NIT Raipur Syllabus 4th Semester Biotechnology Engineering




Name of the Subject  Food Biotechnology

Subject Code BT20413BT

Semester 4th Board of Studies Biotechnology

Maximum Marks 70 Minimum Marks 25


Unit I – Food Microbiology


Role and significance of micro-organisms in food. Intrinsic and Extrinsic parameters of

food that affect microorganism’s growth. Micro-organisms in fresh meat, poultry,

processed meat and sea food, Food spoilage, Food borne illness.


Unit II – Food Production Technology


Food production Technology; Primary and Secondary fermentation, Beer, Wine and

Distillation spirit, Cheese production, Vinegar and Soya sauce production, Enzymes in

bakery, Fruit juice production, Utilization of food waste.


Unit III – Food Preservation


Food Preservation using irradiation, characteristics radiations of interest in food

preservation, Food preservation using various temperature means, Chemical preservatives

used in food preservation.


Unit IV – Microbial Biomass & Genetically Modified Food


Microbial biomass, Single cell protein, production (Mushroom), Genetically Engineered

food- Methionine enriched oil, Transgenic “ Heart healthy” canola oil, Edible vaccines-

Hepatitis B vaccine in maize, Cholera vaccine in potatoes.


Unit V – Food Quality & Safety Measures


Analysis of major food ingredients; Analysis of preservative, Natural and synthetic- food

colours, food flavour enhancing agents, chemical safety measurement-heavy metals,

fungal toxins, bacterial toxins, herbicide and pesticide detection, Adulteration, Quality

control tests.


Text Books:


1. Food Microbiology- Fundamentals & Frontiers by M.P.Doyle, L.R. Beuchal

&Thorna J. Montville(2001) A.S.M.Press.

2. Potten N.M.” Food Science” the AVL Publishing Co.2002.


Reference Books:


1. Modern food microbiology by M.J.James, C.B.S. publishers & publishers 1987.

2. Basic food microbiology by “ J.B.Gorge C.B.S. Publishers & Distributers, 1887.


National Institute of Technology, Raipur (C.G.)




Name of the Subject Microbiology Subject Code BT 20411 BT


Semester 4


th Board of Studies Biotechnology


Maximum Marks 70 Minimum Marks 25
















03 01 03 4+2


Unit I — Introduction


Introduction to microbiology: History and scope of Microbiology. Microscopy, Types of Micro

Organisms: Bacteria, Algae, Fungi, And Protozoa, Methods in Microbial taxonomy.


Unit II — Microbial Growth & Nutrition


Microbial Nutrition, Nutritional types of microorganism. Culture Media. Isolation of pure culture

and its techniques. Microbial growth. Growth curve and derivation and mathematical expression.

Measurement of microbial Growth. Factors affecting Microbial Growth.


Unit III — Microbial Metabolism


Microorganisms Control; Physical and Chemical agents. Microbial metabolism: Glycolytic

pathways, PPP pathway, Entner Duodroff pathway, Fermentation, TCA Cycle, ETC and

Oxidative phosphorylation; Microbial photosynthesis, Nitrogen fixation by microorganism.


Unit IV — Microbes & Diseases


Viruses: Introduction, Characteristics, Bacteriophages and Eukaryotic viruses; structure and

infection cycle. Diseases caused by Bacteria and Viruses: AIDS, T.B, STD, Hepatitis.


Unit V — Applied Microbiology


Pathogenicity of microorganisms: Host parasite relationships, Mode of action of Antimicrobial

drugs, Chemotherapy. Introduction to microorganism used in food, Industries and environment.


Text Books


1. Microbiology by Pelzar, Chan & Kreig [1986] Mc Graw Hill.

2. Microbiology by Presscott, Harley & Klein [1986] William C. Brown press.


References Books


1. Foundation of Microbiology by K.P. Talaro & A. Talaro , III edition, W.C.B.

McGraw Hill [1999].

2. An introduction to Microbiology by P. Tauro, K.K. Kapoor and K.S. Yadav

3. Microbiology and Biotechnology by D.P.Singh and S.K. Dwvedi.

4. Industrial Microbiology by L.E.Casida.


National Institute of Technology, Raipur (C.G.)




Name of the Subject Numerical Analysis Subject Code MA20415BT


Semester 4


th Board of Studies Mathematics


Maximum Marks 70 Minimum Marks 25
















03 01 00 4


Unit I – Numerical Solution of Algebraic & Transcendental Equations


Bisection Method, Regula Falsi Method, Newton- Raphson Method, Secant Method, Birge-Vieta

Method, Errors in numerical computation, Error type, Analysis and Estimation, Error



Unit II – System of Linear Algebraic Equations


Solution of simultaneous algebraic equations by Gauss elimination method, Gauss-Jordan

method, Crout’s triangularization method, iterative methods of solutions, Jacobi method, Gauss-

Siedel method, relaxation method.


