# Surveying November 2009

1. (a) What are the two primary divisions of surveying?

(b) Explain the construction and working of cross staff and optimal square.

(c) A survey line CD intersects a high building. To prolong the line beyond this obstacle, a perpendicular DE, 150 m long, is set out at D. From E two lines EF and EG are set out at angles of 45® and 60° with ED respectively. Determine the length of EF and EG in order that the points F and G may lie on the prolongation of CD and also the obstructed distance DF.

OR

2. (a) Explain the principle of surveying: ‘Working from whole to part.

(b) Explain the different methods of ranging out survey lines.

(c)  A steel tape was exactly 30 m long at 18°C when supported throughout its length under a pull of 80N. A line was measured with the tape under a pull of 120N and found to be 801M. The mean temperature during the measurement was 26°C. Assuming the tape to be supported at every 30M, compute the true length of the line, given that the cross sectional area of the tape = 0.04 cm2, the mass density of steel = 0.0077 kg/cm3, the coefficient of expansion = 0.0000117 ‘per degree celcius and the modulus of elasticity = 21 x 106 N/cm2.

3. (a)Explain the following terms as employed in compass surveying:

(i) True meridian and magnetic meridian

(ii) Whole circle system and Quadranted System

(b) The following bearings were taken in traversing with a compass in a place where local attraction was suspected:

 Line AB BC CD DA Forebearing S45° 30’E S 60° 0’E S 5° 30’ E N 4° 30’ W Backbearing N 45° 30s W N 60° 40’ W N 3° 20’ W S 56° O’ E

Determine the stations where there is local attraction as well as the corrected bearings of each of the lines.

(c) Explain the procedure of ‘method of intersection’ in plane table surveying.

OR

4. (a) Explain the following terms as applied in Compass Surveying:

(i) Dip                              (ii) Declination

(b) Explain the procedure of ‘two point problems’ in plane table surveying.

(c) The bearings of the sides of a traverse ABCDE are as follows:

 Sside AB BC CD DE EA Forebearing 107° 15’ 22° 0’ 281° 30’ 189°15’ 124°45’ Backbearing 287° 15’ 202° 0’ 101° 30’ 9° 15’ 304°45’

5. (a) What are the temporary adjustments of a Levelling instrument.

(b) The observer at a height of 40m above Mean Sea Level just sees a luminous object on the top of a hill. All the points below the luminous objects are invisible. The distance between the observer’s station and the hill is 80 km. What is the height of the hill?

(c) What are the indirect methods of locating contours? Explain. (8)

OR

6. (a) Explain the two corrections to be applied for precise leveling work: Curvature, refraction

(b) Two pegs A and B were 75 cm apart across a wide river. The following readings were taken with one level:

 Level at Reading on A B A 1.543 2.847 B 1.422 2.622

The error in die collimation adjustment of level was +0,002 m per 100 m. Determine the true difference of level between A and B and refraction correction in meters.

(c) List the characteristics of contour lines.

7. (a) The following offsets were taken from a chain line to a hedge:

 Distance (inM) 0 6 12 18 24 36 48 60 72 81 90 Offset (inM) 3.6 3 2.4 1.8 1.2 1.5 2.1 2.4 3 3.3 3.9

Calculate the area enclosed between the chain line, hedge and the end offsets by

(i) Simpson’s rule

(ii) Trapex zooidal rule

(b) A road at a constant R.L. of 180.000 runs North to South. The ground East to West is level.

The Surface levelalong the centerline of the road are as follow.

 Chainage (in M) 0 30 60 90 126 150 180 Level (inM) 183.50 182.45 182.15 181.55 180.95 182.05 180.80

Compute the volume of cutting given that the width at formation level is 8 m and side slopes 1 to 1.

(c) Explain construction and working of box-sextant.

OR

8. (a) Explain the working of planimeter.

(b) What is a Mass Haul Diagram? What are its uses?

(c) Explain with help of figures, the salient features of Pantagraph and Clinometer.

9. (a)Explain the method of finding horizontal angles by repetition and reiteration using a theodolite.

(b)The following are the interior angles of a closed traverse ABCDE. Z A=87°50,20”, ZB=114°55>40”, ZC=94°38’50”, ZD=129°40M0”, ZE=112°54’30”. Given the bearing of AB as 221018’40”, calculate the bearings of the remaining sides of traverse.

(c) What is an analectic lens?

OR

10. (a)Explain the Bowditch rule.

(b) Derive the formula used for calculating horizontal distance in tangential tacheometry.

(c) From the data given below, find RL of station B given RL of A = 100.000. Find distance AB, if Z ADB=30°0’0”.

 Instrument at Staff at Vertical angle Staff intercept Station O Bottom Middle Top A Depression 3°0’0” 2.200 2.400 2.600 B Elevation 1°0’0” 1.105 1.205 1.305