# NIT Delhi EEE Syllabus Part IV

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

Signals and systems- discrete-time signals, discrete-time systems, convolution, difference equations- Fourier analysis- frequency response, filters, interconnection of systems, dtft, properties, applications- sampling- sampling, analog to digital conversion, digital to analog conversion, discrete-time processing of analog signals, sample rate conversion- z-transform definition of z-transform, properties, inverse z-transform, one-sided z-transform- transform analysis of systems- system function, systems with linear phase, all pass filters, minimum phase systems, feedback systems- discrete Fourier transform- dfs, dft, dft properties, sampling the dtft, linear convolution using dft- fast Fourier transform radix-2 fft algorithms, decimation in time, decimation in frequency- implementation of discrete-time systems- digital networks, structures for fir systems, structures for iir systems, lattice filters, finite word-length effects- filter design- filter specifications, fir filter design, iir filter design, filter design based on least squares approach.

TEXT BOOKS:

1. Monsoon H. Hayes – Schaum’s outline of theory and problems in digital signal processing – TMGH – 2004

2. Salivahanan, Vallavaraj, Gnanapriya – Digital signal processing – TMGH – 2002

3. Sanjay Sharma – Digital signal processing – S. K. Kataria and Sons – 2005

EE362 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES (3-0-0)3

Design of electrical and magnetic circuits of electrical machines- Mathematical equations for electric and magnetic circuits- formation of design of electric and magnetic circuits for electric machines- Design of Thermal Circuit of Electrical Machines- mathematical equations for thermal circuits- design of thermal circuits for electric machines- Design of Rotating Electrical Machines- Optimum Design procedures for AC and DC Machines- Criteria for optimization – flow Charts and Computer Programs-

TEXT BOOKS :

1. M.Ramamurthy – Computer aided Design of Electrical Equipment, East_West Press Pvt. Ltd. Madras, 1988.

2. C.G. Veinott – Computer aided design of F H P motors – Mc Graw Hill Pub. Co.

EE411 ELECTRICAL MACHINE MODELLING & ANALYSIS (3-0-0)3

Basic principles for electric machine analysis- magnetically coupled circuits, em energy conversion- linearized machine equations-reference frame theory- equations of transformation- balanced steady state equations, variables observed from various frames- theory of symmetrical induction machines and synchronous machines- voltage and torque equations in machine variables- arbitrary reference frame variables- state-space model of induction machine in ‘d-q’ variables- park’s transformation

TEXT BOOK

1. P.C. Krause “Analysis of Electric Machinery” – McGraw Hill, 1990.

EE412 DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PLANNING AND AUTOMATION (3-0-0)3

Distribution system planning- planning and forecasting techniques, load characteristics- definitions – load forecasting – load management – tariffs-distribution transformers- types – three phase and single phase transformers – connections, dry type and self protected type transformers – regulation and efficiency-sub transmission lines and distribution sub-stations- distribution substations –bus schemes –substation location and rating- primary systems – voltage drop and power loss calculations- capacitors in distribution systems- distribution sytem protection- distribution system automation- grounding

TEXT BOOK

1. Turan Gonen : Electric Power Distribution Engg., Mc Graw Hill, ISE., 1998.

EE413 POWER SYSTEM STABILITY AND CONTROL (3-0-0)3

Synchronous machine modelling- parks transformation of flux linkages- operational impedances- time constants- basic models for power system studies- low and high order models- low frequency oscillation studies- steady state dynamic stability criteria- normal conditions- practical stability criteria- dynamic stability of smib system & mmp systems.- transient stability studies- stability analysis of multi machine

systems, effect of exciter and governor models, computer solution and flow charts. methods to improve stability- methods to improve steady state, dynamic stability (psss) transient and voltage stability.

TEXT BOOK:

1 P.M. Anderson & A.A. Fouad: Power System Control and Stability, Iowa State University Press; 1981.

2 Prabha Kundur: Power Systems stability and Control, McGraw – Hill Inc New York, 1994.

EE414 COMPUTER METHODS IN POWER SYSTEMS (3-0-0)3

Incidence and network matrices- introduction, graphs, incidence matrices formation of network matrix – ybus by singular transformation- ?-representation of off-nominal tap transformers- algorithms for formation of zbus matrix- short _ circuit studies- introduction, short_ circuit calculations using zbus, zfabc , yfabc ,zf012 , yf012 matrices for various faults, example of short circuit calculations using zbus for l-l-l and l-g faults- sparsity technique in load flow studies- sparsity technique for ybus and gauss-seidal method- comparison of gs, nr, fdc models- distribution system load flow study- introduction to real – time control of power system- introduction- linear wls state estimation- d.c power flow based wls equations- scada- transient stability analysis- representation of power system elements- numerical integration methods- transient stability algorithm using modified euler’s method and fourth order runge kutta method.

