Technology of Water Management
About this eBook
Water is an Unique liquid having the characteristics with other solvents. It is important not only as a good solvent, but also involved in organization for organic molecules, cell organelles, tissues and organs. All the living tissues contains about 80 -90 of life fluid which is essential to carry out their life activities. Without water, the beautiful green planet would become lifeless. Water is the most abundant compound of earth planet and more than 70 of planet is surface is covered with water. The total amount of water resources on earth is about 384m 3KM. The vast oceans contains about 97.2 of total water as saline liquid. Only 2.8 of earth s water was found in rivers, lakes, brooks, icebergs and glaciers as fresh form. The fresh water is not free and about 77 is in solid form such as snow, ice and frost of the fresh water resources. Only 0.52 is available as surface water and 12.4 as ground water which is very deep. Water is a scanty and expensive resource. The element is not in exhaustible. Renewable Quantity of water is finite. About 11 of land area on earth is under cultivation. An amount of Rs.50,000 crores was spent in India, during 7th plan periods to develop the irrigation projects. Irrigation potential of 62m.ha. was created with help of these projects. The public-funded irrigation projects benefiting barely 20 of cultivated farms hold using flow irrigation. Returns in irrigations sector are not commensurate with the massive investments.
Over irrigation and wastage of water is commonest practice in India. Colossal loss of carriers systems 25-40 and field losses 45-70 due to unscientific irrigation methods results in decline of project efficiencies. If the water use efficiency enhanced by 15 , the present irrigated area can be doubled with the present water resources. Despite the releasing of notable innovations in the field of water management technology, most of them have not reached the farmers. In view of growing water scarcities through out the Globe and future potentiality of technological advancement in water use science an effort has been made to collate all available information on water management of crops and brought them under one cover. This document may serve as a reference material for teachers, researchers, extension personnel, planners, students and progressive farmers and all those who are concerned with water management. I express my deep sense of gratitude to Dr. A.K. Singh Director, water technology center, IARI, New Delhi, Dr. Panjab Singh, Ex. Director General ICAR, New Delhi extending valuable suggestions during the course of preparations of the manuscript. I thankfully acknowledge the help of Mrs. N. Sitaparvati for drawing the figures excellently R. A. RAJU
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