NIT III Sem Biotechnology Syllabus



Detailed syllabus 3rd Semester:
BT- 201 Microbiology [ 3 0 0 3 ]
Scope and History of Microbiology: Scope and History of Microbiology, Classification,
Characterization, Identification and Nomenclature of Microorganisms, Microscopy,
Morphological, Structural and Biochemical characteristics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
(bacteria , yeast, mold, algae, protozoa, actinomycetes)
Cultivation of Microorganisms: Microbiological media, physical conditions required for
Reproduction and Growth of Microorganism: Modes of cell division, growth curve of
microbes, Quantitative measurement of growth.
Methods in Microbiology: Chemical, Physical and Biological methods of selection of
microorganisms, Methods of isolating pure cultures, Maintenance and preservation of pure
cultures, microbial mutation.
Microbial Metabolism: Metabolic pathways and Bioenergetics, Aerobic and Anaerobic growth,
Transport of nutrients across cell membranes
Physical and Chemical Control of Microorganism: Major groups of antimicrobial agents,
Mode of action and practical applications
Energy Transduction Mechanisms in Microbial Cell: Aerobic and anaerobic respiration,
Microbial photosynthesis, Transduction, Transformation, Conjugation
Microbial Interaction: – Roles of microbes in Nitrogen, Carbon and Sulphur cycle
Application of Microorganism in various Field: – Agriculture, food, environment, medicine,
public health and industry.
Viruses: Classification, morphology and composition, DNA and RNA bacteriophages, Lysogeny
and lytic cycle
Books Recommended
1. Pelczar M J, Chan E C S and Krieg N R “Microbiology, 5th Edition, ” Mc Graw Hill,
New York (1995)
2. Salle A J, “Fundamental Principles of Bacteriology” , 7th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill,
New Delhi (1984)
3. Stanier R Y, “Text in Microbiology” McMillan Press London (1995)
4. Davis B D, “Microbiology”, Harper and Row Publications, Hageston (1980)
5. Casida L E, “Industrial Microbiology”, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi
BT-203 Biochemistry [3 0 0 3]
Molecular basis of life, study of macro molecules
Carbohydrates: Their structure and biological functions, Monosaccharides disaccharides and
polysaccharides Glycoproteins.
Amino Acids and Proteins: Their structure and function, Types of amino acids, Fibrous
proteins and globular proteins, Separation of proteins
Fats and Lipids: Their structure and biological functions, Types of lipids, triacylglycerol,
Waxes, Phospholipids, Sphingolipids, Lipoproteins
Nucleic acid and Nucleotides: DNA, Structure of chromosomes and genes, Replication and
transcription of DNA, RNA Protein synthesis and its regulation, Genetic recombination and
Vitamins and Hormones: Types, Structure and functions
Photosynthesis: Chlorophylls, Kinds and roles of photosystems, Calvin cycle
Enzymes: Properties and types, Kinetics of enzyme action, Enzyme inhibition, Allosteric
enzymes, Assay of enzymes, Regulation of enzyme activity
Bioenergetics and Metabolism: Metabolism, basic concepts and design, Glycolysis citric acid
cycle oxidative phosphorylation pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis glycogen and
disaccharide metabolism amino acid degradation and urea cycle
Biological Membranes: Characteristics of biological membranes components of membranes
types of membranes fluid mosaic model membrane asymmetry
Books Recommended
1. Stryer L, “Biochemistry” , 5th Edition, W.H.Freeman and Company (2002)
2. Lehninger, A L “Principles of Biochemistry”, 4th Edition Butterworth Publishers, New
York (2003)
3. Conn E E and Stump P K “Outlines of Biochemistry” ,John Wiley and Sons, New
York (1987)
4. Walsh G , “ Proteins Biochemistry and Biotechnology” John Wiley and sons (2003)
5. Rastogi,” Biochemistry” , 2nd Edition, Tata Mc Graw Hill (2003).
BT-205 Bioprocess Calculation [3 1 0 4]
Introduction to Biochemical Engineering Calculations: Units and dimensions, mole concept,
conventions in methods of analysis and measurement, basis, temperature, pressure, the chemical
equations and stoichiometry, limiting and excess reactant, conversion and yield. Mass and
energy balances in bioprocesses, flow sheet and process calculations, metabolic stoichiometry of
growth and product formation, material balance and energy balance with recycle, by pass and
purge streams.
Material Balance: Material balance, program of analysis of material balance problems, solving
material balance problems that do not involve chemical reactions, solving material balances
problems involving chemical reactions, multiple subsystems, recycle, bypass, and purge
Gases Vapors, Liquids and Solids: Ideal gas law calculations, real gas relationships, vapor
pressure and liquids, saturation, partial saturation and humidity.
Energy Balances: Concepts and units, calculation of enthalpy changes, application of the
general energy balance without reactions occurring energy balances that account for chemical
reaction, reversible processes and the mechanical energy balances, heats of solution and mixing,
psychometric charts and their use.
Books recommended
1. Himmelblau D M, “Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering,”
Prentice Hall (1998).
2. Haugen O A, Watson K M and Ragatz R A, “Chemical Process Principles (Part-I):
Material and Energy Balances”, Asia Publishing House (1995).
3. Bhatt B I and Vora S M, “Industrial Stoiciometry”: Tata McGraw Hill Publishing, New
Delhi (1987).
