GTU Thermodynamics of Elastomers and Polymers

GTU Thermodynamics of Elastomers and Polymers

 GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
B.E Semester: 3
Rubber Engineering
Subject Code 132603
Subject Name THERMODYNAMICS OF ELASTOMERS & POLYMERS
Sr.No Course contents
1. Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics:
Terminology of thermodynamics, Zeroth law, first law of thermodynamics,
enthalpy, reversible isotherm, expansion of an ideal gas, Thermo chemical
definition, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, heat capacity, relation
between Cv & Cp, adiabatic expansion of an ideal gas, Kirchoff’s equation,
flame & explosion temperature, Joule-Thomson effect, Carnot’s theorem
Second Law of thermodynamics & Entropy, Second law of
thermodynamics, Concept of entropy, entropy change in reversible &
irreversible process, entropy of phase transition, entropy change foe an
ideal gases, entropy change during mixing of ideal gases, free energy & its
change of an ideal gas in isothermal change, Gibbs-Helmholtz equation,
Maxwell’s thermodynamic relations, Clapeyron-clausius equation, Van’t hoff
isotherm .
2. Fundamental Principles:
Balance Equations, Basic thermodynamics for Rubber Elasticity & Strain
induced Crystallization., Basics of Devolatilization, Devolatilization of
Particulate polymer, Devolatilization of Polymer Melts, Pipe Flow of
Newtonian Fluid
3. Heat of Polymerization:
Heat of Polymerization (HP), Factors affecting HP. Variations in Heat of
Polymerization. Estimation of Heat of Polymerization.
4. Ceiling Temperature:
Concept of Ceiling Temperature, Spontaneity, Conditions for Polymerization
Reaction.
5. Energy Balances:
Introduction, energy & thermo chemistry, Energy balances, Heat capacity,
Latent Heats, Absolute Enthalpy, Adiabatic reactions, dissolution of solids,
Absorption, evaporation.
6. Polymer Chain Flexibility:
Internal rotation in Molecules, Rotation barrier, configuration & conformation
of molecules & Macromolecules, internal rotation in macromolecules,
dimensions of macromolecular coils, Thermodynamic Flexibility of a Chain,
Kinetic Flexibility of a chain & factors determinig it, Practical Importance of
Chain flexibility in elastomers
7. Theory of Polymer Solutions:
Basic concepts solutions, Polymer solutions. Effect of Crosslinking on
Solubility, Solubility Parameter, Flory-Huggins theory: Entropy of mixing on
formation of an Athermal solution, change in Gibbs Free Energy on
Dissolution of Polymers, Phase equilibrium in polymer solutions, theory of
dilute polymer solution, statistical theory of swelling of network polymers,
Merits of polymer solutions,
8. Prigogine’s Theory:
pure liquids with chain molecules, law of principle of corresponding states,
Thermodynamics of Mixtures of Liquids with Chain Molecules
9. Thermodynamics of Polymer Solutions:
Partial Molar (Specific) Functions, Methods of Calculating Partial Equations,
Ideal & Nonideal Solutions, Thermodynamic Affinity of a solvent to a
polymer or Thermodynamic Quality of a solvent, Vapor Pressure over
Polymer solutions, Osmotic Pressure, Swelling Pressure, Second Virial
Coefficient, Free Energy of Mixing of a polymer with a solvent,
Thermodynamic Stability of Systems, Enthalpy or Heat of Mixing,
Differential Heats of Solutions & Dilution, Entropy of Mixing, Change in
Volume or Dissolution of Polymers, Internal energy of Mixing, Variation of
Thermodynamic Affinity of a polymer to a solvent with temperature criteria
of UCST & LCST, Thermodynamics of Dissolution of Polymers & their
structure, Thermodynamics of Swelling of Cross linked Polymers
10. Combustion:
Introduction, Fuels, Calorific values of fuels, coal, liquid fuels, gaseous
fuels, air requirement & flue gases, combustion calculations.
11. Thermodynamics Investigation of Polymer-Polymer Systems. Threecomponent
Systems
12. Thermodynamics of Binary Polymer-Polymer Systems :
Enthalpy of Mixing of Two Polymers, Free Energy of Mixing of Polymers,
Entropy of Mixing of Two Polymers, Phase Diagrams of Polymer-Polymer
Systems
13. Thermodynamic Properties:
Relationship between molecular weight and two fundamental
thermodynamic properties(1) Thermal conductivity(2) Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion., Thermodynamic forces favoring maximum potential
crystallinity.
Reference Books:
1. Physical Chemistry of Polymers, by A. TAGER, MIR Publishers-Moscow
2. Engineering Chemistry by Jain & Jain
3. Polymer Extrusion by Chris Rauwendaal
4. Polymer Processing Principles and Design, by Donald G. Baird, Dimitris I. Collias
5. Polymer Structure, Properties and Applications by RUDOLPH D. DENIM
6. Thermodynamics of Polymerization’, Hideo Sawada.

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