Mumbai University Syllabus for Bio Medical Engineering VII and VIII Sem

MUMBAI UNIVERSITY SYLLABUS

Bio Medical Engineering VII and VIII SEM

 

University of Mumbai

Syllabus Structure (R-2007)

B.E. Biomedical Engineering

Semester-VII

Sr. No. Subject Scheme of Instructions Periods per Week (Each 60 min.) Scheme of Evaluation
Theory Practical/

Tutorial

Pa

per TW Practical

/Oral

Oral Total

Marks

Hours

Marks
1. Medical Imaging- II 04 02 3 100 25 ——- 50 175
2. Biomedical

Instrumentation-

III

04 02 3 100 25   25 150
3. Principles of Image Processing 04 02 3 100 25 50 ——- 175
4. Networking and Information System in Medicine 04 02 3 100 25   25 150
5. Installation, Maintenance and Servicing 04       50   50 100
6. Project Stage-I 04 25 25 50
  Total 20 12 400 175 50 175 800

 

Semester-VIII

S. No. Subject Scheme of Instructions Periods per Week (Each 60 min.) Scheme of Evaluation
Theory Practical/

Tutorial

Paper TW Practical

/

Oral

Oral Total

Marks

Hours Marks
1. Nuclear

Medicine

04 02 3 100 25 25 150
2. Basics of VLSI 04 02 3 100 25 25 150
3. Biomedical

Microsystems

04 02 3 100 25 25 150
4. Elective 04 02 3 100 25 25 150
5. Project stage-II 08 50 50 100
  Total 16 16   400 150 150 700

 

Electives:

  1. Hospital Management
  2. Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine
  3. Robotics in Medicine

 

University of Mumbai
Class: B.E. Branch: Biomedical Engineering Semester: VII
Subject: MEDICAL IMAGING- II
Periods per Week (Each 60 min.)

Lecture

04

Practical

02

Tutorial

  Hours Marks
Evaluation System

Theory

03 100

Practical & Oral

Oral

02 50

Term Work

25

Total

05 175

 

Module Content Time

(hrs)

1. Computed Tomography.  
Principle of Computed tomography 02
  Scanner configurations/generations, CT system: Scanning unit (gantry), detectors, data acquisition system, spiral CT, scanner parameters, CT Number 08
  Reconstruction techniques, Radon Transform, Filtered Back projection, Fourier Reconstruction Technique, Iterative reconstruction Technique, Image quality and artifacts, Clinical applications of CT 08
  Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), Flat panel detectors 03
  CT-Angiography 01
2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Physics of MRI, Relaxation Parameters and Spin Echoes, Magnetic Field Gradients, Slice selection and Frequency Encoding, Pulse sequences

08
  Hardware: Magnets, Gradient systems, RF coils, 02

 

 

  Fourier Reconstruction techniques, Image contrast, Resolution and Factors affecting signal-to-noise 04
Safety Considerations/Biological Effects of MRI 02
3. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)

Basic Principle of MRS and localization techniques, Chemical Shift Imaging, Single-voxel and Multivoxel MRS, Water Suppression techniques

06
4. Basics of Electrical Impedance Tomography 02
5. Hybrid Imaging modalities and its clinical application 02

 

Theory Examination:

  1. Question paper will comprise of total 7 questions, each of 20 marks.
  2. Only 5 questions need to be solved.
  3. Q.1 will be compulsory and based on the entire syllabus.
  4. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature.
  5. In question paper weightage of each module will be proportional to the number of respective lecture hours as mentioned in the syllabus.

Oral Examination:

Oral will be based on entire subject for 25 marks and also on the basis of the Hospital/Industry visits for 25 marks separately.

Term work:

Term work will consist of at least Eight Assignments/ Laboratory Experiments based on the above syllabus and a written test. Test and Seminars be suitably graded by teachers and attached in the journal. The distribution of the term work shall be as follows,

Lab work (Assignments/ Laboratory Experiments & Seminar) :15marks

Test (at least one)                        :10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of

laboratory work and minimum passing in the term-work. .

