BPUT 4th Semester B.Tech Mechanical Engineering Syllabus
MECHANISMS AND MACHINES
MODULE – I (8 HOURS)
1. Mechanisms with lower pairs : Motor Vehicle Steering Gears – Davis Steering Gear & Ackermann Steering Gear, Hooke’s Joint.
2. Cams Design: Fundamental law of Cam, Cam Terminology, Classification of Cams and followers, Analysis of follower motions (Displacement, velocity, Acceleration and jerk) – Simple Harmonic, Uniform Velocity and Constant Acceleration & Retardation Types, Generation of Cam Profiles by Graphical Method, Introduction on Cams with specified contours.
MODULE – II (8 HOURS)
3. Turning Moment Diagram and Flywheel: Turning moment diagram. Turning moment diagrams for different types of engines, Fluctuation of energy and fluctuation of speed. Dynamic Theory of Flywheel, Flywheel of an internal combustion engine and for a punch machine. Determination of flywheel size from Turning Moment Diagram.
4. Gears : Theory of shape and action of tooth properties and methods of generation of standard tooth profiles, Standard proportions, Force analysis, Path of contact, Arc of contact, Contact ratio, Interference and Undercutting, Methods for eliminating Interference, Minimum number of teeth to avoid interference.
MODULE III (8 HOURS)
5. Mechanism for Control (Governors): Governors – Watt, Porter, Proell, Hartnell, Wilson-Hartnell Governor. Performance parameters: Sensitiveness, Stability, Hunting, Isochronism. Governor Effort and Power, Controlling Force & Controlling Force Curve, Friction & insensitiveness, Comparison between governor and flywheel.
6. Mechanism for Control (Gyroscope): Introduction to Gyroscopes. Gyroscopic forces and Couple. Effect of Gyroscopic Couple on Aeroplanes, Gyroscopic stabilization of ship, Stability of Two Wheelers and Four Wheelers. Rigid disc at an angle fixed to rotating shaft.
MODULE IV (8 HOURS)
7. Balancing of rotating components and linkages: Static and Dynamic Balancing, Balancing of Single Rotating Mass by Balancing Masses in Same plane and in Different planes. Balancing of Several Rotating Masses rotating in same plane and in Different planes. Effect of Inertia Force due to Reciprocating Mass on Engine Frame, Partial balance of single cylinder engines. Primary and Secondary Balance of Multi-cylinder In-line Engines. Balancing of locomotive: variation of tractive force, swaying couple, hammer blow. Direct and Reverse Crank method of balancing for radial engines. Balancing of V-engine. Balancing machines: Pivoted-Cradle Balancing Machine.
8. Vibrations: Introduction to Mechanical Vibration – Definitions, elements of vibratory system, Longitudinal, Torsional & Transverse Systems. Differential equations and solutions of motion for a coupled spring mass system. Determination of natural frequency of vibratory systems using energy method, equilibrium method and Rayleigh’s method, Free and Forced Vibration of Un-damped and Damped Single Degree Freedom Systems, Logarithmic decrement, Magnification factor, Vibration isolation and transmissibility, whirling of shafts and Evaluation of Critical Speeds of shafts.
1. Theory of Machines by S.S.Rattan, Tata MacGraw Hill
2. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (India Edition) by John J. Uicker Jr., Gordon R. Pennock and Joseph E. Shigley, Oxford University Press
3. Mechanism and Machine Theory by J.S.Rao and R.V.Dukipatti, New Age International.
4. Theory of Mechanisms and Machines by A. Ghosh & A. K. Mallick, East West Press.
1. Theory of Machines by Thomas Bevan, CBS Publications.
2. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery by R.L.Norton, Tata MacGraw Hill
3. Kinematics & Dynamics of Machinery-Charles E. Wilson & J.Peter Saddler,Pearson Ed.
4. Theory of Mechanisms and Machines by C.S.Sharma and K.Purohit, PHI
5. Theory of Machines by Shah Jadwani, Dhanpat Rai
6. Theory of Machines by Abdulla Shariff, Dhanpat Rai
7. Theory of Machines by Sadhu Singh, Pearson Education.
Practical (0-0-2) Credit: 1
1 and 2 are compulsory. In addition, minimum six experiments from sl. No. 3-10 to be per4th sem mechanical engineering syllabus, b.tech, bput, bput 4th sem syllabus, bput syllabus, Mechanical Engineering, mechanical engineering syllabus, mechanical engineering syllabus BPUTformed.
