ballney, Khanna Publishers.
2. Refrigeration and Air conditioning by Manohar Prasad, New Age international publishers.
PRACTICAL (REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING LAB)
1. Determination of C.O. P on vapour compression system
2. Determination of C.O. P on vapour absorption system
3. Performance test on Air conditioning test rig (Window type)
4. Performance test on Air conditioning test rig (Duct type)
5. Determination of C.O.P of ice plant
6. Determination of C.O.P of Heat Pump
7. Performance analysis in an experimental cooling tower.
PRODUCT DESIGN AND PRODUCTION TOOLING
MODULE – I (14 HOURS)
Product Design-Product design considerations, product planning, product development, value analysis, product specification. Role of computer in product design.Process Planning – selection of processes, machines and tools. Design of sequence of operations, Time & cost estimation
MODULE – II (14 HOURS)
Forging design- allowances, die design for drop forging, design of flash and gutter, upset forging die design.
Sheet metal working- Design consideration for shearing, blanking piercing, deep drawing operation, Die design for sheet metal operations, progressive and compound die, strippers , stops, strip layout.
MODULE – III (16 HOURS)
Design of jigs and fixtures, principle of location and clamping, clamping methods, locating methods, Drill Jig bushing, Indexing type drilling Jig.Design of single point cutting tool, broach and form tool. Tooling design for turret lathe and automats. Design of limit gauges.
TEXT BOOKS :
1. Product Design & Manufacturing, A K Chitale, R C Gupta, Eastern Economy Edition, PHI.
2. Product Design & Development, Karl T Ulrich, Steven D Eppinger, Anita Goyal, Mc Graw Hill.
3. A Textbook of Production Engineering, P.C. Sharma, S. Chand & Co
1. Fundamentals of Tool Engineering design, S.K. Basu, S.N. Mukherjee, R. Mishra, Oxford & IBH Publishing co.
2. Technology of Machine Tools, Krar, Gill, Smid, Tata Mc Graw Hill
3. Jigs & Fixture Design, Edwrd G Hoffman, Cengae Learning.
COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING & FMS
MODULE – I (14 HOURS)
Fundamentals of Manufacturing and Automation: Production systems, automation principles and its strategies; Manufacturing industries; Types of production function in manufacturing; Automation principles and strategies, elements of automated system, automation functions and level of automation; product/production relationship, Production concept and mathematical models for production rate, capacity, utilization and availability; Cost-benefit analysis.
Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Basics of product design, CAD/CAM, Concurrent engineering, CAPP and CIM.
MODULE – II (14 HOURS)
Industrial Robotics: Robot anatomy, control systems, end effectors, sensors and actuators; fundamentals of NC technology, CNC, DNC, NC part programming; Robotic programming, Robotic languages, work cell control, Robot cleft design, types of robot application, Processing operations, Programmable Logic controllers: Parts of PLC, Operation and application of PLC, Fundamentals of Net workings; Material Handling and automated storage and retrieval systems, automatic data capture, identification methods, bar code and other technologies.
MODULE – III (16 HOURS)
Introduction to manufacturing systems: Group Technology and cellular manufacturing, Part families, Part classification and coding, Production flow analysis, Machine cell design, Applications and Benefits of Group Technology.
Flexible Manufacturing system: Basics of FMS, components of FMS, FMS planning and implementation, flexibility, quantitative analysis of flexibility, application and benefits of FMS. Computer Aided Quality Control: objectives of CAQC, QC and CIM, CMM and Flexible Inspection systems.
TEXT BOOKS :
1. Automation, Production Systems and Computer Integrated Manufacturing: M.P. Groover, Pearson Publication.
2. Automation, Production systems & Computer Integrated Manufacturing, M.P Groover, PHI.
3. CAD/CAM/CIM, P.Radhakrishnan, S.Subramanyam and V.Raju, New Age International
4. Flexible Manufacturing Systems in Practice, J Talavage and R.G. Hannam, Marcell Decker
1. CAD/CAM Theory and Practice, Zeid and Subramanian, TMH Publication
2. CAD/CAM Theory and Concepts, K. Sareen and C. Grewal, S Chand publication
3. Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing, L. Narayan, M. Rao and S. Sarkar, PHI.