Text Books:

  1. Christensen’s Physics of Diagnostic Radiology, Lipimcott William, (willkins Publication)
  2. Medical Imaging Physics William R. Hendee (Wiley-Liss Publication)

References:

1. Biomedical Technology and Devices Handbook by James Moore George Zouridakis (CRC Press)

  1. Biomedical Engineering Handbook by Bronzino (CRC Press)
  2. Physics of Diagnostic Imaging -Dowsett

B.E. (BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING) SEMESTER – VII

University of Mumbai
Class: B.E. Branch: Biomedical Engineering Semester: VII
Subject: BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION -III
Periods per Week (Each 60 min.)

Lecture

04

Practical

02

Tutorial

  Hours Marks
Evaluation System

Theory

03

100

Practical & Oral

Oral

02

25

Term Work

25

Total

05

150

 

Module Content Time (hrs)
1. Physiotherapy, Electrotherapy and Radiation Therapy Equipments: Basic principle, working and technical specifications of Shortwave Diathermy, Ultrasonic therapy unit, Infrared and UV lamps, Nerve and Muscle Stimulator, Radiation and Physical therapy Units. 10
2. Surgical Instruments: Surgical Diathermy machine, electrodes used with surgical diathermy, safety aspects in electronic surgical units, surgical diathermy analyzers. 07
3. Cardiac Pacemakers: Modes of operation, leads and electrodes. Power supply sources. External and Implantable Pacemaker, Performance aspects of Implantable Pacemaker. 07
4. Cardiac Defibrillators: DC defibrillator, Modes of operation and electrodes, Performance aspects of dc-defibrillator, defibrillator analyzers. Implantable defibrillator and defibrillator analyzer. 06
5. Hemodialysis Machine: Basic principle of Dialysis. Different 04

 

  types of dialyzer membrane, Portable type.  
6. Laser Applications in Biomedical Engineering

Laser Classifications, Types of Lasers, Medical Applications, Laser Delivery Systems.

08
7. Heart rate variability measurement and applications. 02

 

Theory Examination:

  1. Question paper will comprise of total 7 questions, each of 20 marks.
  2. Only 5 questions need to be solved.
  3. Q.1 will be compulsory and based on the entire syllabus.
  4. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature.
    1. In question paper weightage of each module will be proportional to the number of respective lecture hours as mentioned in the syllabus.

Oral Examination:

Oral examination will be based on the entire subject.

Term work:

Term work will consist of at least Six Laboratory Experiments based on the above syllabus and a written test. Test and Assignments/Seminars be suitably graded by teachers and attached in the journal. The distribution of the term work shall be as follows,

Laboratory work (Experiments and Journal)  : 15 marks

Test (at least one)                    :10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of laboratory work and minimum passing in the term-work. .

Text Books:

  1. Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation: R S. Khandpur. (PH Pub)
  2. Medical Instrumentation, Application and Design: J G. Webster. (John Wiley)
  3. Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology: Carr -Brown. (PH Pub)

Reference:

  1. Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instrumentation: J G. Webster. Vol I,II,III,IV (PH Pub)
  2. Various Instruments Manuals.

 

University of Mumbai
Class: BE. Branch: Biomedical Engineering Semester: VII
Subject: Principles of Image Processing
Periods per Week (Each 60 min.)