1. Design of any one working model related to Mechanisms and Machines i.e., Module I and II.
2. Design of any one working model related to Mechanisms and Machines i.e., Module III and IV.
3. Determination of gyroscopic couple using gyroscopic test rig.
4. Performance characteristics of a spring loaded governor
5. Determination of critical speed of rotating shaft
6. Experiment on static and dynamic balancing apparatus7. Determination of natural frequencies of un-damped as well as damped vibrating systems.8. Study of interference and undercutting for gear drives9. Experiment on Cam Analysis Apparatus.10. Experiment on evaluation of damping in a vibrating system
BASIC MANUFACTURING PROCESS
MODULE – I (10 LECTURES)
1. Foundry :
a. Types of patterns, pattern materials and pattern allowances.
b. Molding Materials – sand molding, metal molding, investment molding, shell molding.
c. Composition of molding sand, Silica sand, Zircon sand, binders, additives, Binders – clay, binders for CO2 sand, binder for shell molding, binders for core sand.
d. Properties of molding sand and sand testing.
e. Melting furnaces – cupola, resistance furnace, induction and arc furnace.
f. Solidification of castings, design of risers and runners, feeding distance, centre line freezing resistance chills and chaplets.
g. Degasification and inoculation of metals.
h. Casting methods like continuous casting, centrifugal casting, disc casting.
i. Casting defects.
MODULE – II (8 LECTURES)
2. Welding and cutting:
Introduction to gas welding, cutting, Arc welding and equipment’s. TIG(GTAW) and MIG (GMAW) welding, resistance welding and Thermit welding. Weldablity
Modern Welding methods like plasma Arc, Laser Beam, Electron Beam, Ultrasonic, Explosive and friction Welding, edge preparation in butt welding.
Brazing and soldering, welding defects.
Destructive and non-destructive testing of castings and welding.
MODULE – III (08 LECTURES)
3. Brief introduction to powder metallurgy processes.
4. Plastic deformation of metals: Variables in metal forming and their optimization. Dependence of stress strain diagram on Strain rate and temperature. Hot and cold working of metals, classification of metal forming processes.
5. Rolling: Pressure and Forces in rolling, types of rolling mills, Rolling defects.
6. Forging: Smith Forging, Drop and Press forging, M/c forging, Forging defects.
MODULE – IV (08 LECTURES)
7. Extrusions: Direct, Indirect, Impact and Hydrostatic extrusion and their applications, Extrusion of tubes.
8. Wire drawing methods and variables in wire-drawing, Optimum dies shape for extrusion and drawing.
9. Brief introduction to sheet metal working: Bending, Forming and Deep drawing, shearing.
10. Brief introduction to explosive forming, coating and deposition methods.
1. Manufacturing technology by P.N.Rao, Tata McGraw Hill publication.
2. Welding Technology by R.A. Little, TMH
3. Manufacturing Science by A.Ghosh and A K Malick, EWP
1. Fundamentals of metal casting technology by P.C. Mukherjee, Oxford PIBI.
2. Mechanical Metallurgy by Dieter, Mc-Graw Hill
3. Processes and Materials of Manufacture by R.A Lindberg, Prentice hall (India)
4. A Text Book of Production Engineering by P.C.Sharma, S.Chand
PRACTICAL (BASIC MANUFACTURING PROCESS LABORATORY)
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. Determination of grain size, clay content, permeability and green compressive strength of Molding sand. (2 to 3 experiments)
2. Foundry Practices
3. Preparation of a wood pattern.
4. Determination of strength of brazed and solder joints
5. Practice and preparation of job in TIG/MIG welding
6. Practice and preparation of job in sheet metal using processes like forming and deep drawing.
7. Demonstration of different rolling mills
8. Demonstration of Extrusion processes
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES AND GAS TURBINES
MODULE – I (11 HOURS)
Classification, Engine nomenclature, engine operating and performance parameters, Valve timing diagram of SI & CI Engines, Comparison of SI and CI engine.
