Advances in Dairy Production: Management for Precision Output

Advances in Dairy Production: Management for Precision Output Advances in Dairy Production: Management for Precision Output Sample PDF Download
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Dairy production is an interdisciplinary science and enterprise. In the present context of dairy production, dairy animals are bred for specific purpose and hence, precision animal breeding and management come into focus with following goals 1. Increasing the scope and precision of prediction of the outcomes of breeding. 2. Avoiding the introduction and advance of characteristics deleterious to animal well-being. 3. Managing the genetic resources and diversity between and within population. Though achieving the above goals with the help of genomic technology could be closer than desired targets, we have to establish the following to meet the set goals 1. Breeding objectives in the context of the environment under which the progeny are likely to survive and produce. 2. A complete model of the extent of genetic variation, e.g., heritability of traits selected and genetic correlations among significant traits, together with estimates of breeding values for significant traits for individual animals. 3. An understanding of gene expression from genotype to phenotype, including the molecular basis of traits. Thus, precision dairy management starts with precision breeding and ends with product trading under the umbrella of different spheres of environment. A traditional dairy farmer hardly fine-tunes his day to day production and returns. Since cost of day to day feeding of dairy animal accounts to be two-third of total farm
expenditure, optimum economic returns need meticulous budgeting of nutrients in consonance to production and productivity of the animal. Feeding management of peri postparturient dairy animals, especially in high yielders, will become metabolically sensitive. Hence, optimum feeding for optimal returns is considered as foundations to maintain normal physiology, health and immunity. Productivity under precision feeding management is focused through reduction of wastage in inputs and, putative biological processes. Any variation in the production of the dairy animal due to implicit and explicit stressors is needed to be monitored in order to optimize the production. Production capabilities of individual animals are focused for average or marginal biological gains rather than total production. Hence, precision in physiological monitoring of individual cow focuses on extreme behavioural patterns and or extreme changes during different physiological stages of dairy animals. These are identified to alert the planning process for precision dairy production management. Maintaining optimal physiological states in metabolically sensitive dairy animals due to its inherent capacity of milk secretion requires a strict adherence to health calendar to induce immune and non immune disease resistance through regular