Lecture

04

Practical

02

Tutorial

  Hours Marks
Evaluation System

Theory

03 100

Practical and Oral

02 50

Oral

Term Work

25

Total

05 175

 

Module Content Time

(hrs)

1 Basics of Image processing: Image acquisition, Processing, communication, display, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Visual perception, structure of the human eye, image formation in the eye, uniform and Non-Uniform Sampling, Quantization, Image formats 05

2

Image Enhancement: Spatial Domain-Point processing techniques, histogram processing, Neighbourhood processing, Frequency Domain techniques- 2D-DFT, Properties of 2 D-DFT, Low pass, High pass, Noise removal, Homomorphic filters, Basics of Colour image processing 14

3

Image Segmentation: Detection of discontinuities, point line, edge detection, Edge linking, Hough transform, Region Based segmentation 08

4

Image transforms: DFT, FFT, DCT, DST, Hadamard, Walsh, Haar, Slant, K-L Transforms, Basis Functions and basis images 07

 

 

5

Image Compression: Fundamentals of Image compression models, Lossless Compression- RLE, Huffman, LZW, Arithmetic coding techniques Lossy Compression- IGS coding, Transform coding, JPEG, Predictive Coding. 07

6

Representation and Description: Morphology-dilation, Erosion, open, close, Hit and miss, Boundary extraction, region filling, skeletonization, Feature extraction, Moments 07

 

List of Experiments (Software Matlab / C/ Labview/ Similar software)

1. Point Processing techniques (At least 4 experiments)  
2. Histogram Processing (Histogram Stretching and Equalisation)  
3. Frequency Domain processing (Plotting 2D-DFT, Low pass and High Pass

Ideal,

  Butterworth and Gaussian Filters)  
4. Segmentation-Gradient operators  
5. Transforms- DCT  
Theory Examination:  
1. Question paper will comprise of total 7 questions, each of 20 marks.  
2. Only 5 questions need to be solved.  
3. Q.1 will be compulsory and based on the entire syllabus.  
4. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature.  
5. In question paper weightage of each module will be proportional to the number of
  respective lecture hours as mentioned in the syllabus.  

 

Practical & Oral Examination:

Practical examination will be based on one experiment performed from the list of experiments given in the syllabus & Oral examination will be based on the entire syllabus.

Term work:

The distribution of the term work shall be as follows,

Lab work (Assignments/ Laboratory Experiments & Seminar) :15 marks

Test (at least one)                        :10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of

laboratory work and minimum passing in the term-work. .

 

Text Books:

  1. Digital Image Processing, Gonzalez and Woods- Pearson Education
  2. Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, A.K. Jain -P.H.I.
  3. Digital Image Processing and Analysis, Chanda Majumder- Printice Hall India.

Reference:

  1. Digital Image Processing and Computer Vision, Sonka, Hlavac,Boyle- Cenage learning.
    1. Digital Image Processing, William Pratt- John Wiley

 

SEMESTER – VII

University of Mumbai
Class: B.E. Branch: Biomedical Engineering Semester: VII
Subject: NETWORKING AND INFORMATION SYSTEM IN MEDICINE
Periods per Week (Each 60 min.)

Lecture

04

Practical

02

Tutorial

  Hours Marks
Evaluation System

Theory

03 100

Practical & Oral

Oral

02 25

Term Work

25

Total

05 150

 

Module Contents Time
1 Networking technology 6

WAN/LAN, T1, ISDN, DSL, Internet (http, url, domains),

ISO model, Ethernet, TCP/IP, Packet switching, circuit switching, Throughput, bandwidth, level of service parameters

2 Basic Security Concepts 3
System security in general, Authentication, Authorization, Confidentiality, Integrity
3 Radiology Imaging basics 4

Principles of different modalities (CR, DR, XR, XA, RF, US, MR, NM, CT), Image characteristics for each modality

4 Workflow Steps in Radiology and Planning, Designing and Implementing film less Hospital 4
5 Introduction to RIS and PACS and HIS/RIS/PACS integration 4
6 Reengineering workflow: Focus on personnel and process Interoperability and Workflow integration issues 3
7 Reengineering workflow: Radiologist’s Perspective 3
8 Image acquisition and compression 3
9 PACS Architecture Networking and Security 10
10 Server and operating system 2
11 Storage and Enterprise Archiving 2
12 Image Displays 2

 

 

13 Tele-radiology 2
15 Legal Issues and formal policies 2

 

Theory Examination:

  1. Question paper will comprise of total 7 questions, each of 20 marks.
  2. Only 5 questions need to be solved.
  3. Q.1 will be compulsory and based on the entire syllabus.
  4. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature.
    1. In question paper wightage of each module will be proportional to the number of respective lecture hours as mentioned in the syllabus.