Thermodynamic Analysis of cycles :
Significance of Fuel-Air & Actual cycles of I.C. engines. Comparison with Air Standard Cycles. Analysis of Fuel-Air & Actual cycles (Effect of chemical equilibrium and variable specific heats. Effect of air fuel ratio and exhaust gas dilution. Time Loss Factor, Heat Loss Factor, Exhaust Blow down, Loss Due to Gas Exchange Processes, Volumetric Efficiency, Loss due to Rubbing Friction)
Fuels of SI and CI engine, Fuel additives, Properties, potential and advantages of alternative liquid and gaseous fuels for SI and CI engines (biofuels, LPG and CNG)Fuel Induction Techniques in IC engines :
Fuel induction techniques in SI and CI engines, Mixture Requirements at Different Loads and Speeds.
Factors Affecting Carburetion, Principle of Carburetion, Simple Carburetor and its drawbacks, Calculation of the Air–Fuel Ratio, Modern Carburetors.
MODULE II (12 HOURS)
Functional Requirements of an Injection System, Classification of Injection Systems, Fuel Feed Pump, Injection Pump, Injection Pump Governor, Mechanical Governor,Pneumatic Governor, Fuel Injector, Nozzle, Injection in SI Engine, Electronic Injection Systems, Multi-Point Fuel Injection (MPFI) System, Functional Divisions of MPFI System, Injection Timing, Group Gasoline Injection System, Electronic Diesel Injection System.
Energy requirement for ignition, requirements of an ignition system, conventional ignition systems, modern ignition systems (TCI and CDI), firing order, Ignition timing, Spark advance mechanism,
Stages of combustion in SI and CI engines, effects of engine variables on flame propagation and ignition delay, Abnormal combustion, Pre-ignition & Detonation, Theory of Detonation. Effect of engine variables on Detonation, control of Detonation. Diesel Knock & methods to control diesel knock, Requirements of combustion chambers. Features of different types of combustion chambers system for S.I. engine. (I-head, F-head combustion chambers), C.I. engine
Open and divided type, Air swirl turbulence-M. type combustion chamber. Comparison of various types of combustion chambers.
Super Charging & Scavenging:
Thermodynamics Cycles of supercharging. Effect of supercharging, Efficiency of supercharged engines. Methods of super charging, supercharging and scavenging of 2-stroke engines.
Module-III (8 hours)
Testing and Performance:
Power, fuel & air measurement methods, Performance characteristic curves of SI & CI engines, variables affecting performance and methods to improve engine performance.
Cooling & Lubricating Systems, Engine Emission & Controls:
Air cooling & water cooling systems, Effect of cooling on power output & efficiency, Properties of lubricants and different types of lubricating system.
Modern developments in IC Engines, EGR, MPFI, CRDI, GDI, HCCI, dual fuel engine, Lean burn engine, Stratified engine (basic principles).
Engine Emission and Control:
Mechanism of pollutant formation and its harmful effects. Methods of measuring pollutants and control of engine emission.
Module-IV (9 hours)
Introduction, Open and closed cycle gas turbines, Analysis of practical gas turbine cycle.
Air Craft Propulsion:
Analysis of Turbo Jet, Turbo Prop, Turbo fan & Ram jet engines.
Axial Flow & Centrifugal Compressor:
Basic construction of centrifugal and axial flow compressor, Velocity diagram, performance characteristics of centrifugal and axial flow compressor, effects of slip, surging and stalling on compressor.