4. Principles of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, S.K.Vajpayee, PHI
5. Computer Integrated Manufacturing, J.A.Rehg and H.W.Kraebber, Prentice Hall
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND COMPTER AIDED MANUFACTURING (CAD&CAM)
MODULE – I (14 HOURS)
Fundamentals of CAD: Design process, Applications of computer for design, Creating the Manufacturing Database, The Design workstation, Graphical Terminal, Operator input Devices, Plotters and other devices, Central Processing Unit, Memory types.
MODULE – II (14 HOURS)
Computer graphics Software and Database: Configuration, Graphics Packages, Constructing the Geometry, Transformations of geometry, Database structure and content, Wire frame versus solid modeling, Constraint– Based modeling, Geometric commands, Display control commands, Editing.
MODULE III (14 HOUR)
CAM – Numerical Control and NC Part Programming: Numerical Control, Numerical Control elements, NC Cordinate system, NC motion control system, Manual and Computer Aided programming, the APT language, Miscellaneous Functions, M, Advanced part-programming methods. Problems with conventional NC, NC technology: CNC, DNC, Combined DNC/ CNC system, Adaptive control manufacturing systems, Computer Integrated Manufacturing system, Machine Tools and related equipment, Materials Handling system: AGV, Robots, Lean manufacturing.
TEXT BOOKS :
1. CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing, M.P.Goover and E.W.Zimmers, Jr., Pearson.
2. CAD & CAM, J Srinivas, Oxford University Press
1. CAD/CAM Theory and Practice, Zeid and Subramanian, TMH
2. CAD/CAM Principles, Practice and Manufacturing Management, McMahon and Browne, Pearson Education
3. CAD/CAM Concepts and Applications, C.R.Alavala, PHI
4. Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing, Lalit Narayan, Mallkarjuna Rao and Sarcar, PHI
5. CAD/CAM Theory and Conepts, K.Sareen and C.Grewal, S.Chand Publication
6. CAD/CAM/CAE, N.K.Chougule, Scitech
MODULE I (14 HOURS)
Main units of automobile chassis and body, different systems of the automobile, description of the main parts of the engine, motor vehicle act.
Power for Propulsion
Resistance to motion, rolling resistance, air resistance, gradient resistance, power required for propulsion, tractive effort and traction, road performance curves.
Hydraulic breaking system, breaking of vehicles when applied to rear, front and all four wheel, theory of internal shoe brake, design of brake lining and brake drum, different arrangement of brake shoes, servo and power brakes.
MODULE II (12 HOURS)
Layout of the transmission system, main function of the different components of the transmission system, transmission system for two wheel and four wheel drives. Hotchkiss and torque tube drives.
Sliding mesh, constant mesh and synchromesh gearbox, design of 3 speed and 4 speed gear box, over drive, torque converter, semi and fully automatic transmission.
Hookes joint, propeller shaft, differential, rear axles, types of rear axles, semi floating, there quarter floating and full floating types.
MODULE III (14 HOURS)
Front wheel Geometry and steering systems: Camber, castor, kingpin inclination, toe-in and toe-out, centre point steering condition for true rolling, components of steering mechanism, power steering.
Electrical system of an automobile: Starting system, charging system, ignition system, other electrical system.
Electrical vehicles: History, electrical vehicles and the environment pollution, description of electric vehicle, operational advantages, present EV performance and applications, battery for EV, Battery types and fuel cells, Solar powered vehicles, hybrid vehicles.