Oral Examination:

Oral exam will be based on entire subject.

Term work:

Term work consists of minimum two assignments and a written test. The distribution of the term work shall be as follows,

Laboratory work (Assignments and Journal) : 15 marks

Test (at least one)                   :10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of

laboratory work and minimum passing in the term-work.

Text Book:

  1. PACS Guide to Digital Revolution by Keith J. Dreyer (Springer)
  2. Governance of Picture Archiving and Communications Systems by Carrison K.S. Tong (Medical Information Science Reference)
  3. PACS and Imaging Informatics by H.K. Huang, John Wiley
  4. Data Communication and Networking by Behrouz A. Forouzan McGrow Hill

Reference Book:

  1. Computer Networks by A.S. Tanenbaum, Pearson Education
  2. Practical_Imaging_Informatics.pdf
  3. PACS fundamentals- By Herman Oosterwijk
  4. DICOM Standard (http://www.dclunie.com/dicom-status/status.html)

 

SEMESTER – VII

University of Mumbai
Class: BE. Branch: Biomedical Engineering Semester: VII
Subject: Installation, Maintenance and Servicing
Periods per Week (Each 60 min.)

Lecture/Demo

04

Practical

Tutorial

  Hours Marks
Evaluation System

Theory

Practical & Oral

Oral

02 50

Term Work

50

Total

02 100

 

Module Contents Time
1
  • Importance of Biomedical engineering Department in the hospital
  • Role of Biomedical Engineer in the hospital
4
2 • Various jobs carried out by Biomedical engineer in the industry such as – Sales and Marketing, Servicing and Maintenance, Research and development, Application specialist 3
3 Installation Techniques and / or methods:

  • Pre-installation techniques
  • Precautions to be taken
  • Assembly of instrument / system
  • Testing of instrument before final handover.
4
4 Installation of medical equipments in various departments such as

  • Cardiac Equipments
  • O. T. and O.T. equipments
  • Radiology equipments
  • Pathology equipments
  • Life saving equipments
  • I.C.U., I.C.C.U., N.I.C.U. etc.
  • Medical Gas
16
5 Maintenance and Servicing 8

 

 

 
  • Preventive Maintenance and Calibration checks
  • Types of Maintenance contracts – CMC and AMC
  • Overall maintenance, Servicing and safety precautions of Medical and Non-medical equipments
  • Insurance of Medical Equipments
 
6 Introduction to System operating protocol (SOP) for

  • ISO certification
  • NABH certification
2

 

Oral Examination:

Oral exam will be based on entire subject and the expert should be called from Hospitals/Industries.

Term work:

Term work consists of assignments based on the syllabus and demonstration etc.

The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of laboratory work and minimum passing in the term-work.

Text books & Reference books

• Manuals of various equipments

B.E. (BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING) SEMESTER – VIII

University of Mumbai
Class: B.E. Branch: Biomedical Engineering Semester: VIII
Subject: Nuclear Medicine
Periods per Week (Each 60 min.)