TEXT BOOKS

Stagg and El Abiad: Computer methods in power systems analysis, McGraw Hill ISE, 1986.

EE415 EHV AC TRANSMISSION (3-0-0)2

Introduction to EHV AC Transmission- Calculations of line and ground parameters- Properties of bundled conductors- equivalent circuit of line model- Corona- corona loss formula factors affecting corona. Audible noise- radio interference, limits for radio interference fields, CIGRE formula- Over Voltage in EHV Systems- Switching surges- over voltages, insulation coordination design- Theory of reactive power control- steady state reactive power control theory- fundamental transmission line equation, surge impedance loading- Passive shunt compensation, control of voltage- Power System Grounding- Analysis of simple grounding systems, body currents due to touch and step voltages, grounding system safety assessment, Basic design of grounding, Mitigation of touch and step voltages, Design example of a substation grounding.

TEXT BOOKS:

1 Rakesh Das Begamudre : Extra High Voltage Ac Transmission Engineering, PHI (pub) 1991.

2 T.J.E.Miller : Reactive Power Control in Electric Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 1986

EE416 AI TECHNIQUES IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (3-0-0)3

Artificial neural networks- introduction- neural network models- architectures – knowledge representation– learning process – learning tasks- ann paradigms- back propagation, rbf algorithms- hopfield network-fuzzy logic- introduction– fuzzy sets – membership function – fuzzy logic –fuzzy inference-defuzzification methods- genetic algorithms- introduction-encoding –fitness function-reproduction operators-genetic modeling –genetic operators-cross over and mutation- generational cycle-convergence of genetic algorithm- applications of ai techniques- load forecasting – load flow studies – economic load dispatch – load frequency control –reactive power control – speed control of dc and ac motors.

TEXT BOOKS

1 S.Rajasekaran and G.A.V.Pai Neural Networks, Fuzzy Logic & Genetic Algorithms, PHI, New Delhi, 2003.

MH451 OPERATIONS RESEARCH (3-0-0)3

linear programming :formulation and graphical solution of lpp’s. the general lpp, slack, surplus and artificial variables. reduction of a lpp to the standard form. simplex computational procedure, big-m method, two-phase method. solution in case of unrestricted variables. dual linear programming problem. solution of the primal problem from the solution of the dual problems. transportation problems :balanced and unbalanced transportation problems. initial basic feasible solution using n-w corner rule, row minimum method, column minimum, least cost entry method and vogel’s approximation method. optimal solutions. degenracy in transportation problems. queueing theory :poisson process and exponential distribution. poisson queues – model (m/m/1):(?/fifo) and its characteristics.elements of inventory control :economic lot size problems – fundamental problems of eoq. the problem of eoq with finite rate of replenishment. problems of eoq with shortages – production nstantaneous, replenishment of the inventory with finite rate. stochastic problems with uniform demand (discrete case only).

TEXT BOOK :

1. Introduction to Operations Research by Kanti Swarup, Man Mohan & P.K.Gupta (Pub: Sultan Chand & Sons)

EE462 ELECTRIC TRACTION (3-0-0)3

Traction systems- methods of traction- electrification- traction mechanics- speed-time curve, calculation of tractive effort requirements- specific energy consumption, mechanics of train movement, coefficient of adhesion- traction motors- desirable characteristics of traction motors, suitability of series motor for traction, linear induction motor- traction motor control- control of dc traction motors, series-parallel control, shunt and bridge transition- braking- types of braking –plugging, rheostatic braking, regenerative braking of dc and three phase induction motors- power supply arrangements- major equipment at sub-station, design considerations of sub-stations- rectification equipment and semiconductor devices- cyclo-converters, choppers for variable frequency ac and variable voltage thyristor converters for hvdc- train lighting- special requirements of train lightingac train lighting making use of 25kv ac supply- radio intereference- principle of radio interference, origon of ri, method of propagation, factors to be considered in line design.

