A Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
12. Reflection and Refraction of Light
12.1 Reflection of Light, 12.2 Reflection of Light at Spherical Mirrors, 12.3 Reflection between Focal Length f and Radius of Curvature R of a Spherical Mirrors, 12.4 Formation of Images by Concave Mirror, 12.5 Image Formation by Convex Mirror, 12.6 Mirror Formula for Spherical Mirrors, 12.7 Linear Magnification Produced by Spherical Mirrors, 12.8 Applications of Spherical Mirrors, 12.9 Refraction of Light, 12.10 Principle of Reversibility of the Path of Light, 12.11 Refraction of Light Through a Glass Slab, 12.12 Refraction Through Parallel Combination of Media, 12.13 Some Effects of Refraction of Light, 12.14 a Total Internal Reflection b Definition of Critical Angle, c Relation between Refractive Index and Critical Angle, 12.15 Practical Examples of Total Internal Reflection of Light, 12.16 Indus-trial Applications of Total Internal Reflection q Miscellaneous Numerical Examples q Exercise.
13. Refraction of Light at Spherical Surfaces Lenses
13.1 Introduction, 13.2 Refraction at Convex Surface, 13.3 Refraction at Concave Surface, 13.4 Principal FOCL of Single Spherical Surface, 13.5 Lens, 13.6 Technical Terms Related with Lenses, 13.7 Lens Markers Formula, 13.8 Analysis of Lens Marker s Formula, 13.9 Formation of Images by Lenses i.e., Construction of Ray Diagrams, 13.10 Formula for Refraction Through a Thin Lens, 13.11 Linear Magnification Produced by a lens, 13.12 Newton s Formula for the Refraction of Light Through a Lens, 13.13 Power of a Lens, 13.14 Two Thin Lenses Placed in Contact with Each Other, 13.15 Two Thin Lenses Placed at Some Distance a Part, 13.16 Determination of Focal Length of a Convex Lens by Displacement Method, 13.17 Combination of Lens and Mirror q Miscellaneous Numerical Examples q Exercise.
14. Prism and Scattering of Light
14.1 Prism, 14.2 Refraction Through a Prism, 14.3 Dispersion of White Light Through a Prism, 14.4 Impure and Pure Spectrum, 14.5 Angular Dispersion and Dispersive Power,