Lecture

04

Practical

02

Tutorial

  Hours Marks
Evaluation System

Theory

03

100

Practical & Oral

 

 

 

Oral

02

25

Term Work

25

Total

05

150

 

Module Content Time (hrs)
1. Basics of Nuclear Physics: Radioactivity, Radioactive Decay Law, Units of Radioactivity Measurement, Interaction of Radiation with Matter 03
2. Detectors in Nuclear Medicine: Scintillation Detectors, and Solid State detectors 04
3. Basic Instrumentation in NM: Co incidence and Anti co incidence circuits, Single and Multi Channel Pulse Height Analyzers, Gamma Ray Spectrometry. 06
4. In Vivo Techniques: General Principle, Radiopharmaceuticals – selection and localization, Uptake Monitoring system, Rectilinear Scanner, Gamma Camera Fundamentals, Position Circuitry and working, Computer Interface, Performance parameters, Quality Control Functions 10
5. Emission Tomography Techniques: Introduction, Principles and applications of SPECT, Principles and applications of PET, System performance parameters and Quality Control Functions 10
6. In Vitro techniques(Brief Description): Introduction, Single and Double Isotope method, Radioimmunoassay, RIA Counting System, Liquid scintillation Counting system, RIA Applications. 08
7. Radiation Safety: External radiation Hazards & prevention, Internal radiation Exposure, Biological effects of radiation exposure, Disposal of Biological waste 07

 

Theory Examination:

  1. Question paper will comprise of total 7 questions, each of 20 marks.
  2. Only 5 questions need to be solved.
  3. Q.1 will be compulsory and based on the entire syllabus.
  4. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature.
  5. In question paper weightage of each module will be proportional to the number of respective lecture hours as mentioned in the syllabus.

Oral Examination:

Oral exam will be based on entire subject.

Term work:

Term work consists of minimum two assignments and a written test. The distribution of the term work shall be as follows,

Laboratory work (Assignments and Journal)  :15 marks

Test (at least one)                   :10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of

laboratory work and minimum passing in the term-work.

Text Books:

  1. Textbook of Nuclear medicine: A.F.G. Rocha
  2. Handbook of Nuclear medicine Instruments: Bairi, Singh, Rathod, Narurkar References Books:
  3. Medical Radiation physics: William Hendey
  4. Instrumentation of Nuclear medicine: G. Hine.

 

University of Mumbai
Class: B.E. Branch: Biomedical Engineering Semester: VIII
Subject: Basics of VLSI
Periods per Week (Each 60 min.)

Lecture

04

Practical

02

Tutorial

  Hours Marks
Evaluation System

Theory

03

100

Practical & Oral

Oral

02

25

Term Work

25

Total

05

150

 

Module Content Time (hrs)
1. Introduction to VHDL hardware description language, core features of VHDL, data types, concurrent and sequential statements, data flow, behavioral, structural architecture. Architecture of Xilinx XC4000 FPGA family, Xilinx XC 9500 CPLD’s family 08
2. Combinational and Sequential Logic design using VHDL

Using VHDL combinational circuit design examples- multipliers, decoders and encoders, barrel shifter, simple floating point encoder, cascading comparator. VHDL sequential circuit design features. Implementation of counters and registers in VHDL

08
3. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Technology

Physics of NMOS, PMOS, enhancement and depletion mode transistor, MOSFET, threshold voltage, flatband condition, linear and saturated operation, FET capacitance, short channel and hot electron effect.

06
4. MOS Transistors 10

 

 

  MOS transistor switches, Basic MOS inverter and its working, types of MOS invertors viz active load nMOS inverter, MOSFET Inverter with E-nMOS as pull up, MOSFET Inverter with D- nMOS as pull up, MOSFET Inverter with pMOS as pull up, Parameter measurement in MOS circuits viz voltage transfer characteristics, noise immunity and noise margins, power and area considerations.  
5. Silicon Semiconductor Technology

Wafer processing, mask generation, oxidation, epitaxy growth diffusion,ion implantation, lithography, etching, metalization, basic NMOS and PMOS processes. Latch up in CMOS and CMOS using twin tub process. Scaling of MOS circuits, types of scaling and limitations of scaling.

08
6. Design rules and Layout

NMOS and CMOS design rules and layout, Design of NMOS and CMOS inverters, NAND and NOR gates. Interlayer contacts, butting and buried contacts, stick diagrams, layout of inverter, NAND and NOR gates.

