Introduction, Microprocessor and Microcontrollers, A Microcontroller survey. RISC CISC CPU Architectures, Harvard Von Neumann CPU architecture. The 8051 Architecture Introduction, 8051 Microcontroller Hardware, Input Output Pins, Ports and Circuits, External Memory, Counters and Timers, Serial Data Input Output, Interrupts.
Computer A computer is a multipurpose programmable machine that reads binary instructions from its memory , accepts binary data as input ,processes the data according to those instructions and provides results as output. It is a programmable device made up of both hardware and software. The various components of the computer are called hardware. A set of instructions written for the computer to solve a specific task is called program and collection of programs is called software .
The computer hardware consists of four main components. The central processing unit which acts as computer s brain. Input unit through which program and data can be entered to computer, output unit on which the results of the computations can be displayed. Memory in which data and program are stored.
Fig 1. Block diagram of a microcomputer
A computer that is designed using a microprocessor as its CPU , is known as a microcomputer. Microprocessor or Computer on Chip first became a commercial reality in 1971 with the introduction of the 4 bit 4004 by Intel. A byproduct of Microprocessor development was Microcontroller. The same fabrication technology and programming concept that make the general purpose microprocessor also yielded the Microcontroller. Microprocessors A microprocessor is a general purpose digital computer central processing unit CPU . Although known as a Computer on Chip the Microprocessor in no sense a complete digital computer. Block diagram of a Microprocessor CPU which contains ALU Program counter PC , a stack 3
pointer SP ,some working registers , a clock timing circuit and interrupt circuit s is shown in the following figure Arithmetic and Logic Unit Accumulator Working Register
Fig.2.Block Diagram of a Microprocessor To make a computer microcomputer one must add memory usually RAM and ROM, memory decoders , an oscillator and a number of Input ,Output devices such as serial and parallel ports. In addition special purpose devices such as interrupt handler and counters may be added to