TEXT BOOK:

1. H.Partab : Modern Electric Traction, Dhanpat Rai & Sons

EE463 POWER SYSTEM DEREGULATION (3-0-0)3

Overview of key issues in electric utilities:introduction – restructuring models – independent system operator (ISO) – power exchange – market operations – market power – standard cost – transmission pricing – congestion pricing – management of inter zonal/intra zonal congestion.oasis: open access same-time information system: structure of oasis – posluing of information – transfer capability on oasis – definitions transfer capability issues – ATC – TTC – TRM – CBM calculations – methodologies to calculate ATC electricity pricing: introduction – electricity price volatility electricity price indexes – challenges to electricity pricing – construction of forward price curves – short-time price forecasting. power system operation in competitive environment: introduction – operational planning activities of ISO- the ISO in pool markets – the ISO in bilateral markets – operational planning activities of a genco ancillary services management. Introduction – reactive power as an ancillary service – a review – synchronous generators as ancillary service providers.

TEXT BOOKS:

1. Kankar Bhattacharya, Math H.J. Boller, Jaap E.Daalder, ‘Operation of Restructured Power System’ Klum,er Academic Publisher – 2001

2. Mohammad Shahidehpour, and Muwaffaq alomoush, – “Restructured electrical Power systems” Marcel Dekker, Inc. 2001

3. Loi Lei Lai; “Power system Restructuring and Deregulation”, Jhon Wiley & Sons Ltd., England.

EE464 REAL TIME CONTROL OF POWER SYSTEMS (3-0-0)3

Substation/ Generating Stations- Layout- Instrument Transformers and their importance in measurements and protection, parameters for Grid operation: Analog Points, Status Points, Alarms- RTU- SCADA Functions- Introduction to SCADA- Grid Operation & Control, need and advantages of SCADA- Control Functions- Man – Machine Communication :Operator’s Console, VDU Display and its use, Operator Dialogs, Mimic Diagram Functions, Printing Facilities. Remote Terminal Unit ( RTU) & Communication Practices- Major Components: RTU Panel, Interface Panel. D20M Main Processor, Analog Card, Status Card, Control Card, Modems-Types Of Communications- Types of Network Elements in LAN & WAN. Sub-load Dispatch Center( Sub-LDC)- Elements of SLDC- Workstations- Front end processor- Routers- Function of SLDC- Introduction to SCADA PROTOCOLS and Communication Standards for Electrical Power Systems-(Ref: www.dnp.org,www.modbus.org, www.kema.nl) Real Time Software- Classification- Structure- Tools-Language requirements of RTS Computer control of Electrical Power Systems- State Load Dispatch Center (SLDC): Inter Connectivity Of Sub-LDCs & SLDCs, Hierarchy of Data Transfer, Functions & Responsibilities of SLDC, Real Time Operation carried at SLDC. Southern Regional Load Dispatch Center (SRLDC)- Functions & Responsibilities of SRLDC, Operations carried at SRLDC, Overview of SCADA, Real Time operation in detail.

TEXT BOOKS

1. Power System control – Technology – by Torsten Cegrell, Prentice Hall International Ltd., 1986.

2. Real – Time Computer Control – by S. Bennett and D.A. Linkens (Editors), IEE Control Engineering series (24), peter Peregrinus Ltd., 1984.

EE465 POWER QUALITY (3-0-0)3

Introduction what is power quality? power quality – voltage quality -why are we concerned about power quality? the power quality evaluation procedure, terms and definitions general classes of power quality problems transients long-duration voltage variations short-duration voltage variations voltage imbalance waveform distortion voltage fluctuation power quality terms cbema and iti curves, Voltage sags and interruptions sources of saga and interruptions estimating voltage sag performance fundamental principles of protection solution at the end-user level motor –starting saga Transient over voltages sources of transient over voltages principles of over voltage protection devices for over voltage protection utility capacitor-switching transients utility system lightning protection managing ferro-resonance switching transient problems with loads computer tools for transients analysis Fundamentals of harmonics harmonic distortion voltage versus current distortion harmonics versus transients harmonic indexes harmonic sources from commercial loads harmonic sources from industrial loads locating harmonic sources effects

of harmonic distortion inter-harmonics-harmonic distortion evaluations principles for controlling harmonics harmonic filter design: a case study – standards of harmonics Long-duration voltage variations principles of regulating the voltage devices for voltage regulation utility voltage regulator application capacitors for voltage regulation end-users capacitors application regulating utility voltage with distributed resources flicker Power quality monitoring monitoring considerations historical perspective of power quality measuring instruments power quality measurement equipment assessment of power quality measurement data application of intelligent systems power quality monitoring standards

