VNIT Nagpur Chemical Engineering Syllabus 5th Sem
VNIT Nagpur Chemical Engineering Syllabus V SEM
5CHO1 Mass Transfer – I
Introduction to mass transfer operations, Diffusion in gases and liquids, steady state and unsteady state operations, diffusion mass transfer, individual and overall mass transfer coefficients concept.
Theories of mass transfer, analogies and Interphase mass transfer process; simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes.
Drying: Constant rate and falling rate periods, equilibrium moisture contents, drying equipments, rotary dryers, drum dryers, vacuum dryers, Spray dryer, fluidized bed dryers, dryer calculations and dryer selection criteria.
Crystallization: Theory of Crystallization, saturation, supersaturation, nucleation and crystal growth, various equipments for crystallization, their operational and design characteristics.
Adsorption: Adsorption isotherms, adsorption agents, equipments for adsorption, pressure swing adsorption technology, adsorption phenomena, humidification and dehumidification, equipments operational characteristics, design procedures and selection criteria along with mass transfer calculations, Types of cooling towers, cooling tower operational characteristics.
Introduction to Membranes Separation technology, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration,
evaporation, micro filtration, design principles, permeability, desalination technology, dialysis technique, membranes selection and parameters to be considered in design of membranes separation technology.
Text / References:
1. Arora S.C.; Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer, 3rd Ed., Khanna Publishers, (1986).
2. Badger W.L. and Banchero J.T.; Introduction to Chemical Engineering, Tata McGraw Hill Book Co.
3. Brown G.G.; Unit Operations, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
4. Chattopadyay P.; Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, Vol. 1 & 2, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi.
5. Coulson J.M. and Richardson J.F.; Chemical Engineering Vol. I, II & III, Pergamon Press, New York 1977.
6. Lyderson A.L.; Mass Transfer in Engineering Practice, John Wiley Co. (1983).
7. McCabe W.L. and Smith J.C. & Harriot; Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 5th Edition, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York 1980.
8. Suryanarayana A.; Mass Transfer, New Age International, New Delhi.
9. Treybal R.E.; Mass Transfer Operations, Edition 3rd, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York 1980.
5CHO2 Heat Transfer – I
Basic modes of heat transfer, conduction, convection and radiation, Heat conduction equation at steady state, heat conduction in slabs, cylinders, spheres, heat generation inside solids, unsteady state heat conduction, Biot number, Fourier number, Heisler charts.
Types of thermal insulation, critical thickness and optimum thickness of insulation, extended surfaces, fin performance evaluation, effectiveness of fins.
Free and forced convection inside and outside the tubes as well as over the plates, individual and overall heat transfer coefficients. Heat transfer in laminar flow and turbulent flow, dimensionless numbers in heat transfer, expressions for calculating individual and overall heat transfer coefficients. Heat transfer coefficients in natural convection and its applications.
Condensation and Boiling: Condensation over flat plate, condensation inside and outside the tubes in horizontal, vertical and inclined position, film condensation, drop wise condensing. Estimation of film coefficient of heat transfer for condensing vapours, turbulence in condensing film. Heat Transfer to boiling liquids, pool boiling and forced convection boiling, boiling curve and its characteristics.
Radiation heat transfer, laws of radiation, concepts of black body, gray body, green house effect, emissive power, heat flux by radiation, view factors, radiation shield, luminous and non luminous gases.
Heat Transfer fluids: Steam, organic thermic-fluids such as Downtherm and others, molten metals, molten salts, flue gases, calculation of heat transfer coefficients for the heating fluids and their selection criteria.
Text / References:
1) Arora S.C., Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer, Khanna Published, New Delhi.
2) Coulson J.M., Richardson J.R. Chemical Engineering, Vol. I 5th Edition, Butterworth Heinemann, New Delhi.
3) Dawande S.D., Principles of Heat and Mass Transfer, Central Techno Publications, Nagpur.
4) Eckert E.R.G. and Drake R.M.; 2nd Edition, Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer, McGraw Hill Education.
5) Hollman J.P.; Heat Transfer, McGraw Hill, 1993.
6) Kern D.Q., Process Heat Transfer, Tata McGraw Hill Book Co., New Delhi, 1990.
