Step 3 Add the memory operand i.e. fetched contents of LOCA to the contents of register R0 Step 4 Store the result sum in R0. The same instruction can be realized using two instructions as Load LOCA, R1 Add R1, R0 The steps to execute the instructions can be enumerated as below Step 1 Fetch the instruction from main memory into the processor Step 2 Fetch the operand at location LOCA from main memory into the processor Register R1 Step 3 Add the content of Register R1 and the contents of register R0 Step 4 Store the result sum in R0.
Figure 3 below shows how the memory and the processor are connected. As shown in the diagram, in addition to the ALU and the control circuitry, the processor contains a number of registers used for several different purposes. The instruction register holds the instruction that is currently being executed. The program counter keeps track of the execution of the program. It contains the memory address of the next instruction to be fetched and executed. There are n general purpose registers R0 to Rn-1 which can be used by the programmers during writing programs.
Figure 3 Connections between the processor and the memory
The interaction between the processor and the memory and the direction of flow of information is as shown in the diagram below
Figure 4 Interaction between the memory and the ALU
BUS STRUCTURES Group of lines that serve as connecting path for several devices is called a bus one bit per line . Individual parts must communicate over a communication line or path for exchanging data, address and control information as shown in the diagram below. Printer example processor to printer. A common approach is to use the concept of buffer registers to hold the content during the transfer.
Figure 5 Single bus structure
SOFTWARE If a user wants to enter and run an application program, he she needs a System Software. System Software is a collection of programs that are executed as needed to perform functions such as Receiving and interpreting user commands Entering and editing application programs and storing then as files in secondary storage devices Running standard application programs such as word processors, spread sheets, games etc Operating system - is key system software component which helps the user to exploit the below underlying hardware with the programs.
USER PROGRAM and OS ROUTINE INTERACTION Let s assume computer with 1 processor, 1 disk and 1 printer and application program is in