1. Automobile Mechanics , N.K.Giri, Khanna publishers
2. Automobile Engineering, K.M. Gupta, VolI & II, Umesh Publication
REFERENCE BOOKS :
1. Automotive mechanics: William h. Crouse and Donald L. Anglin, TMH
2. The motor vehicle, Newton and Steeds
3. Automobile Mechanics, J. Heitner, East West Press
4. Automobile Engineering, Jain and Asthana, Tata McGraw Hill
5. Automobile Engineering, K.K.Ramalingam, Scitech
6. Automobile Engineering, Vol. I & II, Kirpal Singh, Standard Publications
7. A Text Book of Automobile Engineering, R.K.Rajput, Laxmi Publishers
NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES
MODULE I (6 CLASSES)
1. Energy, Ecology and environment: Introduction, Classification of Energy Resources, Common Forms of Energy, Energy Chain, Advantages and Disadvantages of Conventional Energy Sources, Importance and Salient Features of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Environmental and ecological Aspects of Energy use, Environment-Economy-Energy and Sustainable Development, World Energy Status, Energy Scenario in India.
Energy Conservation and Energy Storage: Salient Features of “Energy Conservation Act, 2001”, Various Aspects of Energy Conservation, Principles of Energy Conservation, General Electrical ECO’s (Energy Conservation Opportunities),
MODULE II (15 CLASSES)
2. Solar Energy: Basics, The Sun as a Source of Energy, Sun, Earth Radiation Spectrums, Extraterrestrial and Terrestrial Radiations, Spectral Energy Distribution of Solar Radiation, Depletion of Solar Radiation, Measurements of Solar Radiation, Solar Time (Local Apparent Time), Solar Radiation Geometry, Solar Day Length, Empirical Equations for Estimating Solar Radiation( Hourly Global, Diffuse and Beam Radiations) on Horizontal Surface Under loudless and Cloudy Skies, Solar Radiation on Inclined Plane Surface only (empirical relations for numerical)
3. Solar Thermal Systems: Solar Collectors: Flat plate and concentric collectors, Solar Water Heater, Solar Passive Space – Heating and Cooling Systems, Solar Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems, Solar Cookers, Solar Furnaces, Solar Green House, Solar Dryer, Solar Distillation (or Desalination of Water ), Solar Photovoltaic Systems: Solar Cell Fundamentals, Solar Cell Characteristics, Solar Cell Classification, Solar Cell, Module, Panel and Array Construction, Solar PV Systems, Solar PV Applications.
MODULE III (08 CLASSES)
4. Wind Energy: Origin of Winds, Nature of Winds, Wind Turbine Siting, Major Applications of Wind Power, Wind Turbine Types and Their Construction, Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS), Effects of Wind Speed and Grid Condition (System Integration),
5. Biomass Energy: Photosynthesis Process, Usable Forms of Biomass, their Composition and Fuel Properties, Biomass Resources , Biomass Conversion Technologies, Urban Waste to Energy Conversion, Biomass Gasification ,Biomass Liquefaction, Biomass to EthanolProduction, Biogas Production from Waste Biomass, Energy Farming.MODULE IV (08 CLASSES)
6. Geothermal Energy: Applications, Origin and Distribution of Geothermal Energy, Types of a. Geothermal Resource.
7. Ocean Energy: Tidal Energy, Wave Energy, Ocean Thermal Energy8. Fuel Cell Technology: Types, Principle of operation, Advantages and disadvantages.
1. Solar Energy Technology: Sukhatme and Nayak, TMH
2. Renewable Energy Sources and Emerging Technology: D.P.Kothari and etal., PHI
3. Renewable Energy Sources & Conversion Technology: N.K.Bansal, Manfred Kleenman & Michael Meliss, TMH Publication.
4. Non Conventional Energy Sources: B.M Khan, TMH Publications
1. Renewable Energy Sources:Fundamentals & Applications:G.N.Tiwari & M.K.Ghosal, Narosa Pub
2. Non Conventional Energy Resources: D.S. Chauhan and S.K.Srivastava, New Age International
3. Non Conventional Energy Sources: H.P.Garg
4. Non-Conventional Energy Systems: G.D.Rai, Khanna publications
5. Renewable Energy, Godfrey Boyle, Oxford University Press
POWER PLANT ENGINEERING
MODULE- I (8 HRS)
Different sources (Conventional and non-conventional) of energy and the principle of power generation only, Types of power plant and site selection, overall view of a steam power plant.