7) Kothandaram C.P., Subramanyan S.; Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer, Databook, 4th Edition, Wiley eastern Ltd., (1989).
8) Kumar D.S., Process Heat Transfer, S.K.Kataria & Sons Publishers,New Delhi.
9) McAdams W.H.; Heat Transmission, McGraw Hill Book Co. New York, 1954.
10) Sukhatme S.P., Text Book on Heat Transfer, Orient Longman Pvt. Ltd.
5CHO3 Green Chemistry and Engineering
Introduction to environmental issues- Air, Water, Land, Biodiversity, Solid waste, Air quality issues – NOx, HCs and VOCs.Ground level ozone, Pb, particulates, SOx, NOx and acid deposition; Water Quality issues Ecology; Waste flows – sources, trends, preventive environmental management, (PEM). Global environmental and energy issues, Global warming, Ozone depletion.
Environmental Laws and Regulations – Indian rules and regulations; Indian scenario vis-à-vis global scenario paradigm shift from end – of – pipe to front – end pollution prevention and waste minimization.
Green Chemistry – Green Chemistry principles and methodologies – alternative feedstocks, green solvents, synthesis pathways, inherently safer chemistry; Environmental ethics – roles and responsibilities of chemical engineers for chemical process safety and environmental protection, Industrial ecology.
Evaluation and Improvement of Environmental Performance of Chemical Processes – Evaluation of environmental fate, estimation of ecosystem risks, classification of environmental risks. Evaluation of exposures–workplace characterization, exposure pathways, monitoring worker exposure, Designing safer chemicals; Design for environment (DFE), Life cycle assessment.
Evaluation of environmental performance during process synthesis –Environmental performance tools – Economic criteria, environmental criteria, Threshold limit values (TLVs), permissible exposure limits (PELs), and Recommended exposure limits (REL s), Toxicity weighting; evaluating alternative synthetic pathways; Environmental release assessment. Release quantification methods and modeled release assessments. Integrated with Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) analysis.
Green Engineering: Principles of green engineering, pollution prevention for chemical reactors; pollution prevention in storage tanks and fugitive emission; pollution prevention assessment. Assessment of environmental performance, Concepts of sustainability and sustainable processes.
Flowsheet Analysis for Pollution Prevention and evaluation of Environmental performance of a flow sheet: Process and energy integration; optimizing strategies for segregation, mixing and recycling of streams; Evaluation of environmental performance of a flow sheet – Fugacity capacity, intermedia transport, reaction loss processes, Metrics for environmental risk evaluation of process design with respect to environment.
Text / References:
1) Ahluwalia V.K. and Kidwai M.; New Trends in Green Chemistry, Anamaya
Publishers, New Delhi.
2) Anastas P.T. and Williamson T.C.; Green Chemistry, Frontiers in Benign
Chemical Synthesis and Processes, Oxford University Press (1998).
3) David T. Allen & David R Shonnard; Green Engineering. Environmentally
Couscious Design of Chemical Process1st Edition, Prentice Hall PTR.
4) Lancaster M(Mike)., Green Chemistry: An Introductory Text, Royal Society of
5CHO4 Introduction to Environmental Engineering
Man and environment, biogeochemical cycles, Biosphere and ecosystem, Forest Nutrient cycles and the parameters responsible for the disturbance of these cycles.
Mobile and stationary sources of air pollutants, air pollution, behaviour of pollutants and atmospheric chemical reactions, air pollution control processes, atmospheric dispersion of pollutants, models for dispersion, limitations of models, effective stack height concept, gas sampling and analysis.
CO, CO2, H2S, SOx, NOx emissions and their control, desulphurization. Sources of water and pollutants, classification and characterization of solid, liquid and gaseous waste, measurement of levels of pollution such as DO, BOD, COD, TOC, ThOD, soluble and suspended volatile solids, Water quality and discharge standards.
Unit operations such as screening, coagulation, flocculation, filtration, clarification, solvent extraction.
Chemical treatment of waste material, oxidation, chlorination, Ozonation, incineration etc. Biological Treatment, biochemical kinetics, microbial kinetics, microbial growth.
