Content Development Richa Sharma Publishing Head Anupama Jauhry Editorial and Production Teams Pallavi Sah, Vidya Subramanian Aman Sachdeva, Mahfooz Alam Technical Review Shazneen Gazdar Design and Illustration Teams Priyabrata Roy Chowdhury Rajesh Das, Yatindra Kumar
Printed and bound in India
This book is printed on recycled paper.
THIS IS A
The Energy and Resources Institute
It s a wonderful world Take a look around a garden. You will see grass and trees, birds and butterflies flitting around, and busy ants scurrying about. All these living beings are related to one another and the world around them. The science that studies this relationship is called ecology. Arthur Tansley, an English plant ecologist, coined the word ecosystem in 1935. All living beings plants, animals, and even micro-organisms which are tiny beings that cannot be seen without a microscope together with the non-living environment air, water, soil, and so on form an ecosystem.
Trees and plants are oxygen factories. They use carbon dioxide, which we breathe out, to make their food. In return, they give us oxygen to breathe in.
Ecosystems can be of different sizes. A garden is an ecosytem, so is your owerpot The owering plant needs air, sunlight, water, and soil to live and grow. Butter ies and bees get their food, nectar, from the ower. All these form a part of an ecosystem. Forests form a big ecosystem, and the