1. IC Engines, Mathur & Sharma
2. Internal Combustion Engines, V. Ganesan, TMH, 3rd edition
3. Gas Turbines, V.Ganesan, TMH, 3rd edition
1. Fundamentals IC Engines, J.B.Heywood, McGraw Hill
2. A course in IC Engines, V.M.Domkundwar, Dhanpat rai and sons3. Gas Turbines, Cohen and Roser
4. An Introduction to Energy Conversion, Vol.III, V.Kadambi and Manohar Prasad, New Age International
5. Fundamentals of Internal Combustion Engines, H.N.Gupta, PHI
6. Internal Combustion Engines, K.K.Ramalngam, Scitech Publications
PRACTICAL (I. C. ENGINE LABORATORY)
1. Valve timing diagram of an IC engine
2. Study of a modern carburetor (e.g.Solex Carburtor)
3. Study of fuel injection system of a diesel engine
4. Analysis of exhaust gas of automobile
5. Study of different cooling systems in automobiles (Air cooling and water cooling).
6. Study of lubrication systems in automobiles.
7. Load test on 4-stroke single cylinder C.I. engine.
8. Load test on 4-stroke single cylinder S.I. engine.
9. Morse Test on multi-cylinder S.I. or C.I. engine
10. Load test on variable compression ratio S.I. engine
11. Load test and Heat balance on 2 stroke S.I. Engine
MECHANICAL MEASUREMENT, METROLOGY & RELIABILITY
MODULE – I (16 HOURS)
Definition and methods of measurement, classification of measuring instruments, Measuring systems, performance characteristics of measuring devices, types of errors. Functional elements of measuring system. Static and Dynamic
Characteristics of Instruments : Static Performance Parameters, Impedance Loading and Matching, Selection and Specifications of Instruments, Dynamic Response, Compensation.
Transducer Elements : Analog Transducers, Digital Transducers, Basic detector transducer elements : Electrical transducer, Sliding Contract devices, Variable-inductance transducer elements, the differential transformer, Variable-reluctance transducers, Capacitive transducers. The piezoelectric effect, photo-electric transducer, electronic transducer element.
Intermediate Elements : Amplifier, Operational Amplifier, Differential and Integrating Elements, Filters, A-D and D-A Converters
Strain Measurement : The electrical resistance strain gauge. The metallic resistance strain gauge, Selection and Installation factors for metallic strain gauge, Circuitry, metallic strain gauge. The strain gauge ballast circuit, the staring gauge bridge circuit, Temperature compensation.
Measurement of Pressure : Pressure measurement systems, Pressure measurement transducers, Elastic diaphragms, strain gauge pressure cells, measurement of high pressure, Measurement of low pressures, dynamic characteristics of pressure measuring systems.
Measurement of Fluid Flow : Flow characteristics obstruction meters, Obstruction meter for compressible fluids- Orifice, Venturi meter and Pitot tube, The variable-area meter, Turbine Flow meters.
Temperature Measurement : Use of bimetals pressure thermometers, Thermocouples, Pyrometry, Calibration of temperature measuring devices.
Force, Power, Speed and Torque Measurement : Load Cell, Dynamometers, Tachometer and Tacho-generator, Stroboscope, The seismic instrument.-Vibrometers and accelerometers
MODULE – II (10 HOURS)
Principles of Measurements, Line and End & optical Standards, Calibration, accuracy and Precision, Random error and systemic error.Measurement of Surface Roughness, Screw Thread and Gears.
Limits, Fits and Gauges, Assembly by full, partial and group interchangeability, geometric tolerances.
Measurement of straightness, Flatness and circularity.
MODULE – III (10 HOURS)
Definition, bath-tub-curve, system reliability, reliability improvement, maintainability and availability, Availability of single repairable system using Markov model, Life tests, acceptance sampling plan based on life tests, Sequential acceptance sampling plan based on MTTF & MTBF.
TEXT BOOKS :
1. Engineering Metrology & Measurement, N.V.Raghavendra and L. Krishnamurthy, OXFORD University Press
2. Instrumentation Measurement and Analysis, B.C.Nakra and KK.Chaudhry, Tata Mc Graw Hill, Third Edition.
3. Engineering Metrology,R.K. Jain, Khanna Publisher, Delhi4. Reliability Engg. And Terotechnology , A.K. Gupta, Macmillan India.
