** Syllabus of GTU Antenna and Wave Propagation 6th Sem EC**

**GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY**

**Electronics &Communication Engineering**

**B. E. SEMESTER: VI**

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**Subject Name: ****Antenna and Wave Propagation**

**Subject Code: ****161003**

1. **Basic antenna concepts**:

Definition and functions of an antenna, comparison between an antenna

& transmission line, radio communication link with transmitting antenna

and a receiving antenna, radiation patterns of antennas-field and power

patterns, all antenna types.

2. **Radiation of Electric dipole:**

Potential functions and the electromagnetic field, Oscillating electric dipolederivations

for E and H field components in spherical coordinate systems,

Power Radiated by a current element, Application to antennas, Radiation

from quaterwave monopole and half wave dipoles, Derivation for radiation

resistance, application of reciprocity theorem to antennas, equality of

directional patterns and effective lengths of transmitting and receiving

antennas, directional properties of dipole antennas,antenna feeding

methods.

3. **Antenna parameters and definitions:**

beam area, beam width- Half-Power Beam width (HPBW)and First Null

Beam width(FNBW) ,Polarisation,Radiation Intensity ,Beam Efficiency,

Directivity and directive gain, radiation resistance, radiation efficiency,

resolution, Antenna aperture-physical and effective apertures, effective

height, transmission formula, antenna field zones, Transmission loss as a

function of frequency.Antenna temperature and signal to noise ratio.

4. **Arrays of point sources :**

Expression for electric fields from two, three and N element arrays- linear

arrays: Broad-side array and End-Fire array- Method of pattern

multiplication- Binomial array-Horizontal and Vertical Antennas above the

ground plane, Effect of ground on ungrounded antenna, Schelkunoff

theorems for linear arrays, Dolph-Tchebysheff distribution for linear arrays.

5. **Loop Antenna:**

Small loop short magnetic dipole, comparison of far field of small loop and

short dipole loop antennas, field pattern of circular loop antenna &

radiation resistance of loop antenna, directivity of circular loop antennas

with uniform current.

6. **Helical antenna:**

Helical geometry, transmission radiation modes, practical design

considerations, wide band characteristics of helical antenna.

7. **Arrays of dipoles & apertures**:

3 element dipole Array with parasitic elements,Yagi-uda array-function and

its design, Phased arrays, frequency scanning arrays, smart antennas,

long wire antennas, location methods of feeding antennas, folded dipole

antennas, matching arrangements.

8. **Reflector antennas**:

Parabolic reflector, paraboloid reflector, aperture Pattern of large circular

apertures with uniform illumination, off axis operation of paraboloid

reflectors ,Cassegrain feed system.

9. **Slot patch & Horn antennas**:

Slot antenna, its pattern,Babinet’s principle and complementary antennas,

impedance of slot antennas, and horn antenna-function and types.

10. **Microstrip ( patch) antennas :**

Rectangular and circular types-function, features analysis ,design

considerations and applications

11. **Lens antennas**:

Nonmetallic Dielectric lens and artificial dielectric lens antennas, reflector

lens antennas.

12. **Broadband & Freq. Independent antennas**:

Broadband antenna, Frequency.independent antenna, log periodic

antennas.

13. **Antennas for special applications:**

Antennas design consideration for satellite communication, antenna for

terrestrial mobile communication systems, GPR, Embedded antennas,

UWB, Plasma antenna.

14. **Antennas measurements**:

Experimental set ups for Measurement of radiation patterns, gain, phase

polarization, terminal impedance.

15. **Radio wave propagation **:

Modes of propagation, Ground Wave Propgation,Structure of troposphere

and ionosphere, Characteristic of Ionospheric layers, Sky wave

propagation, Definitions for Virtual height, MUF and Skip distance, OWF,

Fading,ionospheric absorptions, Multi-hop propagation, Space wave

propagation and Super refraction.

**Text Books**:

1. Antennas for all applications 3 edition. by J.D.Krauss, TMH.

2. Electromagnetic wave & radiating systems by Jordan & Balmain, PHI Publication.

3. Antenna & Wave Propagation by K.D. Prasad, Satyaprakash Publications.

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**Reference Books:**

1. Antenna Theory: Analysis and design –C. Balanis ,Wiley India.

2. Antenna and wave propagation By G.S.N. Raju,Pearson Education

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**List of Experiments:**

1. To study the variation of field strength of radiated with distance from transmitting antenna

2. To plot the radiation pattern of an Omni directional antenna.(Polar plot on log/linear scales & Cartesian plot on log/linear scales)

3. To plot radiation pattern of directional antenna.(Polar plot of Azimuth & Elevation planes on log/linear scales and Cartesian plot on log scales)

4. To study the phenomenon of linear and circular polarization of antennas.

5. To demonstrate that the transmitting and receiving radiation patterns of an antenna are equal and hence confirm the reciprocity theorem of antennas.

6. To study and plot the radiation pattern of the dipole/Folded dipole antennas.

7. To study and plot the radiation pattern of the monopole/whip/collinear antenna.

8. To study and plot the radiation pattern of the end fire array (L/2) antenna & L/4 phased array (W8JK antenna).

9. To study and plot the radiation pattern of broad side array antenna.

10. To study and plot the radiation pattern of the loop antenna.

11. To study and plot the radiation pattern of biconical antenna.

12. To study and plot the radiation pattern of crossed dipole antenna.

13. To study and plot the radiation pattern of vee antenna.

14. To study and plot the radiation pattern of log-periodic antenna and LPDA-PCB.

15. To study and plot the radiation pattern of slot antenna.

16. To study and plot the radiation pattern of sleeve antenna.

17. Design of Yagi-Uda antenna, folded dipole,loop antenna,helical antenna,microstrip antenna etc

18. To study different types of antenna characteristic using simulation exercise.

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