4. Reklaitis G V, “Introduction to material and energy balances” Wiley, New York (1983)
BT-207 Bioprocess Engineering [3 1 0 4]
Microbial Growth Kinetics: Batch, continuous and fed batch, mass balance in series of vessels,
recycle system
Media Sterilization: Methods of media sterilization, batch and continuous sterilization, kinetics
of sterilization
Air Sterilization: Methods of air sterilization, mechanism of air sterilization, filter design.
Design of Fermenter: Construction materials, Temperature control, Mass transfer and microbial
respiration, Baffles, Sterilization of fermenter, different types of fermenter,
Aeration and Agitation: bubble aeration and mechanical agitation, correlation between oxygen
transfer coefficient and operating variables, factors affecting volumetric oxygen transfer, the
effect of degree of agitation on volumetric oxygen transfer, rheology of fermentation fluids
Scale Up: Scale up concepts, criteria for bioreactors scale up.
Monitoring of Bioprocesses: On line data analysis for measurement and control of important
physicochemical and biochemical parameters, parameter estimation techniques for biochemical
processes, parameter estimation techniques for biochemical processes, Computer based data
Books Recommended
1. Shuler M L, Kargi F, “ Bioprocess Engineering- Basic Concepts” , 2nd ed, Prentice Hall
of India Ltd. ( 2002)
2. Aiba S, Humphrey A E and Millis N F ,“Biochemical Engineering” , Academic Press
3. Stanbury P F and Whitaker A, “Principles of Fermentation Technology,” 2nd edition,
Elsevier, (1995)
4. Bailey J E and Ollis D F, “Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals” , McGraw Hill
5. Harvey W. Blanch and Douglas S.Clark, “Biochemical Engineering”, Marcel Dekker
6. Lee J M, “Biochemical Engineering” , Prentice Hall (1992)
CH-001 Fluid Mechanics & Mechanical Operation) [3-1-0-4]
Introduction to Fluid flow: Ideal and real fluids, Extensive and Intensive properties, viscosity,
surface tension, capillarity, evaporability, vapour pressure, Newtonian and Non Newtonian
Fluid Statistics: Hydro statistics law, Pascal’s law, Different types of Manometer, centrifugal
Fluids Kinematics and Dynamics: Classification of fluid flow, streamline, streakline, pathlines,
flow rate and continuity equation, Bernaulli’s theorem and its application, kinetic energy and
momentum correction factor in Bernaulli’s equation, concept of friction law in fluid flow,
various pumps.
Laminar Viscous flow and flow measurement devices: Reynolds numbers, Hagen Poiseuille
Law, Venturi meter, Orifice meter.
Size Reduction: Particle size and shape, particle mass, size and shape distributions,
measurement and analysis, concept of average diameter, size reduction, crushing, grinding and
law of grindings.
Screening: Equipment, capacity and effectiveness of screen, effect of mesh size on capacity of
Settling: Flow around a single particle, drag force and drag coefficient, settling velocity of
particles in a fluid, hindered and free settling of particles, thickening gravity separation
Separation of solid from liquid: Classification of filters, various types of cake filters, principle
of cake filtration, clarification filters, liquid clarification, centrifugal settling process.
Agitation & Mixing: Agitation of liquids, axial flow impellers, radial flow impellers, velocity
and power consumption of agitated vessels, blending & mixing.
Fluidization: Packed beds, bed porosity, flow though a bed of particles, fluidization & fluidized
bed, conditions for fluidization minimum velocity, types of fluidization.
Books Recommended
1. Smith J C, Mccabe W L and Harriot P H, “Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering”,
McGraw Hill, 7th edition, (2005).
2. Richardson and Coulson “Chemical Engineering Vol II”, 5th ed., Butterworth –
Heinemann (2003).
3. Perry’s, “Handbook of Chemical Engineering”, 7th Ed, McGraw Hill (1997).
BT- 209 Microbiology Laboratory [0 0 4 2]
1. To study the microscope.
2. Preparation and sterilization of the medium for bacteria yeast and mold.
3. Preparation of slants /plates /deeps for culture of bacteria yeast and mold.
4. Aseptic transfer of microbial cultures.
5. To study the morphology of bacteria, yeast and mold.
6. Staining of bacteria (Gram’s stain).
7. The quantitative bacteriological examination of water/milk.
8. Determination of phenol coefficient.
9. a) Determination of cell mass in a fermentation broth.
b) Calibration of cell mass vs. cell number and cell mass vs optical density
10. Serial dilution to quantify the viable cells.
BT- 211 Biochemistry Laboratory [0 0 4 2]
1. Determination of reducing sugar by dinitro-salicylic (DNS) method.
2. Protein estimation by Lowry’s method.
3. Estimation of DNA by diphenylamine reagent method.
4. Determination of Michaelis constant of enzymes.
5. Determination of isoelectric point of casein.
6. Extraction of lipids from egg yolk.
7. Separation by amino acids by paper electrophoresis
8. Preparation of different buffer solutions for biochemical experiments
9. Determination of pKa values
10. Titration curves of amino acids
11. Ultraviolet absorption of nucleic acids, amino acids and protein
12. Determination of acid value, iodine value and specification value of fat
13. Experimental analysis of biochemical compounds by TLC
14. Estimation of cholesterol.

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