04
7. Design of basic VLSI circuits

Design of circuits like multiplexer, decoder, priority encoder,

Flip flops, shift

registers using MOS circuits

04

 

Theory Examination:

  1. Question paper will comprise of total 7 questions, each of 20 marks.
  2. Only 5 questions need to be solved.
  3. Q.1 will be compulsory and based on the entire syllabus.
  4. Remaining questions will be mixed in nature.

10. In question paper weightage of each module will be proportional to the number of respective lecture hours as mentioned in the syllabus.

Term work:

Term work will consist of at least Eight Assignments/ Laboratory Experiments, Presentations based on the above syllabus and a written test. Test and Seminars be suitably graded by teachers and attached in the journal. The distribution of the term work shall be as follows,

Lab work (Assignments/ Laboratory Experiments & Seminar) :15 marks

Test (at least one)                        :10 marks

The final certification and acceptance of term-work ensures the satisfactory performance of

laboratory work and minimum passing in the term-work. .

 

Text Books:

  1. E. D. Fabricus, Introduction to VLSI design, McGraw Hill Publications, first edition, 1990
  2. D.A. Pucknell and Eshraghian, Basic VLSI Design
  3. John F Wakerly, Digital Design Principles and Practises

References:

  1. Douglas Perry,VHDL Programming by Examples, Tata McGraw Hill Publications, 2002
  2. Kang , CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits, Tata McGraw Hill Publications
  3. Neil H.E. Weste, Kamran Eshraghian, Principles of CMOS VLSIDesign: A
    1. Systems Perspective, second edition, Addison Wesley Publications, 1993
    2. Rabaey Jan M., Chandrakasan Anantha, Nikolic Borivoje, Digital Integrated
      1. Circuits: A Desiqn Perspective, second edition, Prentice Hall of India
      2. John P Uyemura, Introduction to VLSI circuits and systems, John Wiley &

Sons

10. Volnei A. Pedroni, Circuit Design with VHDL, Prentice Hall of India

 

University of Mumbai
Class: B.E. Branch: Biomedical Engineering Semester: VIII
Subject: BIOMEDICAL M ICROSYSTEMS
Periods per Week (Each 60 min.)

Lecture

04

Practical

02

Tutorial

  Hours Marks
Evaluation System

Theory

03

100

Practical & Oral

 

Oral

02

25

Term Work

25

Total

05

150

 

Module

Content Time (hrs)

1.

OVERVIEW OF MEMS &MICRO SYSTEM

MEMS & Micro systems – typical MEMS & Micro system products. Introduction to the world of microsystems. Description of the design and fabrication of microsystems. Integration of fabrication processes.

01

2.

MATERIALS FOR MEMS AND MICROSYSTEMS

Introduction- Substrates and Wafers, Active Substrate Materials – silicon as a substrate Material, Silicon Compounds, Polymers- photoresists and Packaging Materials.

03

3.

MICROSYSTEMS FABRICATION PROCESSES

Photolithography, Photoresist, Mask design, Additive Processes – deposition, Subtractive Processes – etching, Modifying – doping, annealing, curing

Thin Film Deposition: Spin-on Films, Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD), Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

08

 

 

4.

MICROMACHINING:

Bulk Micromachining, Surface Micromachining, High Aspect- Ratio Processes (LIGA), Polymer Micro/Nano Fabrication

04

5.

MICRO-MOLDING TECHNIQUES

Rigid Mold: Micro contact Printing, Imprinting or hot embossing, Injection molding, Cast Molding (Replica Molding)

Flexible Mold: Soft lithography

03

6.

NANOLITHOGRAPHY AND NANOPATTERNING 02

7.

MICRO TOTAL ANALYSIS SYSTEMS (^TAS)

  1. Components,
  2. Micro Fluidies and Fluid control components (channels, pumps, valves),
  3. ^-TA

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