TEXT BOOKS:

1. Electrical Power Systems Quality Dugan Roger C Mc Graw Hill Santoso Surya Mc Granaghan Marks F. Beaty H. Wayre

2. Power Systems Quality Assessment J.Arillaga, N.R.Watson, S.Clon John Wiley

3. Power Quality C.Sankaran CRC Press

EE466 SWITCHED MODE POWER CONVERSION (3-0-0)3

DC/DC Converters- Basic topologies of buck, boost, buck-boost converters- forward, and fly-back converters, half and full bridge topologies, modeling of switching converters- Current Mode and Current Fed Topologies- Voltage mode and current mode control of converters- voltage and current fed converters- Resonant Converters- Need for resonant converters, types of resonant converters- Converter Transfer Functions- Application of state-space averaging to switching converters, derivation of converter transfer functions- Power Converter Design- Design of filter components for current sensing, ratings for switching devices, design of drive circuits for switching devices, considerations for PCB layout- Controller Design- Introduction, mechanisms of loop stabilization, conditional stability in feedback loops.

TEXT BOOK

1. Abraham I. Pressman: Switching Power Supply Design, Mc Graw Hill International, 2nd Edition, 1999.

EE467 HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING (3-0-0)3

Electro static fields, their control and estimation- electric field intensity, classification of electric fields, control of electric field intensity generation of high dc and ac voltages- introduction, rectifier circuits, Cockroft- Walton voltage multiplier circuit, electrostatic generator, generation of high ac voltages by cascaded transformers, series resonant circuit. generation of impulse voltages and currents- definitions, impulse generator circuits- impulse current generation. measurement of high voltages and currents- introduction, sphere gap, electrostatic voltmeter, generating voltmeter, Fortescue method, voltage dividers, measurement of high dc, ac and impulse currents. high voltage testing of electrical equipment – testing of insulators, cables, bushings, power capacitors, power transformers and circuit breakers- IEC, ANSI, IEEE and Indian Standards for testing electrical equipment. non-destructive test techniques- high voltage schering bridge- partial discharges measuring techniques. breakdown mechanism of gaseous liquid and solid insulating materials

TEXT BOOKS:

1. Ravindra Arora & Wolfgang Mosch: High voltage Insulation Engineering, New Age International Publishers, 1997.

2. C.L. Wadhwa: High voltage Engineering, New Age International Publishes, 1998.

EE468 NEW ENTERPRISE CREATION & MANAGEMENT (3-1-0)4

Entrepreneur and entrepreneurship- establishing the small scale enterprise- operating the small scale enterprises- performance appraisal and growth strategies- management performance assessment and control, strategies for stabilization and growth, managing family enterprises

TEXT BOOKS

1. Holt: Entrepreneurship: New Venture Creation, PHI(P), Ltd.,2001.

Madhulika Kaushik : Management of New & Small Enterprises, IGNOU course material, 1995.

MH 462 NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (3-0-0)3

Ordinary Differential Equations : Multistep (explicit and implicit) methods for initial value problems, Stability and Convergence analysis, Linear nonlinear boundary value problems, Quazilinearization, Shooting methods Finite difference methods : Finite difference approximations for derivatives, boundary value problems with explicit boundary conditions, implicit boundary conditions, error analysis, stability analysis, convergence analysis. Partial Differential Equations: Classification of partial differential equations, finite difference approximations for partial derivatives and finite difference schemes for : Parabolic equations : Schmidt’s two level, multilevel explicit methods, Crank-Nicolson’s two level, multilevel implicit methods, Dirichlet’s problem, Neumann problem, mixed boundary value problem. Hyperbolic Equations : Explicit methods, implicit methods, one space dimension, two space dimensions, ADI methods. Elliptic equations : Laplace equation, Poisson equation, iterative schemes, Dirichlet’s problem, Neumann problem, mixed boundary value problem, ADI methods.

TEXT BOOKS:

1. M.K.Jain : Numerical Solution of Differential Equations, Wiley Eastern, New Delhi

2. G.D.Smith : Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations, Oxford Uni. Press