1. Metrology & Measurement, A. K. Bewoor and V.A.Kulkarni, Mc Graw hill
2. Mechanical Measurements, T.G. Beckwith and N. Lewis Buck, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.
3. A text book of Engineering Metrology I.C. Gupta, Dhanpat Rai & sons, Delhi.
4. Introduction to /reliability and Maitainability Engg E. Ebeling, MC-Graw Hill.
(MECHANICAL MEASUREMENT, METROLOGY & RELIABILITY LAB)
(Minimum 08 Experiments/Studies)
List of Experiments:
1. Calibration of LVDT using indicator / CRO
2. Calibration of load cell using electrical resistance strain gauge
3. Calibration of a Rotameter for fluid flow measurement
4. Calibration of thermo couples
5. Calibration of Bourden Tube Pressure Gauge and measurement of pressure using manometer
6. Experiment on Pneumatic trainer
7. Experiment on Hydraulic trainer
8. Determination of damping coefficient of vibration absorbing materials using vibration measuring equipment.
9. Strain measurement using resistant strain gauge
10. Measurement of straightness and flatness
11. Measurement of roughness of the surface12. Experiment on slip gauges and sine bar
SURFACE ENGINEERING (HONORS ELECTIVE)
MODULE – I (14 HOURS)
Mechanisms of Wear and Metal Cleaning: Basic Mechanisms of wear-abrasive, adhesive wear, contact fatigue, Fretting corrosion, Testing of wear resistance, practical diagnosis of wear, general cleaning process for ferrous and non ferrous metals and alloys selection of cleaning processes, alkaline cleaning, emulsion cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, pickling salt bath descaling, abrasive bath cleaning, polishing and buffing shot peening.
MODULE – II (16 HOURS)
Thermal Spraying Processes and Electrodeposited Coatings: Thermal spraying materials, characteristics of thermal spray processes, Design for thermally sprayed coatings coating production, spray fused coatings, Principles of electroplating, Technology and control-electroplating systems, Properties and applications of electrodeposits, Non aqueous and electroless deposition, plasma coating.
Hot Dip Coating and Diffusion Coating: Principles, Surface preparation, Batchcoating and continuous coating process, Coating properties and application, Principles of cementation, Cladding-vacuum deposition, Sprayed metal coating, Structure of diffusion coatings, Chemical vapour deposition (CVD), Physical vapour deposition (PVD).
MODULE – III (14 HOURS)
Non-Metallic Coating Oxide and Conversion Coatings: Plating coating, lacquers, rubbers and elastomers, viterous enamels, anodizing Chromating, application to aluminium, magnesium, tin, zinc, cadmium copper and silver, phosphating primers.
Quality Assurance, Testing and Selection af Coatings: The quality plan, design, testing and inspection, thickness and porosity measurement, selection of coatings, industrial applications of engineering coatings.
TEXT BOOKS :
1. Engineering Coatings-design and application- S. Grainger, Jaico Publishing House.
2. Principles of Metals surface treatment and protection- D. R. Gabe, Pergamon.
1. Electroplating Handbooks- N.V.Parathasarathy, Prentice Hall.
2. Advances in surface treatment- Niku-Lavi, Pergamon.
RAPID MANUFACTURING PROCESS (HONORS ELECTIVE)
MODULE – I (14 HOURS)
Product Development: Classification of manufacturing processes, Different manufacturing systems, Introduction to rapid Prototyping (RP), Need of RP in context to batch production, FMS and CIM and its application. Product prototyping – solid modeling and prototype representation, reverse engineering, prototyping and manufacturing using CNC machining.
Basic principles of RP steps in RP, Process chain in RP in integrated CAD-CAM environment, Advantages of RP
MODULE – II (14 HOURS)
Rapid Manufacturing Process Optimization: factors influencing accuracy. Data preparation errors, Part building errors, Error in finishing, influence of build orientation. Classification of different RP techniques based on raw materials, layering technique (2D or 3D) and energy sources.
Process technology and comparative study of stereo lithography (SL) with photopolymerisation, SL with liquid thermal polymerization, solid foil polymerization, selective laser sintering, selective powder binding, Ballastic particle manufacturing – both 2D and 3D, Fused deposition modeling, Shape melting
MODULE – III (16 HOURS)
Laminated object manufacturing solid ground curing, Repetitive masking and deposition.
