NIT Hamirpur Syllabus Ground Improvement Techniques





1. Dewatering: Need and objectives of Ground Improvement, Classification of Ground Modification

Techniques ? suitability and feasibility, Emerging Trends in ground improvement, methods of de?

watering? sumps and interceptor ditches? single, multi stage well points  ? vacuum well points? 

Horizontal wells?foundation drains?blanket drains?  criteria for selection of fill material around

drains –Electro?osmosis.

2. Dynamic compaction:   Principles   of   compaction,   Engineering   behaviour   of   compacted   clays,  

fieldcompaction  techniques  static  vibratory,  impact,  Earth  moving   machinery,  Compaction

control, application to granular soils, cohesive soils, depth of improvement, environmental

considerations, induced settlements, compaction using vibratory probes, vibro techniques, vibro   

equipment,   vibro   compaction   and   replacement   process,   vibro   systems   and liquefaction,  

soil    improvement    by    thermal    treatment,    preloading    techniques,    surface compaction,

introduction to bio technical stabilization.

3. Grouting:  Chemical, systems, operations, applications, compaction, application and limitations,

plant for preparing grouting materials, jet, geometry and properties of treated soils and


4. Stabilization: Soil improvement by adding materials, lime, flyash, cement and other chemicals

and bitumen, sand column, stone column, sand drains, prefabricated drains, lime column,

soil?lime column, stabilization of soft clay or silt with lime, bearing capacity and settlement of

treated soils, improvement in slope stability, control methods.

5. Expansive soils: Problems– tests for identification – methods of determination of swell pressure.

Improvement– Foundation techniques.

Text Books:

1. Raj, P.P.  Ground improvement techniques, Laxmi Publications, New Delhi

2. P. Purushothama Raj, Ground improvement techniques, Laxmi Publications, Bangalore.

Reference Books:

1. Bureau of Indian Standards, Selection of ground improvement techniques for foundation in weak   

soils?guidelines, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

2. Civil Engineering and Construction Review, Foundations Geosynthetics and ground       

improvement,  Civil Engineering and Construction Review,  New Delhi.

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