Unit III – Interpolation with Equal and Unequal Intervals


Finite difference, difference of polynomial in Factorial notation, Other difference operator,

Newton’s Forward and Backward interpolation formula, Central interpolation formula, Stirling’s

formula, Bessel’s formula, Lagrange’s formula and Newton’s Divided difference interpolation



Unit IV – Numerical Differentiation, Integration & Curve fitting


Numerical differentiation, Numerical integration – Newton-Cote’s Quadrature Formula,

Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson’s Rules, Weddle’s Rule, Principle of least square, Curve Fitting

Linear & non linear, exponential, logarithmic curve.


Unit V- Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equation


Picard’s method, Taylor’s series method, Euler’s methods, Euler’s modified method, Rungekutta

fourth order method,

Predictor-corrector method, Adams- Bashforth Method, Milne’s



Text Books:


1. Jain M. K. & Iyenger R.K. “Numerical Methods for Scientific & Engg. Computation,”

New-Age, International Pub. 4

th Edition.

2. Grewal B.S. “Numerical Methods”, Khanna Pub.


Reference Books:


1. Burden, Richard L., Fairs,J. Douglas Fairs, “Numerical Analysis”, Thomson Asia. PTE,


th Edition.


National Institute of Technology, Raipur (C.G.)


2. Gourdin A., Boumahrat M. “Applied Numerical Method”, PHI.

3. Rajasekaran , S. “ Numerical Method in Science & Engineering, A Practical Approach”

S.Chand & Co Ltd., II Edition.


National Institute of Technology, Raipur (C.G.)




Name of the Subject Plant Biotechnology Subject Code BT20412BT


Semester 4


th Board of Studies Biotechnology


Maximum Marks 70 Minimum Marks 25
















03 01 03 4+2


Unit I — Introduction of Plant tissue culture


History and scope of plant tissue culture, Terms used in tissue cultures, Types of culture, Basic

techniques of plant tissue culture. Single cell culture and single cell clones, Measurement of

growth and Plant growth Regulators.


Unit II — Culture Media preparation and Culture Techniques


Plant tissue culture Media and its composition, Preparation. Protoplast culture, fusion and

regeneration of Hybrid plants. Micropropagation and Haploid production, Somaclonal variations.

Embryo culture and Reuse.


Unit III — Gene Transfer


Methods of Gene Transfer; Physical, Chemical and Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer, Ti

plasmid, Derived vectors, Marker genes transfer for transformation. Transgene stability,

expression and gene silencing.


Unit IV– Application of Plant Tissue culture


Application to Resistance to Biotic stress; Insect resistance, virus resistance, fungal and bacterial

diseases. Resistance to abiotic stress, Herbicide resistance, modification of seed protein quality,

suppression of endogenous genes and plant derived vaccines.


Unit V — Molecular markers and Screening Techniques


Molecular Marker Aided Plant Breeding. Molecular markers based on DNA molecular breeding

and PCR amplification. Molecular marker assisted selection and Quantitative trait loci.


Text books


1. Introduction to plant tissue culture by M.K. Razdan

2. Theory and Practice: Plant tissue Culture by S.S. Bhojwani

3. Plant Biotechnology by H.S. Chawla.


National Institute of Technology, Raipur (C.G.)




Name of the Subject Recombinant DNA




Subject Code BT20414BT


Semester 4


th Board of Studies Biotechnology


Maximum Marks 70 Minimum Marks 25
















03 01 03 4+2


Unit I: Basic concept of rDNA


Introduction and basic concept of recombinant DNA Technology. Tools in Genetic

Engineering: Restriction Enzymes, Modification Enzymes, Cloning Vector.


Unit II: Vectors


Vectors- Plasmids, Bacteriophages-

M13, ? and P1, Phasmid, Phagmid ,Cosmid.

Artificial Chromosomes: BAC, YAC and Expression vectors.


Unit III: Gene cloning and Molecular markers


Gene Cloning- Isolation of desired gene, preparation of Recombinant DNA,

Integration into host cell and screening of transformants, PCR and Blotting

Techniques, Molecular markers: RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, SSLP.


Unit IV: Gene library


Gene Libraries: c-DNA preparation, Genomic DNA library preparation, Amplification of gene

library, Difference between c-DNA library and Genomic DNA library


Unit V: Probes and Gene transfer methods


Preparation and application of molecular probes, DNA probes, RNA probes, radioactive and

non-radioactive labeling of DNA, Methods of gene transfer- natural and artificial.


Text Books:


1. Principle of gene cloning by Old and Primrose.

2. Molecular cloning by Sambrook et al.

3. A textbook of Biotechnology by R.C. Dubey, S.Chand & company Ltd.


References Books:


1. Gene cloning & DNA analysis “ An Introduction “ by T. A. Brown.

2. From gene to Genomes “Concept & Application of DNA Technology” by J.W.Dale &

M.V. Schartz..


National Institute of Technology, Raipur (C.G.)