2. STEAM GENERATOR
Fossil fuel steam generators, classification, circulation in water tube boilers, Modern high pressure water tube boilers( both sub critical and super critical), Boiler mounting and accessories, Combustion equipment: air supply systems (Natural and Mechanical Draught Systems). Pulverized coal burning systems and Basics of Fluidized bed combustion, Feed
water treatment (Necessity & general consideration only). Boiler performance calculations. MODULE – II (10HRS)
3. FLOW THROUGH NOZZLES
Types of nozzles and their area of application & related calculation, critical pressure & chocked flow, super saturated flow. Effect of friction and nozzle efficiency
4. STEAM TURBINES
Turbine types, Variation of Pressure and Velocity in different types of turbines, Simple impulse Turbines, Flow through turbine blades and velocity diagram, Pressure – compounded impulse turbines and Velocity compounded impulse turbines. Turbine power and related calculations.
MODULE – III (10HRS)
5. REACTION TURBINES
Reaction turbines Flow through blades and velocity diagram, degrees of reaction, Parsons turbine, power and related calculations, Blade height calculations, Losses in steam turbines, Reheat factor & condition line, Governing of turbines.
6. STEAM CONDENSER & CIRCULATING WATER SYSTEMS
Types, Surface condenser, Performance calculation, Air removal methods, Vacuum & vacuum efficiency. Cooling towers.(types, principle of operation and performance)
MODULE – IV (8HRS)
7. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
Introduction, Nuclear fuels, Nuclear fission, Reactor components, & materials and classification,, Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Pressurized water Reactor (PWR),CANDU Reactor, Gas cooled Reactors, Liquid metal fast breeder Reactor. Heavy water Reactors. Waste disposal and Safety of Nuclear power plant
8. ECONOMICS OF POWER PLANT
Basic definitions, cost of electrical energy( Fixed cost and operating cost), Types of tariff, Types of loads( typical load curves), Economic Load sharing
1. Power plant Engineering ; – By P.K. Nag (2nd edition) TMH
2. Power Plant Engineering by Arora and Domkundwar, Dhanpat Rai publications
1. Power Plant Engineering by Yadav
2. Power Plant Engineering by Rajput
3. Power plant technology : By E.I. Wakil TMH
4. Power Plant Engineering by C.Elanchezhian, Sarvanakumar, Vijayramnath, IK International Publishing house Pvt Ltd
ADVANCED FLUID MECHANICS
MODULE I (08 HRS.)
Concept of continuum and definition of a fluid. Body and surface forces, stress tensor, Scalar and vector fields, Eulerian and Lagrangian description of flow. Motion of fluid element – translation, rotation and vorticity; strain rate tensor, continuity equation, stream function and velocity potential.
MODULE II (10 HRS.)
Transport theorems, constitutive equations, derivation of Navier Stokes equations for compressible flow. Exact solutions of Navier Stokes equations : plane Poiseuille flow
and Couette flow, Hagen-Poiseuille flow, flow between two concentric rotating cylinders, Stoke’s first and second problem, Hiemenz flow, flow near a rotating disk, flow in convergent- divergent channels. Slow viscous flow: Stokes and Oseen’s approximation,
MODULE III (10 HRS.)
Theory of hydrodynamic lubrication. Boundary layer: derivation, exact solutions, Blasius, Falkner Skan, series solution and numerical solutions. Approximate methods. Momentum integral method.
MODULE IV (08 HRS.)
Two dimensional and axisymmetric jets.Description of turbulent flow, velocity correlations, Reynold’s stresses, Prandtl’s Mixing Length Theory, Karman’s velocity defect law, universal velocity distribution.