Beam interference solidification, Holographic interference solidification special topic on RP using metallic alloys, Programming in RP modeling, Slicing, Internal Hatching, Surface skin films, support structure.
Software for RP: STL files, Overview of Solid view, magics, imics, magic communicator, etc. Internet based software, Collaboration tools.
TEXT BOOKS :
1. Rapid Prototyping and Engineering Applications, Frank W. Liou, CRC Press
2. Introduction to Rapid Prototyping, Amitav Ghosh, North West Publication, New Delhi.
1. Rapid Manufacturing, Flham D.T & Dinjoy S.S Verlog London 2001. \
2. Rapid Prototyping Materials, Gurumurthi, IISc Bangalore.
3. Rapid Automated, Lament wood. Indus press New York
4. Stereo Lithography and other RP & M Technologies, Paul F. Jacobs: SME, NY 1996
FLUID MECHANICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINES (Minor Specialization)
MODULE I (12 LECTURES)
Introduction: Scope of fluid mechanics and its development as a science
Physical property of Fluid: Density, specific gravity, specific weight, specific volume, surface tension and capillarity, viscosity, compressibility and bulk modulus, Fluid classification.
Fluid statics: Pressure, Pascal’s Law, Pressure variation for incompressible fluid, atmospheric pressure, absolute pressure, gauge pressure and vacuum pressure, manometer.
Hydrostatic process on submerged surface, force on a horizontal submerged plane surface, force on a vertical submerged plane surface. Buoyancy and floatation, Archimedes’ principle, stability of immersed and floating bodies, determination of metacentric height.
MODULE II (12 LECTURES)
Fluid kinematics: Introduction, description of f luid flow, classification of fluid flow. Reynold’s number, Acceleration of fluid particles, flow rate and continuity equation, differential equation of continuity,
Mathematical definitions of irrotational and rotational motion. Circulation, potential function and stream function. Flow net
Fluid dynamics : Introduction,Introduction to N-S equation, Euler’s equation along a streamline, energy equation, Bernoulli’s equation and its application to siphon, venturimeter, orificemeter, pitot tube.
Flow in pipes and ducts: Loss due to friction, Minor energy losses in pipes Hydraulic Gradient Line (HGL), Total Energy Line (TEL), Power transmission in the fluid flow in pipes, fluid flow in pipes in series and parallel. Flow through nozzles.
MODULE III (10 LECTURES)
Hydraulic turbines: Classification, Impulse and Reaction turbine; Tangential, Radial and axial turbine.
Impulse turbine, Pelton wheel, bucket dimensions, number of buckets in pelton wheel, efficiency and performance curves.
Reaction Turbines: Francis turbine and Kaplan turbine, velocity triangle and efficiencies, performance curve. Function of draft tube and casing cavitation
MODULE IV (06 LECTURES)
Centrifugal Pump: constructional features, vane shape, velocity triangles, Efficiencies, Multi stage centrifugal pumps, Pump Characteristic, NPSH and Cavitation.Positive displacement pumps: Reciprocating Pump, Working principle, Discharge, work done and power requirement, Slip, Indicator diagram
1. Fluid Mechanics, A.K.Jain, Khanna Publishers
2. Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines, Modi & Seth
3. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machines, S.K. Som and G. Biswas, TMH
4. Fluid Mechanics and Machinery, Mohd. Kareem Khan, OXFORD
1. Fluid Mechanics, A.K. Mohanty, PHI
2. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Fox, McDonald, Willey Publications
3. Fluid Mechanics by Kundu, Elsevier
4. An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, G.K.Batchelor, Cambridge University Press
5. Engineering Fluid Mechanics by Garde et. al., Scitech
6. First course in Fluid Mechanics by Narasimhan, University press
7. Fluid Mechanics by J.F.Douglas, J.M.Gasiorek, J.A.Swaffield and L.B.Jack, Pearson Education
8. Fluid Mechanics and Machines, Sukumar Pati, TMH
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