Aerobic and anaerobic waste treatment, activated sludge process, aerated lagoons, anaerobic digesters, Biogas & trickling filters & its utilization. Solid Waste & its disposal pyrolysis (Incineration, Composing and filling etc.).
Measuring environmental impacts, life cycle analysis, legislation controlling discharges, optimal degree of abatement, and policies for regulation of environmental impacts.
Text / References:
1. David L; Weber W.J., Environmental Engineering Handbook, Lewis Publishers Physico – Chemical Processes for Water Quality Control, (1997).
2. Mahajan S.P.; Pollution Control in Process Industries, Tata McGraw Hill Book Co.
3. Pandey G.N. and Camey G.C.; Environmental Engineering, Tata – McGraw Hill Book Co., New Delhi (1989).
4. Rao M.N. and Dutta A.K.; Waste Water Treatment, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.
5. Sincero A.; Environmental Engineering, A Design Approach. Prentice – Hall of India, New Delhi (1996).
5CHO5 Chemical Process Equipment Design
Importance of chemical process equipment design, design procedure for pressure vessels subjected to internal pressure, external pressure and combined loading, closures for pressure vessels, optimum proportions of pressure vessels, optimum sizing of vessels.
Design of pressure vessels subjected to high pressure, monoblock construction, shrink fit construction.
Design of supports, flanges, nozzles for vessels, Design of jackets, coils for pressure vessels, design of agitation system, type of agitators, estimation of power requirement for mixing and agitation.
Mechanical design of storage tanks, for volatile and non-volatile liquids roof and bottom design, optimum proportions of storage tank, storage tanks for solids and its design procedure.
Fundamentals of pipeline design, optimum diameter of pipelines, supporting structure for pipelines, pipeline design for liquids and gases, steam and thermic fluids, materials of construction for pipelines.
Construction materials for process equipments, polymeric materials, coating and protective linings, corrosion mechanism and its prevention, cathodic and anodic protection techniques, testing of welded joints.
Text / References:
1. Bett K.E., Rowlinson & Saville G.,Thermodynamics for chemical Engineering, 1st-edition, MIT Press America.
2. Brownell L.E. and Young E.H., Process Equipment Design, John Wiley ,New York
3. Dawande S.D., Process Design of Equipments, Central Tecno Publication, Nagpur.
4. Joshi M.V., Mahajan V.V., Process Equipment Design, MacMillan India Ltd.
5. Khurmi R.S ,Gupta J.M., A text book of machine design , S.Chand &Company Ltd, New Delhi.
6. Walas. S., Chemical Process Equipment Design, Oxford, Butterworth Heinemann (1990).
5CH14 Environmental engineering Lab.
1. Collection of particulate matter using Air sampler.2. Determination of NOx and SOx and CO.3. Determination of relative humidity of atmosphere.4. Determination of dissolve oxygen and carbon dioxide.5. Estimation of B.O.D.6. Determination of physical properties of water a) Density b) pH c) Surface tension d) turbidity e) conductance.7. Chromatographic Separation of compounds.8. Determination of Cu, Ni, and Co in solution by spectrophotometry.9. Determination of available chlorine/ free chlorine/Chloride in given water samples.10. N.P.K. content estimation of soil.11. Semi-micro determination of nitrogen, sulphur, and halogens.12. Study of Solvent – Extraction technique for metal ion determinations.
Text / References:
1. David L; Weber W.J. , Environmental Engineering Handbook, Lewis Publishers
Physico – Chemical Processes for Water Quality Control, (1997).
2. Pandey G.N. and Camey G.C.; Environmental Engineering, Tata – McGraw Hill
Book Co., New Delhi (1989).
3. Rao M.N. and Dutta A.K.; Waste Water Treatment, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.
5CH15 Chemical Engineering Design and Drawing Lab-I
Symbols used in Drawing, Design and Drawing of various chemical equipments and accessories like storage tank, Jacketed vessel, reaction vessel, hanges coil, gasket, pressure vessel, supports, Agitator, etc.
Minimum 10-12 Imperial size sheets ( A-1) covering the above syllabus should be drawn out of which 1/3rd should be drawn using computer software like AutoCAD.