Name of the




Thermodynamics &






Subject Code BT20416BT


Semester 4


th Board of Studies Biotechnology


Maximum Marks 70 Minimum Marks 25
















04 01 00 5


Unit I – Introduction to Thermodynamic


Thermodynamic functions, Laws of thermodynamics, Heat effects-standard heat of

reaction, free energy of formation, choice Raouilts Law and Henry’s Law, Fluid phase



Unit II – Thermodynamics Theories:


Chemical potential, fugacity, activity, activity

coefficient, chemical reaction equilibria, standard free energy change, equilibrium

conversion, Vant Hoff’s Eq. Clausius Clayperon Eq: Gibbs Duhem Eq. Application of

thermodynamics on Bimolecular.


Unit III – Introduction to Chemical Reaction Engineering


Kinetics of homogenous reactions, reaction mechanism, temperature dependency, rate

constant, interpretation of batch kinetic data.


Unit IV- Enzyme Reactions


Kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions in free and immobilized states, choice Michaelis-

Menten equation and its various modifications. Effects of external mass transfer

immobilized enzyme systems, analysis if intra-particle diffusion and reactions.


Unit V- Enzyme Kinetics


Kinetics of substrate utilization, product formation and biomass production, Monod

growth model and its various modifications, structured and unstructured kinetic rate

models, thermal death rate kinetics of cells and spores.


Name of Text Books:


1. Chemical Reaction Engineering : Octave Levenspiel

2. Chemical Reaction Engineering : Foggler

3. Bailey & Ollis, “Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals”, Mcgraw Hill (2

nd Ed.),



Name of Reference Books:


National Institute of Technology, Raipur (C.G.)


1. Chemical Engg. Thermodynamics : J.M. Smith

2. Thermodynamics : Glass Stone

3. Bio-chemical Reaction Engg: J.M. Coulson & Richarder vol-3


National Institute of Technology, Raipur (C.G.)


Subject: Microbiology Lab


Subject Code: BT20411BT


End Semester Exam Marks : 20


List of Experiments :


1. General precautions and safety measures in Microbiology Lab.

2. Study of working principle of Microscope / Laminar flow/ Autoclave.

3. Preparation of Culture Media.

4. Isolation of microorganisms from soil.

5. Isolation of microorganisms from air.

6. Isolation of microorganisms from water.

7. Pure culture isolation techniques.

8. Gram staining of bacteria.

9. Simple staining using acidic/basic stains

10. Staining of fungal cell and Identification.

11. Antibiotic sensitivity test.

12. Standard analysis of drinking water.

13. Determination of optimum temperature for growth

14. Determination of thermal death temperature and thermal death time

15. Effect of pH on growth of bacteria


List of Equipments/Machine Required:


1. Autoclave

2. Hot Air Oven

3. Laminar Air Flow

4. Microscope

5. Water Bath

6. Colony Counter

7. Digital Balance

8. Rotating Incubator

9. BOD Incubator

10. Distillation Unit


Recommended Books:


1. Practical Microbiology- Principles and Techniques by Vinita Kale and Kishore Bhusari

2. Refer Books mentioned in theory syllabus.


National Institute of Technology, Raipur (C.G.)


National Institute of Technology, Raipur (C.G.)


Subject: Plant Biotechnology Lab


Subject Code: BT20421BT


End Semester Exam Marks : 20


List of Experments:


1. Introduction to plant Tissue culture.

2. Sterilization of plant materials

3. Media preparation.

4. Transformation Techniques.

5. Protoplast Isolation techniques.

6. Protoplast fusion and Regeneration.

7. Micro propagation.

8. Shoot, root and anther culture.

9. Isolation of plant pathogens (Fungi)

10. Isolation of plant pathogens (Bacteria)

11. Extraction of cellulose from diseased plants(in vivo)

12. Extraction of pectolytic enzymes from disc


List of Equipments/Machine Required:


1. As mentioned in microbiology, Cellular and Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering.


Recommended Books:


1. Experiments in Microbiology, Plant Pathology and Biotechnology by K R Aneja.

2. Refer books mentioned in theory syllabus.


National Institute of Technology, Raipur (C.G.)


Subject : Recombinant DNA Technology Lab


Subject Code : BT20423BT


End Semester Exam Marks: 20


List of Practicals:


1. Isolation of DNA from plant cell by CTAB method.

2. Isolation of DNA from onion cell.

3. Electrophoresis of DNA from plant/onion cell.

4. Isolation of RNA from yeast cell.

5. Estimation of DNA by Diphenyl method.

6. Estimation of RNA by orcinol method.

7. Total Genomic DNA extraction ( Kit).

8. Plasmid Conjugation ( Kit).

9. Isolation of DNA from Blood ( Kit ).

10. Silver Staining of DNA isolated from plant/Animal ( Kit).

11. DNA Ligation ( Kit).

12. Restriction Digestion (Kit).

13. Experiments to perform amplification of DNA

14. Transfer of DNA/Protein from Gel to nitrocellulose membrane by western blotting.


Equiments reuired


1. Refrigerated Micro-Ultracentrifuge

2. Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus

3. Oven

4. Incubator

5. UV Trans-illuminator

6. Micropipette

7. PCR Machine

8. Western Blotting Apparatus

9. Gel Rocker

10. Ultra-low Refrigerator

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