1. Advanced Fluid Mechanics, Som and Biswas, Tata McGraw Hill
1. Fluid Mechanics, A.K.Mohanty, PHI
2. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, Schlitching
3. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Shaughnessy, Oxford University Press
4. Fluid Mechanics:-Frank M .White, TMH
5. Fluid Mechnics:- Cengel and Cimbala, TMH
MECHANICS OF SOLID
MODULE – I (10 LECTURES)
1. Load, Stress, Principle of St.Venant, Principle of Superposition, Strain, Hooke’s law, Modulus of Elasticity, Stress-Strain Diagrams, Working Stress, Factor of safety, Strain energy in tension and compression, Resilience, Impact loads,
Analysis of Axially Loaded Members : Composite bars in tension and compression – temperature stresses in composite rods, Statically indeterminate problems.Shear stress, Complimentary shear stress, Shear strain, Modulus of rigidity, Poisson’s ratio,
Bulk Modulus, Relationship between elastic constants.
2. Members in Biaxial State of Stress :Stresses in thin cylinders, thin spherical shells under internal pressure – wire winding of thin cylinders. Analysis of Biaxial Stress. Plane stress, Principal stress, Principal plane,Mohr’s Circle for Biaxial Stress.
MODULE – II (11 Lectures)
3. Strain Deformation :Two dimensional state of strain, Mohr’s circle for strain, Principal strains and principal axes of strain measurements, Calculation of principal stresses from principal strains.
4. Shear Force and Bending Moment for Simple Beams
Shear force and bending moment. Types of load and Types of support. Support reactions, Relationship between bending moment and shear force, Point of inflection. Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams.
5. Simple Bending of Beams :
Theory of simple bending of initially straight beams, Bending stresses, Shear stresses in
bending, Distribution of normal and shear stress, beams of two materials, Composite beams.
MODULE – III (8 LECTURES)
6. Deflection of Beams :Differential equation of the elastic line, Slope and deflection of beams by integration method and area – moment method.
7. Theory of Columns:Eccentric loading of a short strut, Long columns, Euler’s column formula, Lateral buckling,Critical Load, Slenderness ratio
MODULE – IV (7 LECTURES)
8. Torsion in solid and hollow circular shafts, Twisting moment, Strain energy in shear and torsion, strength of solid and hollow circular shafts. Stresses due to combined bending and torsion, Strength of shafts in combined bending and twisting.
9. Close – Coiled helical springs.
1. Elements of Strength of Materials by S.P.Timoshenko and D.H.Young, Affiliated East-West Press
2. Strength of Materials by G. H. Ryder, Macmillan Press
3. Strength of Materials by James M. Gere and Barry J. Goodno, Cengage Learning
1. Mechanics of Materials by Beer and Johnston, Tata McGraw Hill
2. Mechanics of Materials by R.C.Hibbeler, Pearson Education
3. Mechanics of Materials by William F.Riley, Leroy D.Sturges and Don H.Morris, Wiley Student Edition
4. Mechanics of Materials by James M. Gere, Thomson Learning
5. Engineering Machanics of Solids by Egor P. Popov, Prentice Hall of India
6. Strength of Materials by S.S.Rattan, Tata Mc Graw Hill
7. Strength of Materials by R.Subramaniam, Oxford University Press
8. Strength of Materials by Sadhu Singh, Khanna Publishers
FLUID POWER AND TURBOMACHINERY
Module I (12 hours)
Introduction to fluid power, Advantages of fluid power, Application of fluid power system. Types of fluid power systems, Properties of hydraulic fluids and pnumeatics. Advantages and Disadvantages of Fluid control, Types of Hydraulic Fluids, physical, chemical and thermal properties of hydraulic fluids, selection of hydraulic fluid, fluid flow fundamentals. Hydraulic Pumps and Motors: Basic Types and constructions, ideal pump and motor analysis, Performance curves and parameters Introduction to Turbomachines. Classification of Turbomachines. Second Law of Thermo dynamics – turbine/compressor work, Nozzle/diffuser work. Fluid equations – continuity, Euler’s, Bernoulli’s equation and its applications. Expansion and compression processes, Reheat Factor, Preheat Factor. Euler’s Equation of Energy Transfer, vane congruent flow, influence of relative circulation, thickness of vanes, number of vanes on velocity triangles, slip factor, Stodola, Stanitz and Balje’s slip factor. Suction pressure and net positive suction head. Phenomena of cavitation in pumps. Concept of specific speed, Shape number. Axial, Radial and Mixed Flow Machines. Similarity laws.