1) Joshi M.V., Mahajan V.V., Process Equipment Design, MacMillan India Ltd.
2) Khurmi R.S ,Gupta J.M., A text book of machine design , S.Chand &Company Ltd, New Delhi.
3) Dawande S.D., Process Design of Equipments, Central Tecno Publication, Nagpur.
5CH16 Fluid Mechanics and Mechanical Operation Lab-II
1) To verify the laws of crushing using size reduction equipment like rolls, vibrating
mills, jaw crusher.
2) To find the effictiveness of hand screening for size seperation sample by a given
3) To determine the time of grinding in a ball mill for producing a product with 80%
passing a given screen.
4) To determine the specific cake resistance, filter medium resistance of a slurry in plate
and frame filter and leaf filter.
5) Tutor on refrigeration.
6) Determination of Specific Surface area of screen.
7) Hydrodynamics studies in Fluidized bed. Friction factor Vs Reynolds number (f Vs
NRe) and friction factor in coils.
CML366 Mass Transfer – II
Distillation: Vapour – liquid equilibria, Raoult’s law, X-Y and H-X-Y diagrams, differential distillation and equilibrium distillation, steam distillation, azeotropic distillation, extractive distillation.
Fractionation, binary distillation, plate and packed columns for distillation, analytical and graphical methods for estimation of number of stages required in distillation column, minimum reflux ratio, optimum reflux ratio, number of stages at optimum reflux, murphree plate efficiency and overall plate efficiency, effect of feed conditions on number of plates for separation.
Concept of HETP, HTU, NTU in distillation, plate and packed columns, packings for packed columns, pressure drop in plate and packed columns, bubble cap, sieve tray, valve tray plate columns.
Absorption Equilibrium relationships, two film theory, penetration theory, surface renewal rate theory, concept of driving force and mass transfer coefficient, plate column and packed columns for absorption, selection of solvent for absorption and absorbers design procedures.
Liquid – Liquid Extraction fundamentals, selection of solvent for extraction, estimation of mass transfer coefficients, triangular diagram representation, equipments for liquid – liquid extraction, plate and packed columns, spray columns, rotary disc contactors, design procedures and equipment selection criteria. Single stage, multistage operations etc.
Solid – Liquid Extraction fundamentals, Solvent selection, equilibrium relationship, triangular diagram representation, single stage, multistage concurrent and counter current operation, equipments for solid – liquid extraction, their design procedure and selection criteria.
Text / References:
1. Arora,Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi.
2. Badger W.L., Banchero J.T.; Introduction to Chemical Engineering,McGraw Hill Book Co., New York.
3. Brown G.G.; Unit Operations, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
4. Chattopadhyay P., Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering Vol-I & II,Khanna publishers, New Delhi.
5. Coulson J.M., Richardson J.F.; Chemical Engineering Vol.II, edition 3rd, Perganon Press, New York (1987).
6. Lyderson A.L.: Mass Transfer In Engineering Practice, John Wiley & Sons.
7. McCabe W.L., Smith J.M.& Harriot P.; Unit Operations in Chemical Engineering, 5th Edition, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, 1993.
8. Suryanarayana A., Mass Transfer, A., New Age International, New Delhi.
9. Treybal R.E., Mass Transfer Operations, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York (1980).
CML367 Heat Transfer – II
Classification of heat exchangers, recuperative, regenerative and direct contact type, double pipe heat exchangers, co-current counter, current flow arrangement, overall heat transfer coefficient.
Fixed tube sheet, floated head and U – tube shell and tube heat exchangers, their design procedures, number of passes in heat exchangers, fouling of heat exchangers, baffles in heat exchangers, selection of heating and cooling media for heat exchangers, Trouble shorting of shell and tube heat exchangers, thermal stresses and vibrations in shell and tube heat exchangers.
Plate heat exchangers, design procedure, advantages over shell and tube heat exchangers, spiral plate heat exchangers, helical coil heat exchangers.
