Introduction Knowledge of vector algebra and vector calculus is essential in developing the concepts of electromagnetic field theory. Thus, vector analysis can be seen as mathematical tool with which electromagnetic EM concepts are most conveniently expressed and best comprehended. Electromagnetics is a brief name for the subject that deals with the theory and applications of electric and magnetic fields. Its implications are of fundamental importance in almost all segments of electrical engineering. Scalar Quantity
A quantity that has only magnitude but no direction. Example time, mass, distance, temperature, entropy, electric potential, and population are scalars. Scalar is represented by a letter. e.g., a, b, r, p
A quantity that has both magnitude and direction. Example Velocity, force, displacement and electric field intensity.
Vector is represented by a letter such as A, B, or
It can also be written as where A is
which is the magnitude and
is unit vector.
Unit Vector A unit vector
direction is along
is defined as a vector whose magnitude is unity i.e., 1 and its
, that is,
Figure 1 shows graphical representation of unit