Module II (10 hours)
Flow through Axial flow fans. Principles of Axial fan and propeller. Application of fans for air circulation and ventilation. Stage pressure rise and work done. Slip stream and Blade Element theory for propellers. Performance and characteristics of Axial fans.
Module III (10 hours)
Flow through Centrifugal compressors. Stage velocity triangles, specific work. forward, radial and backward swept vanes. Enthalpy entropy diagram, degree of reaction, slip factor, efficiency. Vane less and vaned diffuser systems, volute as spiral casing. Surge and stall in compressors
Module IV (08 hours)
Axial turbine stages, stage velocity triangles, work, efficiency, blade loading, flow coefficient. Single stage impulse and reaction turbines, degree of reaction, 50% reaction turbine stage, Radial equilibrium and Actuator disc approach for design of turbine blades. Partial admission problems in turbines. Losses in turbo machines.
1. S.M. Yahya, Turbines, Compreessors and Fans, Tata Mcgraw Hill.
2. V. Kadambi, Manohar Prasad, An introduction to energy conversion, Volume-3, new age International publishers
3. E. Rathakrishnan, Gas Dynamics, , PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd
4. MOHAMMED KALEEM KHAN, FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY, OXFORD PUBLICATIONS
5. Anthony Esposito, “Fluid power with applications”, Prentice Hall, 7th Edition, 2002.
1. Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power Engineering by D.S. Kumar, S.K. Kataria& Sons
2. Gopalakrishnan G, Prithvi Raj D, “A treatise on Turbomachines”, Scitec Publications, Chennai, 2002.
3. R.K.Turton, Principles of Turbomachinery, E & F N Spon Publishers, London & New York.
4. Herbert E. Merritt, “Hydraulic Control Systems”, John Wiley & Sons, 1967
COMPRESSIVE FLOW & GAS DYNAMICS
Module I: (10 hours)
Fundamentals of Fluid dynamics and Thermodynamics: continuity equation, Momentum equation, Energy equation of incompressible flow Introduction to compressible flow: Introduction, Isentropic flow in a stream tube, speed of sound, Mach waves; One dimensional Isentropic Flow: Governing equations, stagnation conditions, critical conditions, maximum discharge velocity, isentropic relations
Module II: (10 hours)
Normal Shock Waves: Shock waves, stationary normal shock waves, normal shock wave relations in terms of Mach number; Oblique Shock Waves: Oblique shock wave relations, reflection of oblique shock waves, interaction of oblique shock waves, conical shock waves; Expansion Waves: Prandtl-Meyer flow, reflection and interaction of expansion waves, flow over bodies involving shock and expansion waves
Module III: (10 hours)
Variable Area Flow: Equations for variable area flow, operating characteristics of nozzles, convergent-divergent supersonic diffusers Adiabatic Flow in a Duct with Friction: Flow in a constant area duct, friction factor variations, the Fanno line; Flow with Heat addition or removal: One-dimensional flow in a constant area duct neglecting viscosity, variable area flow with heat addition, one-dimensional constant area flow with both heat exchanger and friction
Module IV: (10 hours)
Generalized Quasi-One-Dimensional Flow: Governing equations and influence coefficients, solution procedure for generalized flow with and without sonic point; Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow: Governing equations, vorticity considerations, the velocity potential, linearized solutions, linearized subsonic flow, linearized supersonic flow, method of characteristics.
- P. H. Oosthuizen and W. E. Carscallen. Compressible Fluid Flow. NY, McGraw-Hill, 1997.
- H. W. Liepmann, and A. Roshko, Elements of Gas Dynamics, Dover Pub, 2001.
- A. H. Shapiro, Compressible Fluid Flow 1 and 2. Hoboken NJ: John Wiley.
- M. A. Saad, Compressible Fluid Flow. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993.
- F. M. White, Viscous Fluid Flow. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991.
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