Heat Regenerators, fixed and fluidized bed, Evaporators types and their operational characteristics. Single stage and multistage evaporation system, Steam economy, boiling point rise of solution and its effect on evaporation system, rising film and falling film evaporators
Effectiveness of heat exchanges, NTU method. Heat Transfer in jacketed vessels, boilers, furnaces and reactors, reboilers, heat transfer in agitated vessels with and without coils, Heat transfer in packed and fluidized beds.
Text / References:
1. Coulson J.R. and Richardson J.M.; Chemical Engineering Vol.1, 5th Edition, Butterworths Heinemann, New Delhi.
2. Hollman J.P.; Heat Transfer, McGraw Hill.
3. McAdams W.H.; Heat Transmission, Mc Graw Hill Book Co., New York.
4. Sukhatme S.P., Text Book of Heat Transfer, Orient Longman Ltd.
5. Kern D.Q., Process Heat Transfer, Tata Mc Graw Hill Book co.
6. Kothandaraman C.P., Subramanyan S.Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer Databook, 4th Edition, Wiley Eastern Ltd. (1989).
CML368 Chemical Reaction Engineering – I
Classification of chemical reactions, elementary and non-elementary reactions, representation of reaction rate, chain reaction mechanism, kinetics of homogeneous reactions, determination of reaction order, differential and integral methods for reaction order, half life time of chemical reaction, volume change during reaction.
Classification of reactors, batchwise Vs. continuous reactor operation, material balance and energy balance equations for reactors, introduction to the steady state behaviour of continuous stirred tank and plug flow reactors, semibatch reactors operation at steady state and unsteady state conditions.
Development of performance expression for batch and continuous reactors, performance evaluation of reactors, arrangement of reactors in series and parallel.
Reversible reaction kinetics, consecutive reactions, parallel reactions and their performance evaluation.
Batch recycle reactors, continuous recycle reactors, reactive distillation, multiple reactions in batch and continuous reactors, concept of yield and selectivity of chemical reactions.
Residence time distribution in reactors, E-curve, F–curve, dispersion model for reactions. Dispersion numbers and dispersion model and its effect on reactor performance, introduction to catalysis and the effect on chemical reaction.
Text / References:
1. Fogler W.; Chemical Reaction Engineering, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, India Ltd., New Delhi.
2. Hills C.G; An Introduction to Chemical Engineering Kinetics and Reactor Design, John Wiley & Sons New York
3. Holland C.D. and Rayboard A.G.; Fundamentals of Chemicals Reaction Engineering, Prentice Hall India Ltd.
4. Levenspiel O.; Chemical Reaction Engineering, 2nd Edition, John Wiley Eastern Singapore.
5. Rao H.W.; Chemical Reactor Design Vol. I & II, (1997).
6. Smith J.M.; Chemical Engineering Kinetics, 2nd Edition, Mc Graw Hill, (1970).
7. Walas S. M.; Chemical Reaction Engineering, Handbook of solved Problems, Gorden and Breach Publication, (1995).
CML371 CHEMICAL PROCESS MODELLING & SIMULATION
Differential equation and population balance models: Physical and thermodynamic properties. Numerical methods for digital simulation. Modeling of specific systems with reference to important industries like fertilizer, petrochemicals and petroleum refining. Application of simulation languages. Analysis and design of advanced control systems. Design of control systems for multivariable processes. Process control using digital computers.
Introduction to process modeling and simulation: Models; Need of models and their classification; Development of detailed mathematical models of evaporators; Distillation columns; Absorption columns and chemical reactors and their simulation and computer program development; Introduction of chemical process flowsheeting and industrial simulators.
Text / References:
1) Babatunde A. Ogunnaike A., Harman Ray W.; Process Dynamics, Modeling and Control, Ist Edition, Oxford Press N. (1994).
2) Grewal B.S. Engineering Mathematics
3) Jenson V.J& Jeffery G.V, Mathematial methods in chemical engineering , academic press, London. NY 1977
4) Kluwer, Mathematical Modelling of Heat and Mass Transfer Processes, Academic Publisher, London.
5) Luyben W.L., Process modeling & Control for Chemical Engineers, 2nd Edition, Mc Graw Hill 1990.
CMP366 Mass Transfer Lab:
1) To determine the Mass Transfer coffecient for Absorption of CO2 in NaOH solution
in packed Column .
2) Study of adsorption of acetic acid on activated charcoal [To verify adsorption
3) To determine the number of Heat Transfer Units (HTU) & height equivalent to
4) Theoretical plate (HETP) of Packed distillation column.
5) To study the drying characteristics curve under constant drying condition in rotary
vacuum or tray dryer.
6) Diffusion (Liquid – Liquid ) –To calculate the diffusion coffecient of vapour in still
7) To study the characteristics of Boiling point diagram.
8) To study the characteristics Cooling Tower experiment.
9) Experiments on Differential Distillation.
10) To determine rate of distillation by Steam Distillation.
1) Performance evaluation of fluid bed dryer.
2) Study of factors affecting rate of Evaporation :-
i)Effect of Surface Area.
ii)Effect of Temperature.
13) Solid liquid extraction
14) Liquid – Liquid Extraction– To determine Overall efficiency for a three stage counter
Current and cross current system.
15) Diffusion (Liquid – Air) :- To find the diffusion coefficient of vapour instill air.
16) Experiments on Fractional Crystallization.
17) Spray Column Dryer:- To study the Design and operating Principles of Spray Dryer.
18) Plate Column Distillation :- to study the Performance of a rectification column.
19) Determination of Rate of drying, Free moisture content and bound moisture
1) Coulson J.M. and Richardson J.F.; Chemical Engineering Vol. I, II & III, Pergamon Press, New York 19772) Treybal R.E.; Mass Transfer Operations, Edition 3rd, McGraw Hill Book Co., New
CMP367 Heat Transfer Lab.:
1) Determination of Cp of ebonite in Infinite Cylinder.
2) Determination of Thermal Conductivity of a metal rod at different temperatures using Fourier equation.
3) Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Enameled Vessel.
4) Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Jacketed Kettle and natural convention with or without stiring.
5) Determination of Overall Heat Transfer in Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger.
6) Determination of Overall heat transfer coefficient in film condensation and Drop wise condensation.
7) Determination of Overall heat transfer coefficient in a CSTR.
8) Determination of heat transfer coefficient in steam – air heat exchanger / hot oil.
9) Evaluation of Wilson Plot.
10) Verification of Nusselt Equation.
11) Determination of Stefan Boltman constant using (dTe/ d?) from temperature Vs Time plot.
12) Determination of Emissivity of a given plate at variouzs temperatures.
13) Determination of Overall heat transfer coefficient for Concentric Tube heat Exchanger.
14) Determination of heat transfer coefficient in a Finned tube heat Exchanger.
15) Study of temperature distribution along the length of a pin-fin under natural and forced convention condtions.
16) To study single / Double / Triple effect evaporators and find its steam Economy.
1) Coulson J.M., Richardson J.R. Chemical Engineering, Vol. I, 5th Edition,
Butterworth Heinemann, New Delhi.
2) Kern D.Q., Process Heat Transfer, Tata McGraw Hill Book Co., New Delhi, 1990.
CMP371 Chemical Process Modelling and Simulation Lab.
The following experiments have t be conducted using C / C++ / Simulink using MATLAB.
1. Gravity Flow tank.
2. Three CSTR’s in series – open loop.
3. Three CSTR’s in series – closed loop.
4. Non-isothermal CSTR.
5. Binary Distillation Column.
6. Batch Reactor isothermal; Batch reactor non isothermal – closed loop.
7. Isothermal batch reactor – open loop.
8. Heat Exchanger.
9. Interacting system – two tank liquid level.
10. Non-interacting system – two liquid level.
11. Plug flow reactor.
12. Bubble point calculation.
13. Dew point calculation.
1) Asghar Husain,Chemical process Simulation, Wiley Eastern Ltd.,New Delhi.
2) Hillbrand F.B., Introduction to Numerical Analysis.
3) Jenson V.G. & Jefferys, Mathematical Methods in Chemical Engineering, Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd.
4) Luyben W.L., Process modeling & Control for Chemical Engineers, 2nd Edition, Mc Graw Hills.
5) Mickley H.S, Sherwood I.S., Reed C.E., Applied Mathematics in Chemical
Engineering,Tata Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi.